Radu Dragan`s

The Box of Photographic Knowledge


+1 ev

Compensare de expunere de o treapta (un stop) in plus fata de ce masoara exponometrul.




(Bitmap) The extension for an uncompressed image file format created by Microsoft that is mainly used in Windows-based applications.

Photo Tips



Oprirea si respectiv pornirea (activarea) camerei foto. Similar cu 'On/Off' sau 'Power On'.



1 ev

1 [ 1 ev ] compensare de expunere de un stop in plus fata de ce masoara exponometrul.

2 [ 1 lbs ('pound') ] Unitate de masura pentru masa egala cu 0.4536 Kilograme.

3 [ 1 nikkor ] The trade name given to the NIKKOR lenses that have been designed for optimal use with the CX-format Nikon 1 digital camera system.

3 | 1 NIKKOR

1-inch sensor:

A relatively large image sensor used in advanced, compact Nikon, Sony and Samsung digital cameras. It's only 13 percent the size of full-frame sensors found in pro cameras but much bigger than you get in a standard point-and-shoot or cellphone camera.

Tom`s Guide


Using the 16x9 aspect ratio for HDTV and Widescreen SDTV, the ratio of the horizontal screen size to its vertical screen size is 1.78 units wide to 1.0 units high.

canon USA


The most common screen ratio for motion pictures -- 1.85 units wide to 1.0 units high.

canon USA


When NTSC color was being introduced into broadcast television, compromises had to be made for it to be compatible with previous black and white systems. The field rate was changed by 1/1.001 - from 60 to 59.94 frames per second. Older B&W TVs could receive color broadcasts and show them in B&W and the new color information could be encoded into the broadcast signal so that the new color TVs would show the broadcasts in color. Today, digital and HD signals have to fit in; 24, 30, and 60 frames/fields per second become 23.98, 29.97, and 59.94 to be compatible with existing NTSC formats and workflows.

canon USA


Internationally standardized High Definition production format ITU BT 709 has a digital sampling structure of 1920 (H) x 1080 (V) and operates at 24 frames per second progressively scanned. This also loosely describe the format operating at 23.976P.

canon USA


Standard High Definition production format (SMPTE 274M and ITU 709) with digital sampling of 1920 (H) x 1080 (V), operating in interlaced scan mode at 60 fields per second. Loosely describes the 59.94i system as well

canon USA


Similar to 1080p video, the i stands for interlaced, which differs from 1080p (progressive) video in that each frame contains two fields of data (but typically has double the frame rate). While progressive video is too large for broadcast, 1080i exists primarily for broadcast use, as the lower frame rate allows the signal to be sent over 60 Hz systems. The signal is 60i for NTSC or 50i for PAL.



Also known as Full-HD, 1080p is a shorthand term for video recorded at 1920 lines of horizontal resolution and 1080 lines of vertical resolution, and optimized for 16:9 format playback. The p stands for progressive, which means all of the data is contained in each frame, as opposed to interlaced (i), in which the image data is split between two frames in alternating lines of image data.


12 x 9

The aspect ratio standard for HDTV and Widescreen SDTV, with a width of 16 units and a height of 9 units.

canon USA


1 [ 12-bit ] Hardware or software capable of transferring 12 bits of data at a time. Allows 4 bits and therefore 16 possible levels for each R (red), G (green), B (blue) component, thus displaying 4,096 different colors for each R, G, B channel.

2 [ 12-bit a/d conversion ] metoda de cuantificare folosita de camere digitale avansate, ce foloseste 12 biti/culoare adica 4096 nuante de rosu, verde si respectiv albastru, rezultând peste 68 milioane de nuante de culori.

3 [ 12-bit a/d conversion ] metoda de cuantificare folosita de camere digitale avansate, ce utilizeaza 12 biti pe culoare, adica 4096 nuante de rosu, verde si respectiv albastru, rezultind peste 68 milioane de nuante de culori.



1 [ 120 ] A popular film format for still photography used in various medium format cameras. The 120 film format is a roll film which is nominally 60 mm wide (in fact, about 61 mm).

2 [ 120 (film ~) ] Format de film introdus de Kodak o data cu aparatul foto Brownie 2 in 1901 cu dimensiuni de 6 cm x 82 cm, dublat de o banda de hartie neagra si bobinate impreuna pe o rola. Hartia neagra permite incarcarea si descarcarea filmului la lumina de zi, iar cifrele tiparite pe ea asigura schimbarea corecta a cadrelor.

2 | 120 (FILM ~)

1280 x 720

A high definition digital sampling structure of 1280 horizontal pixels and 720 vertical pixels. All 1280x720 video is progressively scanned: 720p.

canon USA


1 [ 135 ] Also called 35mm is a film format used for still photography. It is a cartridge film with a film gauge of 35 mm, typically used for hand-held photography in 35 mm film cameras.

2 [ 135 (film ~) ] Format de film introdus de Kodak, cu latimea de 35 mm si doua randuri de perforatii, folosit in fotografie si cinematografie. Cadrul standard pe acest format este 24 x 36 mm; variante: 18 x 24 mm, 24 x 24 mm, 24 x 58 mm, 24 x 65 mm, etc. Leica a dovedit ca acest format de film poate fi folosit si de profesionisti, de unde si atribuirea (eronata) a numelui 'Leica' acestui format de film.

2 | 135 (FILM ~)

14 bit a/d conversion

Analog to Digital conversion is usually the first stage in the process of converting an analog signal coming from the image sensor via multiple channels into digital data for the image processing and storage of image data. The higher the bit rate of this conversion, the higher the image quality. Nikon D-SLRs typically offer a 16 bit image processing pipeline, which converts images of 12 bit or 14 bit depth quickly and efficiently.

Nikon Grossary


Hardware or software capable of transferring 14 bits of data at a time. Can display 16,384 different colors for each R (red), G (green), B (blue) channel.

canon USA

153 focus point system

Select Nikon DSLRs such as the D5 and D500 feature a system of 153 focus points, which broadly cover the image area at a high density for more accurate acquisition of subjects; 55 of which are selectable focus points. There are 99* cross sensors, of which 35* are user selectable (*depending upon the lens being used). Compatibility with f/8—15 focus points (9 are selective and the center 5 are cross sensors).

Nikon Grossary

16 mm

1 [ 16 mm ] The frame is one-fourth the size of a 35 mm frame and has a 1.33:1 television aspect ratio. The film can have perforations on both sides or on just one side. When compared to 35 mm, grain is more apparent.

2 [ 16 x 9 ] The aspect ratio standard for HDTV and Widescreen SDTV, with a width of 16 units and a height of 9 units.

2 | 16 X 9


See bit and bit depth. Hardware or software capable of transferring 16 bits of data at a time. In refererence to number of colors capable of being displayed -- 65,536 colors with 16-bit.

canon USA

18% assumption, middle grey, zone 5

Light meters expect subjects and scenes to reflect 18% of the Incident Light. Mostly they do. Tip: what you do when they don't will affect your image in more ways than one. See: Gray Card and Zone System.

Tiffan edu Glossary

180-degree rule

The 180-degree rule of shooting and editing keeps the camera on one side of the action.

Columbia Film School Glossary

180° rule

This is the rule which states that if two people are filmed in a sequence there is an invisible line between them and the camera should only be positioned anywhere within the 180 degrees on one side of the line. Crossing the line results in a certain particular jump, where is appears that the two people suddenly switched places.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms

1920 x 1080

A digital sampling structure of 1920 horizontal and 1080 vertical pixels, with images either interlaced (1080i) or progressive (1080P).

canon USA

1:1 magnification:

A lens can achieve 1:1 magnification if it can take a photo the size of its sensor. Not all lenses that claim to be “macro” lenses can achieve 1:1 magnification.

Underwatter Photography

1d lut

A 1-dimensional lookup table is a static color translation table that converts one input value to one output value. There is a 1-to-1 correspondence in the input and output values in a 1D LUT.

Kodak cine

1kw, ace

A 1,000-watt Spot Light.

Tiffan edu Glossary

1st curtain

In a typical DSLR with two shutter components, this one moves first to open a light path from the lens to the sensor, allowing exposure to be made. With 1st curtain flash sync, the flash fires when the first curtain is fully open.

canon USA


220 (film ~)

Format de film introdus in 1965 cu dimensiuni de 6 cm x 160 cm, dublu ca lungime in comparatie cu formatul 120, dar fara a mai fi dublat de o banda de hartie neagra. Acest film nu poate fi folosit in camerele fotografice care au usita de vizitare pentru numarul cadrelor. Pe un astfel de film se poate fotografia in cadre de: 6x4,5 6x6 6x7 6x9 6x12 6x17 (in cm.).


23.98 or 23.976

A video image rate of 23.976 (usually shortened to 23.98) frames per second. A simple 3:2 process will produce standard 59.94 fields per second interlaced video for distribution.

canon USA

24 fps

1 [ 24 fps ] A 24 (also known as 23.98) frame progressive video divided in segments of even and odd lines for transmission, storage and display. Though transmitted like an interlaced signal, if treated as a progressive signal it does not create the same harmful artifacts caused by interlace scanning.

2 [ 24 fps ] Video capture rate standard; 24p (progressive) frame rate is a noninterlaced format, used when planning to transfer video to film, which has a native frame rate of 24 fps.

3 [ 24 x 36 ] Cadru fotografic de 24 x 36 mm pe film tip 135.

3 | 24 X 36

24-bit color

In an RGB environment or color space, the three color components are specified for each and every pixel, using three bytes of information per pixel. A byte = 8 bits; 3 bytes x 8 bits = 24 bits per pixel, This delivers 256 shades of each color, with more than 16 million colors represented in the color palette.

canon USA


24 full frames per second digital video progressively captured. Usually refers to the HD picture format of 1920 x 1080; also used with 1280 x 720 images. With motion picture film, the frame rate is true 24P, in video the term 24P is still used, even though the actual frame rate is 23.976P.

canon USA

25 fps

Video capture rate standard; 25p is 25 progressive frames per second, derived from the PAL TV format.

canon USA

256-bit encryption

256 bit Encryption is a security protocol that is characterized by key sizes that may be any multiple of 32 bits, both with a minimum of 128 and a maximum of 256 bits. This is a secure and very fast encryption type for both software and computers.

Nikon Grossary


29.97 full frames per second progressively captured digital video.

canon USA

2:3 pulldown

For converting 24 frame per second film or 24P video into 59.94 interlaced video. The frame rate is slowed from 24 fps to 23.976 fps (a factor of 1000/1001) and a 3:2 field cadence is created. This is done by taking one frame of the 24 frame source and filling three of the 59.94 fields, with the next frame of the 24 frame source filling only two of the 59.94 fields, the next frame three fields, the next two fields, and so on. This results in four of the 24 frame per second original material fitting into five frames of the destination 59.94i video. Pulldown now describes any combination of 1000/1001 speed change and/or 3:2 cadence creation. The term pulldown originates with the mechanical action of the pulldown gate in a telecine pulling each film frame into the imaging area.

canon USA

2a0 prints

Paper size established by International Standards Organisation (ISO); 1,189 x 1,682mm or 46.8 x 66.2 inches.

canon USA


1 [ 2k ] A digital image 2048 pixels wide. A standard 2K scan of a full 35 mm film frame is 2048 X 1556 pixels.

2 [ 2k ] Resolution of 2,048 pixels wide. The vertical pixels depend on the aspect ratio.

3 [ 2k ] 2K is a 17:9 format, defined by the Digital Cinema Initiatives, is a resolution of 2048 x 1080. It is most commonly found on professional cinema cameras and gear.

3 | 2K

2nd curtain

In a typical DSLR with two shutter components, this one moves second (last) to close the light path from the lens to the sensor, ending the exposure. With 2nd curtain flash sync, the flash fires just before the 2nd curtain starts to close.

canon USA



The color temperature of Tungsten.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms

3-d film

3-D film has a three-dimensional, stereoscopic form, creating the illusion of depth.

Columbia Film School Glossary

3-to-1 rule

When using more than one microphone, put one mic three times the distance of the other mic from the sound source. Put mics at least three times farther from each other than from the people using them.

canon USA

30 fps

The number of video frames (30) captured in one second.

canon USA


30 full frames per second progressively captured digital video; more properly 29.97P.

canon USA

35 mm

The standard gauge for professional filmmakers, and the standard mainstream film format used for theatrical releases.

Kodak cine


1 [ 35mm ] Introduced originally for motion picture use, 35mm film's format, frame and sprockets were standardized in 1909. It was adopted for still picture use and became the most popular film format producing a standard negative or transparency of 24 x 36 mm. The format and size has been retained in 'full frame' digital cameras.

2 [ 35mm equivalent: ] A lens’ focal length multiplied by the sensor’s crop factor. A 60mm lens on a D300, which has a 1.5 crop factor, is 90mm when using 35mm equivalent.



The type of film used by most point-and-shoot cameras, which is why they're called 35mm point-and-shoots. It comes in a cassette with a protruding film leader.

Glossary of Photo Jargon for Travelers

3:2 pull-down

The telecine transfer relationship of film frames to video fields. Film shot at 24 fps is transferred to 30 fps NTSC video with an alternating three-field/two-field relationship.

Kodak cine


Tehnologie de separare si inregistrare a imaginilor folosita in camerele video profesionale, prin care lumina este descompusa in culorile primare (R,G,B) printr-un sistem de prisme si filtre dicroice, si inregistrate pe trei senzori, cate unul pentru fiecare culoare.


3d color matrix meter

1 [ 3d color matrix meter ] Basically, a Nikon pioneered technology first started featured on its flagship model,the F5, will expect more models to include this to fully utilise this. 3D Color MatrixMeter * evaluates not only each scene'sbrightness and contrast but, using a special Red Green Blue (RGB) sensor, it alsoevaluates the scene's colors. Then its powerful micro-computer and database togetherguide it to unequalled exposure control. * Currently, 3D Color Matrix Meter will work only with F5 & with D-type Nikkor lenses, othernew Nikon models should roll out to fully utilised this exclusive features.

2 [ 3d color matrix meter ] Tehnologie de masurare a expunerii pusa la punct de Nikon, prin care se masoara luminozitatea, contrastul dar si culorile dominante (prin filtre RGB). Rezultatele sunt analizate si comparate cu datele dintr-o baza de date, de un microprocesor.

3 [ 3d color matrix metering ii ] Matrix metering evaluates multiple segments of a scene to determine the best exposure by essentially splitting the scene into sections, evaluating either 420-segments or 1,005 segments, depending on the Nikon D-SLR in use. The 3D Color Matrix Meter II takes into account the scene's contrast and brightness, the subject's distance (via a D- or G-type NIKKOR lens), the color of the subject within the scene and RGB color values in every section of the scene. 3D Color Matrix Metering II also uses special exposure-evaluation algorithms, optimized for digital imaging, that detect highlight areas. The meter then accesses a database of over 30,000 actual images to determine the best exposure for the scene. Once the camera receives the scene data, its powerful microcomputer and the database work together to provide the finest automatic exposure control available.

4 [ 3d focus tracking ] An invaluable feature for sports, action and wildlife photography, 3D focus tracking, available in select Nikon D-SLRs, automatically shifts the focus point to follow the movement of the subject. With the shutter release pressed halfway, you'll see in the viewfinder the lens continuously maintain focus as the subject moves.However, maintaining focus doesn't guarantee a sharp image, as there is a short time lag between the release of the shutter and the capture of the picture. To solve this problem, the focus tracking system is a predictive system that uses special algorithms to forecast the position of the subject at the moment the image is captured. The prediction is based on a measurement of the subject's movement and speed.Simple predictive tracking is very effective for pictures of a subject moving at constant speed toward the camera, but to provide maximum focusing performance for a subject that abruptly changes direction at high speed, or a subject with low contrast, moving randomly, the AF system must accumulate subject location data using multiple focus areas. The AF modules built into selected Nikon D-SLRs have as many as 51 focus areas that can detect vertical, horizontal and diagonal movement of the subject.To realize high-precision AF for high-speed continuous shooting of a fast-moving subject, the processing speed of the AF cycle is vital. To provide that speed, a Nikon proprietary technology called overlap servo prepares for the focus detection of the next shot while the lens-driving operation for the current shot is in process.

5 [ 3d lut ] A 3-dimensional lookup table is a static color translation table that converts a set of three input color values to another set of three output color values.

6 [ 3d matrix metering ] An exclusive Nikon feature, Matrix metering applies three types of data to calculate exposure: scene brightness, scene contrast and the focused subject’s distance (which requires the use of a D-type NIKKOR lens).

7 [ 3d matrix ~ masurare ] Metoda de evaluare a expunerii folosita de Nikon, care foloseste trei tipuri de date: luminozitatea scenei, contrastul scenei si distanta de focalizare (furinizata de obiectivele Nikkor D).

8 [ 3d mode ] The Nikon COOLPIX S100 digital camera offers a 3D mode, which in effect takes two images that are played back on a 3D compatible TV or monitor for stereoscopic viewing.

9 [ 3d multi-sensor balanced fill-flash ] Sistem automat, folosit de Nikon, de calculare a intensitatii de descarcare a blitzului, prin care se emite o serie de pre-flashuri, imediat inainte de expunerea propriu-zisa, iar lumina reflectata este receptionata si analizata de un procesor.

10 [ 3d multi-sensor balanced fill-flash ] An automatic, balanced fill-flash system in which the flash fires a series of pre-flashes just before the first shutter curtain moves.

11 [ 3d playback mode ] Only 3D images can be viewed in the 3D Playback Mode. It can only be chosen when the 3D-capable Nikon COOLPIX digital camera is connected to a 3D compatible TV or monitor via an HDMI cable.

12 [ 3d tracking (11-points) af-area mode ] The 3D-tracking AF-Area Mode is an AF-Area Mode that is available in select Nikon digital cameras. When the user is in either AF-A or AF-C focus modes, the user selects the focus point. As long as the shutter button is kept pressed halfway, if the subject moves after the camera has focused, the camera uses 3D-tracking to select a new focus point and keep the focus locked on the original subject. If the subject leaves the viewfinder, remove your finger from the shutter release button and recompose the photograph with the subject in the selected focus point.



(3F RAW) format brut de imagine proprietar Hasselblad. Imaginile 3FR pot fi comprimate fara pierderi pana la 33% si suporta managementul de culoare.



Projection system with three liquid crystal displays, using dichroic mirrors to separate white light from projection lamp into RGB components; each component goes to separate LCD panel controlling quantity of colored light passing through it, with light from each LCD then -- using dichroic prism -- recombined before passing through lens.

canon USA


4 second movie

A movie option that is available in select cameras such as the Nikon 1 V3. Record a 4-second movie clip. Multiple clips can be joined into a single movie using the Combine 4-second movies option in the playback menu.

Nikon Grossary

4/3 format

1 [ 4/3 format ] – A camera format based on a sensor with a 4 x 3 aspect ratio that allows for interchangeable bodies and lenses among several manufacturers. Olympus and Panasonic are the main makers of 4/3 format bodies, while five other companies (including Leica and Sigma) produce lenses.

2 [ 4/3 sensor ] – A 4 x 3 aspect-ratio sensor that's roughly one-quarter the size of a 35mm film frame.

2 | 4/3 SENSOR


Both high definition and standard definition systems where the ratio between luminance and chrominance samples is 4:1 -- one set of color difference samples (R-Y, B-Y) for every four luminance samples (Y). In standard definition video signals it represents luminance (Y) sampling at 13.5 MHz and R-Y/B-Y channel sampling at 3.75 MHz.

canon USA


A digital video format where the two chrominance components are sampled at half the sample rate of luminance; the horizontal chrominance resolution is halved. While this reduces the bandwidth of the video signal by one-third, there is little to no visual difference. This is used by many high-end digital video formats and interfaces.

canon USA


Standard definition video signals with luminance (Y) sampled at 13.5 MHz and color difference (R-Y, B-Y) channels each sampled at 6.75 MHz. Now in common usage describing both high definition and standard definition systems with the ratio between luminance and chrominance samples at 2:1-two sets of color difference samples (R-Y, B-Y) for every four luminance samples (Y).

canon USA


The 4:2:2 video signal sampling system with the addition of a fourth component -- the key signal or alpha channel. Sampled at 13.5 MHz (at 74.25 MHz for HD).

canon USA


The aspect ratio of traditional television pictures -- PAL and NTSC -- matching 35mm film. The picture is 4 units wide and 3 high.

canon USA


Standard definition video signals with all signals (usually R,G,B but also Y, R-Y,B-Y) sampled at 13.5 MHz. Now in common usage describing both high definition and standard definition systems with sampling done on the RGB video signal components.

canon USA


A digital video sample format with all signals (usually R,G,B but also Y, R-Y,B-Y) sampled at 13.5 MHz., and a key channel added.

canon USA


1 [ 4k ] A digital image 4096 pixels wide. A standard 4K scan of a full 35 mm film frame is 4096 X 3112 pixels.

2 [ 4k ] Resolution of 4,096 pixels wide. The vertical pixels depend on the aspect ratio.

3 [ 4k ] 4K is an emerging standard for digital motion picture resolution. The standard is so named because it refers to its approx. 4,000 pixels of horizontal resolution. 4K incorporates a number of aspect ratios that all utilize 4,000 pixels of horizontal resolution x differing numbers of pixels of vertical resolution. This is contrary to the standard HD resolutions of 720p and 1080p which represent the number of vertical pixels.

4 [ 4k dci ] This is 4K as is defined by the Digital Cinema Initiatives. It is a 17:9 format that is a resolution of 4096 x 2160. It is most commonly found on professional cinema cameras and gear.

5 [ 4k uhd ] Ultra High Definition 4K is a 16:9 format that is a resolution of 3840 x 2160. It is the most common type of 4K for consumer applications and distribution.

6 [ 4k uhd ] 4K is an emerging standard for digital motion picture resolution. 4K UHD is 3840x2160 and provides four times as much resolution as Full HD (1920x1080).

6 | 4K UHD



is the color temperature of Daylight.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


An audio system with five full range channels -- left, center, right, rear-left, rear-right -- and one low frequency effects (LFE) channel.

canon USA

50 fps

The number of video frames (50) captured in one second.

canon USA

51 point autofocus system

Available in selected Nikon D-SLRs, the 51-point AF system positions 51 points of focus within the frame to allow photographers to choose a variety of focus configurations to suit the shooting situation.The 51-area grid forms a wide rectangle across the frame, with minimal spacing between each AF area. The system keeps even quick-moving subjects in focus across a wide extent of the frame. The 15 points of the three center rows of focus points employ cross-type sensors for powerful focus detection.

Nikon Grossary


An interlaced video signal with half the total lines of the picture captured and displayed every 1/59.94th of a second.

canon USA


A progressive video signal with all lines of the picture captured and displayed every 1/59.94th of a second.

canon USA


60 fps

The number of video frames (60) captured in one second.

canon USA


An interlaced video signal with half the total lines of the picture captured and displayed every 1/60th of a second.

canon USA


A progressive video signal with all lines of the picture captured and displayed every 1/60th of a second.

canon USA

65 mm

The camera film format (size) for wide-screen formats such as IMAX.

Kodak cine


1 [ 6x9 ] Tip de format fotografic mediu ce foloseste rolfilme standard tip 120 sau 220 in care un cadru are dimensiunile 6cm x 9cm. Alte variatii includ '645' (6cm x 4.5 cm), '6x6' (6cm x 6cm), '6x7', '6x8', etc...

2 [ 6x9 ] Tip de format fotografic mediu ce foloseste rolfilme standard tip 120 sau 220 in care un cadru are dimensiunile 6cm x 9cm. Alte variatii includ 645 (6cm x 4.5 cm), 6x6 (6cm x 6cm), 6x7, 6x8, etc.

2 | 6X9


70 mm

The release print format (size) for wide-screen formats such as IMAX.

Kodak cine


A High Definition production format (SMPTE 296M) with a digital sampling structure of 1280 x 720, at 60 frames per second progressively scanned. Also used to describe a 59.94P capture system.

canon USA


Shorthand term used to describe an HD signal format that has a 16:9 aspect ratio, 1280 x 720 resolution, and progressive frame rates. The major HDTV broadcasting standard is 60 (59.94) frames per second (or 50 frames per second, depending on the region). Non-broadcast standard frame rates are also common in cameras, including lower frame rates of 30 fps and higher frame rates of 120 fps, 240 fps, etc.



8-bit color

1 [ 8-bit color ] Each pixel in an image is represented by a single byte (8-bits of data), with 256 colors the maximum number of colors that can be displayed at any time.

2 [ 8-bit output ] See bit and bit depth. Hardware or software capable of transferring 8 bits of data at a time. In refererence to number of colors capable of being displayed, with 8-bit it is 256 colors.



IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) wireless networking specification in 5 GHz frequency range (5.725 - 5.850 GHz) with maximum 54 Mbps data transfer rate. More radio channels than 802.11b spec, helping avoid radio, microwave interference.

canon USA


International standard for wireless networking, operates in 2.4 GHz frequency range (2.4 - 2.4835 GHz), with throughput up to 11 Mbps. Commonly used frequency, e.g. microwave ovens, cordless phones, medical and scientific equipment, Bluetooth devices.

canon USA


International standard for wireless networking, operates in 2.4 GHz frequency range (2.4 - 2.4835 GHz) but unlike 802.11b standard has throughput up to 54 Mbps. Compatible with 802.11b devices working at 802.11b data speeds. Crowded range; greater risk of interference.

canon USA

80b filter

A blue filter that converts tungsten light to daylight.

Photo Tips

85 filter

A salmon-colored filter that enables standard Tungsten Film stock to take on average daylight without turning blue in the face. Some labs are prepared to compensate for shots made without the 85 filter.

Tiffan edu Glossary


A standard definition video signal, with all signals sampled at 27 MHz -- usually R,G,B but also Y, R-Y, B-Y.

canon USA


A video tape format. Eight millimeters (roughly 1/4-inch) wide, used in consumer camcorders. (Also the width of home movie film, also called 8mm.

canon USA


91,000 pixel rgb 3d matrix metering iii

Face detection using the optical viewfinder and detailed scene analysis using the 91,000 pixel RGB 3D Matrix Metering III sensor with the advanced scene recognition system enables superior auto exposure, auto white balance detection, AF performance and i-TTL flash exposure.

Nikon Grossary



1 [ a ] 1. Amper: unitate de masura a intensitatii curentului electric.2. Prescurare pentru diafragma (Aperture).3. La Sony si la Minolta: montura realizata de Minolta si preluata de Sony (alpha).4. Montura originala (1959) Nikon, cu focalizare manuala.

2 [ a (non-ttl auto mode on nikon speedlights) ] The flash uses its sensor to measure the flash illumination reflected back from the subject controlling flash output to give correct exposure.

3 [ a wind ] When you hold a roll of 16 mm or other single-perf film so that the film leaves the roll from the top and toward the right, the perforations will be along the edge toward the observer.

4 [ a wrap or 'it’s a wrap! ] hat to say when you are done shooting, either for the day, at that particular set, or on the entire film. Usually if it’s not the final shoot you would say you are just going to 'wrap for the day.'


a&b rolls

The negative of an edited film, cut to correspond to picture, built into 2 rolls, A and B, to allow for invisible splices, instant changes of the timing lights and fades and dissolves without the need for opticals. The A roll will have all the odd numbered shots, with black leader in place of all the missing shots. The B roll will have all the even numbered shots, with black leader in place of all the shots on the A roll. The negative is printed in three passes through the contact printer, one for each roll and another for the soundtrack. Only after all the elements have been exposed onto the print stock is the print developed.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


Coordonatele rosu-verde in spatiul CIE L*a*b*; o valoare pozitiva pentru a* semnifica mai mult rosu, o valoare a* negativa semnifica mai mult verde.


a-d converter

The A-D Converter converts the analog signal that is emitted from the image sensor into a digital signal.



1 [ a-dep ] Mod de expunere cu prioritate de diafragma ce urmareste obtinerea unei anumite profunzimi de camp (Canon).

2 [ a-dep ] Mod de expunere cu prioritate de diafragma ce urmareste obtinerea unei anumite profunzimi de câmp (Canon).

2 | A-DEP


1 [ a-m ] (Auto - Manual) comutator disponibil pe obiectivele Nikkor prin care se permite autofocalizarea sau focalizarea manuala.

2 [ a-m ] A-M stands for Auto-Manual Mode. Thanks to a mechanism incorporated in the lens barrel, smooth focusing operation in Manual focus mode is realized in the same way as users have become accustomed to with conventional manual-focus lenses by adding an appropriate torque to the focus ring.

2 | A-M


1 [ a-pen ] Annealed polyethylenenaphthalate-a polyester material used as the base on Advanced Photo System film;thinner, stronger and flatter than the acetate base traditionally used in consumerphotographic roll films.

2 [ a-pen ] Poliester (annealed poliettilen naftalat) folosita ca baza pentru filmul Advanced Photo System. Este mai rezistent decat acetatul si poate fi trata in folii mai subtiri.

3 [ a-pen (annealed-polyethylene naphthalate) ] The base for APS film emulsions. Its a strong material that it accepts film emulsions evenly and, with a thickness of just 90 microns its 30% thinner than the acetate base used in conventional 35mm emulsions.


a-si tft/pva

Tehnologie de fabricare a ecranelor LCR care include: - a-si: amorphous silicon - siliciu amorf, necristalizat, - TFT: Thin Field Transistors - tranzistori in strat subtire, care controleaza functionarea celulelor LCD, - PVA: Patterned Vertical Alignment - orientarea particulelor de cristale lichide in ecranele LCD.



1 [ a-ttl ] Evaluarea intensitatii necesare pentru blitz, in mod automat, prin obiectiv (Canon).

2 [ a-ttl ] Evaluarea intensitatii necesare pentru blitz, in mod automat, prin obiectiv (Canon).

2 | A-TTL

a-wind and b-wind

- This is the emulsion position of the film. There are two possibilities, just as there are two sides to a piece of film. Camera original is B-Wind. A print struck from it will be A-Wind. This is because film is printed emulsion against emulsion. To tell if a piece of film is A-Wind or B-Wind hold it up with the emulsion facing you. If it is A-Wind the image will read correctly, if it is B-Wind it will be mirror image. A-Wind and B-Wind material usually cannot be mixed, unless you don’t mind things being mirror image or some material being soft in focus as a result of being printed base-to-emulsion (the solution is usually optical printing). But mostly, issues of A-Wind and B-Wind do not come up all that frequently. It usually only comes up when you have just completed your sound mix and the mixing house asks if you need a B-Wind track. If it is to be used with the negative from your camera the answer is 'yes.'

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


Automated Dialogue Recording. This is just Dubbing, done in addition to or as a substitution for Location Sound. The term A.D.R., being something of a mysterious acronym, has a certain appeal, as it obscures the fact that dubbing was involved when it appears in the credits of your film. This might have something to do with the current prevalence of the term.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


An Assist GPS (A.GPS) file is an updated file of GPS data that can be downloaded from the web and uploaded into select Nikon digital cameras to shorten the time needed by the camera to track the GPS positioning information. The website housing the A.GPS file is http://nikonimglib.com/agps/index.html. Once you download the file to your computer, follow the instructions in your camera's manual.

Nikon Grossary


(American National Standards Institute) institut american care stabileste standardele tehnologice valabile in SUA.



1 [ a.s.a. ] Normativ referitor la sensibilitatea filmului, abandonat in prezent (American Standards Association)(asemanator cu ISO).

2 [ a.s.a. ] Normativ referitor la sensibilitatea filmului, abandonat in prezent (American Standards Association). Mai multe detalii in aceasta pagina.

3 [ a.s.a. ] This is the sensitivity to light of a particular type of film. It is the specific number used to measure Film Speed. It is the same as I.E. and I.S.O. A.S.A. stands for American Standards Association, the organization that standardized the scale of measurement of film speed.

3 | A.S.A.

a/b switch

Device to select between two signals (cable A or cable B, for example), feeding the signal to a TV, VCR, etc.

canon glossary us

a/d converter

1 [ a/d converter ] (Analog to Digital) A device that converts analog information (a photograph or video frame) into a series of numbers that a computer can store and manipulate

2 [ a/d converter ] A device found in digital cameras and scanners that converts analogue picture information (continuous tone subject) to digital data (digital image).


a/d, adc

Short for Analog to Digital Conversion.

canon glossary us


1 [ a/m ] (Auto-Priority Manual Mode) mod de functionare a autofocalizarii care permite si ajustarea manuala a planului de punere la punct.

2 [ a/m ] A/M stands for Auto-Priority Manual Mode. This mode also enables an easy transition from autofocus to manual during AF operation. However, mode switch sensitivity has been altered to reduce the possibility of sudden unintentional switching to manual focus while shooting.

2 | A/M

a/v out

1 [ a/v out ] Connection allowing two audio and one video output.

2 [ a/v out ] Refers to a connection port for output of audio and video from a Nikon camera to a television using RCA plugs (composite yellow for video with mono white or stereo white and red for audio).

2 | A/V OUT

a0 prints

Paper size established by International Standards Organization (ISO), 841 x 1,189mm or 33.1 x 46.8 inches.

canon glossary us

a1 prints

Paper size established by International Standards Organization (ISO), 594 x 841mm or 23.4 x 33.1 inches.

canon glossary us

a2 prints

Paper size established by International Standards Organization (ISO), 420 x 594mm or 16.5 x 23.4 inches.

canon glossary us

a3 prints

Paper size established by International Standards Organization (ISO), 297 x 420mm or 11.7 x 16.5 inches.

canon glossary us

a4 prints

Paper size established by International Standards Organization (ISO), 210 x 297mm or 8.3 x 11.7 inches.

canon glossary us

a5 prints

Paper size established by International Standards Organization (ISO), 148 x 210mm or 5.8 x 8.3 inches.

canon glossary us

a6 prints

Paper size established by International Standards Organization (ISO), 105 x 148mm or 4.1 x 5.8 inches.

canon glossary us

a7 prints

Paper size established by International Standards Organization (ISO), 74 x 105mm or 2.9 x 4.1 inches.

canon glossary us


1 [ aa ] Power source/battery type. Also NiCad and NiMH

2 [ aa ] Baterie standardizata cu lungimea de 50 mm si diametrul de 14 mm, cunoscuta si sub numele de R6 sau Mignon.

3 [ aa ] Stands for Authors Alteration; used in proofing as an in-dication that changes are requested and will he paid for by the client; changes are not due to printer's error.

4 [ aa filter ] Most Digital SLR’s have a “Low Pass Filter” (LPF) or AA (Anti-Aliasing) Filter in front of the CCD or CMOS sensor. This helps to eliminate colour aliasing problems, or the “moire” effect.



Baterie standardizata cu lungimea de 44 mm si diametrul de 10 mm, cunoscuta si sub numele de R3 sau Micro.



1 [ aac ] (Advanced Audio Coding) protocol de comprimare (cu pierderi) si codificare pentru fisierele audio. AAC obtine o calitate mai buna a sunetului decat protocolul MP3 la aceeasi frecventa de esationare.

2 [ aac ] AAC is a standard audio file format. Nikon cameras record audio to the AAC monaural file format.

2 | AAC

abatere de la reciprocitate

Efect fotografic de (sub)expunere a materialului fotosensibil ce apare la timpi foarte scurti sau foarte lungi de expunere, cand, desi pelicula incaseaza cantiatea de energie calculata de exponometru, gradul de innegrire este mai redus decat ne-am astepta.


abbe number

1 [ abbe number ] A numerical value indicating the dispersion of optical glass, using the Greek symbol v. Also called the optical constant. The Abbe number is determined by the following formula using the index of refraction for three Fraunhofer's lines: F (blue), d (yellow) and c (red). Abbe number = sqrt(d) = nd ∙ 1/nF − nc An optical glass characteristic distribution chart is a graph using the Abbe number as the horizontal axis and the d line index of refraction as the vertical axis.

2 [ abbe number ] Numar asociat unui obiectiv sau lentile invers proportional cu dispersia cromatica - cu cat numarul Abbe este mai mare cu atat dispersia este mai mica.

3 [ abbe number ] Numar asociat unui obiectiv sau lentile invers proportional cu dispersia cromatica - cu cat numarul Abbe este mai mare cu atât dispersia este mai mica.

4 [ abbe number ] denotes the degree of refraction of light of different wavelengths to different extents, given by a transparent material, such as glass. The lower the Abbe number, the greater the dispersion of colors.



Many fonts have abbreviations in their names. Some relate to glyph sets and font formats, others to design traits and foundries, and so on. A comprehensive list of these abbreviations and their explanation can be found in The Abbreviated Typographer on our blog.

Font Shop Glosary

abby singer

The second-to-last shot of the day. Named after production manager Abby Singer, who would frequently call 'last shot of the day' or 'this shot, and just one more,' only to have the director ask for more takes. See also martini shot.

imdb Movie Terminology


1 [ abc ] 1. ABC: Automatic Bracketing Control - termen folosit de Contax si Rollei. 2. Auto Backlighting Control - modalitate de masurare a expunerii ce recunoaste automat subiectul in contralumina si compenseaza pentru a-l reproduce corect.

2 [ abc ] Auto Backlighting Control,metering feature that automatically recognises a subject in back lighting conditionand increase the exposure to compensate.

3 [ abc ] First featured in Contax(am I wrong?). Also sometimes refer as AEB (Auto Exposure Control). Auto Bracketingcontrol: Metering feature that automatically produces three or four different exposureswith one press of the shuttle release. Usually one with the recommended exposureby the camera reading, others at user specified intervals above or below the recommendedsetting.

3 | ABC


1 [ aberatie ] Incapacitate a obiectivului fotografic de a reproduce o imagine perfecta. Aberatiile obiectivelor sunt de 7 tipuri: astigmatism, aberatie cromatica axiala, aberatie cromatica laterala, coma, curbura de camp, aberatia de sfericitate si distorsia. Amploarea aberatiilor este direct proportionala cu deschiderea diafragmei si invers proportionala cu distanta focala. Mai multe detalii in aceasta pagina.

2 [ aberatie ] Incapacitate a obiectivului fotografic de a reproduce o imagine perfecta. Aberatiile obiectivelor sunt de 7 tipuri: astigmatism, aberatie cromatica axiala, aberatie cromatica laterala, coma, curbura de câmp, aberatia de sfericitate si distorsia. Amploarea aberatiilor este direct proportionala cu deschiderea diafragmei si invers proportionala cu distanta focala.

3 [ aberatie cromatica ] Aberatie a obiectivului, in care zone ale imaginii, de obicei radiale, sufera o descompunere cromatica asemanatoare cu cea realizata de o prisma optica.

4 [ aberatie cromatica ] Aberatie a obiectivului, in care zone ale imaginii, de obicei radiale, sufera o descompunere cromatica asemanatoare cu cea realizata de o prisma optica.

5 [ aberatie cromatica axiala ] Aberatie de convergenta a unui obiectiv ce consta din focalizarea in planuri diferite a radiatie albastre, verzi si rosii, sosite de la o sursa aflata pe axa optica.

6 [ aberatie cromatica axiala ] Aberatie de convergenta a unui obiectiv ce consta din focalizarea in planuri diferite a radiatie albastre, verzi si rosii, sosite de la o sursa aflata pe axa optica. Mai multe detalii in aceasta pagina.

7 [ aberatie cromatica laterala ] Denumita si aberatie cromatica transversala este determinata de variatii ale factorului de marire a obiectivului in partile sale periferice; lumina alba care vine din lateral, va focaliza in locuri diferite in planul filmului, in functie de lungimea de unda (mai aproape de centrul negativului pentru lumina albastra, mai lateral pentru lumina rosie). Mai multe detalii in aceasta pagina.

8 [ aberatie cromatica laterala ] Denumita si aberatie cromatica transversala este determinata de variatii ale factorului de marire a obiectivului in pârtile sale periferice; lumina alba care vine din lateral, va focaliza in locuri diferite in planul filmului, in functie de lungimea de unda (mai aproape de centrul negativului pentru lumina albastra, mai lateral pentru lumina rosie).

9 [ aberatie de sfericitate ] Aberatie a unui obiectiv produsa de focalizarea in plane diferite a razelor luminoase ce intra prin centrul obiectivului fata de cele ce intra pe la periferie.

10 [ aberatie de sfericitate ] Aberatie a unui obiectiv produsa de focalizarea in plane diferite a razelor luminoase ce intra prin centrul obiectivului fata de cele ce intra pe la periferie. Mai multe detalii in aceasta pagina.

11 [ aberatie geometrica ] Aberatie a sistemelor optice, in care unei axe drepte a subiectului ii corespunde o curba in imaginea realizata de obiectiv. Aceste aberatii pot fi pozitive sau negative, adica asemanatoare cu o perna sau cu un butoi.

12 [ aberatie geometrica ] Aberatie a sistemelor optice, in care unei axe drepte a subiectului ii corespunde o curba in imaginea realizata de obiectiv. Aceste aberatii pot fi pozitive sau negative, adica asemanatoare cu o perna sau cu un butoi.



1 [ aberration ] A distortion of image quality or color rendition in a photographic image caused by optical limitations of the lens used for image capture. Aberrations commonly show up in the form of halation around high-contrast portions of the image, or smearing of color toward the edges of the frame. Aspheric lens surfaces and advanced lens coatings are often used in more expensive or complex lenses as a means of reducing aberrations. For more on this subject, see the explora article

2 [ aberration ] Optical problem in a camera lens that produces slight errors in subject appearance, usually noticeable in small details.

3 [ aberration ] The image formed by an ideal photographic lens would have the following characteristics:A point would be formed as a point. A plane (such as a wall) perpendicular to the optical axis would be formed as a plane. The image formed by the lens would have the same shape as the subject. Also, from the standpoint of image expression, a lens should exhibit true color reproduction. If only light rays entering the lens close to the optical axis are used and the light is monochromatic (one specific wavelength), it is possible to realize virtually ideal lens performance. With real photographic lenses, however, where a large aperture is used to obtain sufficient brightness and the lens must converge light not only from near the optical axis but from all areas of the image, it is extremely difficult to satisfy the above-mentioned ideal conditions due to the existence of the following obstructive factors:Since most lenses are constructed solely of lens elements with spherical surfaces, light rays from a single subject point are not formed in the image as a perfect point. (A problem unavoidable with spherical surfaces.) The focal point position differs for different types (i.e., different wavelengths) of light. There are many requirements related to changes in angle of view (especially with wide-angle, zoom and telephoto lenses). The general term used to describe the difference between an ideal image and the actual image affected by the above factors is aberration. Thus, to design a high-performance lens, aberration must be extremely small, with the ultimate objective being to obtain an image as close as possible to the ideal image. Aberration can be broadly divided into two classifications: chromatic aberrations, which occur due to differences in wavelength, and monochromatic aberrations, which occur even for a single wavelength.

4 [ aberration ] the inability of a lens to produce a perfect, sharp image, especially towards the edge of the lens field. These faults can be reduced by compound lens constructions, and the use of small apertures.

5 [ aberration ] -(1) Something that prevents light from being brought into sharp focus, disenabling the formation of a clear image.(2) Lens flaw - the inability of a lens to reproduce an accurate, focused, sharp image. Aberration in simple lenses is sub-categorized into seven types: Astigmatism - lines in some directions are focused less sharply than lines in other directions, Chromatic aberration or Axial chromatic aberration - different wavelengths of light coming into focus in front of and behind the film plane, resulting in points of light exhibiting a rainbow-like halo and reduction in sharpness, Coma - the image of a point source of light cannot be brought into focus, but has instead a comet shape, Curvilinear distortion - distortion consisting of curved lines, Field curvature - the image is incorrectly curved, Lateral chromatic aberration also known as Transverse chromatic aberration - variation in the magnification at the sides of a lens (this aberration type used to be termed 'lateral color'), Spherical aberration - variation in focal length of a lens from center to edge due to its spherical shape - generally all parts of the image, including its center.The effects of lens aberration usually increase with increases in aperture.

6 [ aberration ] An aberration prevents light from being brought into sharp focus. The ideal image by lenses (especially photographic lenses), must fulfill three key conditions, namely, 1. all light from the point object must be focused to a single point on the image plane (film or digital sensor); 2. when the object plane is perpendicular to the optical axis, the image plane must also be perpendicular; and 3. the object and the image (on the film or imaging sensor) must closely resemble each other. In reality, however, light refraction by the lens causes a variety of defects in the image, called aberration. The five most common types in aberration are SEIDEL's five aberrations, which occur even with monochromatic (single-wavelength) light. In addition, there are also two types of chromatic aberrations, which are caused by more than one frequency. It is impossible to eliminate them all, but in the lens design process, they can be controlled and balanced to provide the best possible result for that lens and application. This is handled by material (glass) selection, shape and positioning.



Failing in the ability of a lens to produce a true image. There are many forms ofaberration and the lens designer can often correct some only by allowing others toremain. Generally, the more expensive the lens, the less its aberrations (More attentionto optical quality). While no single lens is called a 'perfect lens'. The ''ideal'' lense would reproducea subject in a faithful, clearly defined image on film. Aberrations, which can bedivided into six basic faults, affect the Ideal performance in an optical system.a) Spherical aberration. Basically, a beam of light passing through a lensparallel to the optical axis converges to form 3 focused image on the film. Sphericalaberration is the term for an optical fault caused by the spherical form of a lensethat produces different focus points along the axis for central and marginal rays.b) Curvature of field.This optical defect causes points on an object plane perpendicular to the lens axisto focus on a curved surface rather than a plane.c) Astigmatism. Rays of light from a single point of an object which is noton the axis of a lense fail to meet in a single focus thus causing the image of apoint to be drawn out into two sharp lines, one radial to the optical axis and anotherperpendicular to this line, in two different planes near the curvature of field.d) Coma. This opticaldefect causes the image of an off-axis point of light to appear as a comet-shapedblur of light. Coma, as well as curvature of field and astigmatism, degenerate theimage forming ability of the lense at the rims of the picture.e) Distortion. Even if the first four aberrations were totally eliminated,images could result that still have a distorted appearance. For an example, an rectanglemay appear as a barrel or pin cushion-shaped object.f) Chromatic aberration. This aberration is caused by light rays of differentwavelengths coming to focus at different distances from the lense. Blue will focusat the shortest distance and red at the greatest distance. Since the natural raysof light are a mixture of colors, each aberration will give a different value correspondingto each color thus producing blurred images.

Mir glossary


Abjad is the technical term for the type of writing system used by Semitic languages (Hebrew, Arabic, etc.), where there are glyphs for all the consonants but the reader must be prepared to guess what vowel to add between two consonants.Both Hebrew and Arabic have optional vowel marks and are called 'impure' abjads. Ancient Phoenician had nothing but consonants and is a 'pure' abjad. See Also: alphabet, abugida, syllabary and the relevant Wikipedia article.

Font Forge Glossary


A person (artist) who favored, and often fought for, the end of slavery.


aboriginal rock art

Usually refers to Australian rock painting and petroglyphs.

Vizual Art Cork

above-the-line expenses

The major expenses committed to before production begins, including story/rights/continuity (writing); salaries for producers, director, and cast; travel and living; and production fees (if the project is bought from an earlier company). Everything else falls under below-the-line expenses.

imdb Movie Terminology

abrasion marks

1 [ abrasion marks ] Scratches on film caused by dirt, improper handling, grit, emulsion pileups, and certain types of film damage (e.g., torn perforations).

2 [ abrasion marks ] marks on the emulsion surface of a film, caused by scratching. It can be due to traces of dirt trapped between layers of film as it is wound on the spool, or to grit on the pressure plate.


absolute colorimetric

1 [ absolute colorimetric ] Used to simulate final output on monitor, preserves all in-gamut colors, sacrifices out of gamut colors (if any). To get dependable proof on colors the output device can handle. Out-of-gamut colors are adjusted to closest match within gamut.

2 [ absolute released images ] any images for which signed model or property releases are on file and immediately available.

3 [ absolute resolution ] Image resolution as expressed in horizontal and vertical pixel count (e.g., 1600 x 1200 pixels is the absolute resolution, and is also expressed as 2.1 megapixels (MP), having more than 2,000,000 pixels on its sensor).

4 [ absolute temperature ] the temperature at which most molecular movement ceases. It is often referred to as absolute zero (273° C).



Disipare a energiei electromagnetice in alta forma, de exemplu in caldura, ca rezultat al interactiunii cu materia (de exemplu lumina in interactiune cu sticla din obiectiv).



1 [ absorption ] the process by which light falling on a surface is partially absorbed by the surface.

2 [ absorption ] Occurs when light is partially or completely absorbed by a surface, converting its energy to heat. Selective absorption of light is what causes us to see colors.



1 [ abstract ] subjective, nonrealistic image. An abstraction photograph generally contains a design of patterns or shapes where the identity of a subject is not evident.

2 [ abstract ] A term generally used to describe art that is not representational or based on external reality or nature.

3 [ abstract ] Image which does not depict something in a literal nor complete way. For example, a close-up which removes the original's form and function, else an image with the original so obscured as to make other interpretations very apt.

4 [ abstract ] In the photographic sense, an image that is conceived apart from concrete reality, generally emphasizing lines, colors and geometrical forms, and their relationship to one another.

5 [ abstract art ] Ill-defined and very widely used term which in its most general sense describes any art in which form and colour are stressed at the expense, or in the absence of, a representational image. Also known as concrete art or non-objective art.

6 [ abstract expressionism ] An artistic movement made up of American artists in the 1940s and 1950s, also known as the New York School, or more narrowly, action painting. Abstract Expressionism is usually characterized by large abstract painted canvases, although the movement also includes sculpture and other media.


abstracta ~ fotografie

Fotografie non-realizta, ca pune accentul pe desenul modelelor si formelor si in care identificarea subiectului este cu totul secundara.



The process of creating art that is not representational or based on external reality or nature.



An abugida is somewhere in between an alphabet and a syllabary. The Indic writing systems are probably the best known abugidas.In most abugidas there are independant glyphs for the consonants, and each consonant is implicitly followed by a default vowel sound. All vowels other than the default will be marked by either diacritics or some other modification to the base consonant. An abugida differs from a syllabary in that there is a common theme to the the images representing a syllable beginning with a given consonant (that is, the glyph for the consonant), while in a syllabary each syllable is distinct even if two start with a common consonant. An abugida differs from an abjad in that vowels (other than the default) must be marked in the abugida. See Also: alphabet, abjad, syllabary and the relevant Wikipedia article.

Font Forge Glossary


1 [ ac ] Mufa sau priza de conectare la curent alternativ (priza, retea).

2 [ ac ] Mufa sau priza de conectare la curent alternativ (priza, retea).

3 [ ac (alternative current) ] Curent alternativ

4 [ ac power ] Alternating Current which is used to operate your digital camera directly from the mains supply rather than a battery. Sometimes supplied, but normally requires additional expense.


ac/dc converter

Transformator - redresor care permite alimentarea unui aparat electric / electronic de la reteaua de curent electric.



1 [ academic ] Of or relating to the conservative style of art promoted by an official academy.

2 [ academic art ] Literally, belonging to an Academy of art. Also: derogatory term meaning conventional, stereotyped, derivative.


academy aperture

1 [ academy aperture ] In projection, the aperture cutout, designed as specified by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences that provides for a screen-image aspect ratio of approximately 1.37:1; also called sound aperture.

2 [ academy aperture ] In 35mm this is the full frame exposed by the camera, with an aspect ratio of 1.33. When the film is projected there is a mask in the projector’s gate to change the aspect ratio to 1.85 or 1.66, cropping the top and bottom of the image. Older films were not shot to be masked and should be projected without a mask. The Academy Aperture is sometimes called the Full Academy Aperture.

3 [ academy leader ] This is standard countdown leader, counting down 8 to 3 and then with one frame of 2, at which point there is a single frame beep on the sound track. It is used at the beginning of a film for the lab to line up sound (using the beep) and later for the projectionist to know when to turn on the lamp and hopefully not miss the opening of the film. A common mistake is to count the footage from the 2, but actually frame zero is the one right before the first 8, a single frame with the words 'Picture Start.' Academy Leader is sometimes also known as S.M.P.T.E. leader.

4 [ academy of motion picture arts and sciences ] AKA: AMPAS, The Academy On the web: Official Home Page

5 [ academy of motion picture arts and sciences awards ] AKA: Oscars, Academy Awards The term 'Oscar' was coined by an anonymous person who remarked that the statue looked like their Uncle Oscar. On the web: Complete List of Winners and Nominees, Official Home Page



(Automatic Colour Control) - control automat al redarii culorilor.



1 [ accelerator ] chemical added to a developing solution to speed up the slow working action of the reducing agents in the solution.

2 [ accelerator ] A chemical ingredient of film or paper developers that's often referred to as an activator and speeds up the developing agents. It's usally an alkali such as sodium carbonate, borax or sodium hydroxide.

3 [ accelerator ] Substanta chimica adaugata in revelator, destinata grabirii developarii halogenurilor de argint.


accent light

Any Source from almost any direction which is used in addition to more basic lights to call attention to an object or area - not the Lighting.

Tiffan edu Glossary


See Diacritics

Font Shop Glosary

acceptable circle of confusion

the size of the largest circle which the eye cannot distinguish from a dot. In 35mm format cameras, a 0.03mm diameter circle of confusion is considered acceptable. It is used to calculate depthoffield or depth of focus.

ProFotos Education Glossary

acceptance angle

see Angle of View.

ProFotos Education Glossary

access lamp

Light indicating the memory card is either reading or writing data.

canon glossary us

accessory shoe

1 [ accessory shoe ] metal or plastic fitting on the top of the camera which supports accessories such as viewfinder, rangefinder, or flash gun.

2 [ accessory shoe ] A fitting generally located on top of a camera to which accessories (such as a flash unit) are attached.

3 [ accessory shoes ] - also often called ''Hot Shoe''. The early flash types weresimple metal brackets. To install a flash unit, you just slide the mounting footof the flash into the accessory shoe. No electrical connection is made between cameraand flash - it's just a simple and convenient way to attach the flash unit to thecamera. Subsequent accessory shoes have been built as part of the camera and usuallyreat on top of the camera's pentaprism; others are separate items that you mounton the camera body when you need them. Somelike the Nikon early professional camera has special dedicated which was designedaround the rewind knob.


accommodation (stereoscopic)

The eyes ability to refocus on points at different distances. This is linked by muscle reflex with convergence/divergence, the change of angle between each eye s line of sight, focusing on something far, then near, causes a change in the angle. Watching a 3D program requires accommodation at a fixed distance (the screen) while eye convergence and divergence changes -- something that is not normally done and can be headache inducing.

canon glossary us

acetat de celuloza

Polimer utilizat ca baza pentru filmele fotosensibile, greu combustibil (Safety Film) si care a inlocuit trinitratul de celuloza (celuloidul).



1 [ acetate ] Actually cellulose triacetate, the base material frequently used for motion picture films. Also, in sheet form, for overlay cells.

2 [ acetate base ] noninflammable base support for film emulsions which replaced the highly inflammable cellulose nitrate base.


acetate-base film

Any film with a support that contains cellulose triacetate; safety film.

Kodak cine

acetic acid

chemical used for stop baths and to acidify acid fixing solution.

ProFotos Education Glossary


solvent chemical used in certain processing solutions that contain materials not normally soluble in water.

ProFotos Education Glossary

achromat, achromatic lens

A lens which corrects chromatic aberration for two wavelengths of light. When referring to a photographic lens, the two corrected wavelengths are in the blue-violet range and yellow range.

Canon glossary EU


1 [ achromatic ] lens system that has been corrected for chromatic aberration.

2 [ achromatic ] A subject, scene, or Image without color.

3 [ achromatic ] (1) Free from chromatic aberration. An achromatic lens is able to transmit light without separating it into colors. (2) Achromatic color is distinguished by differences in its lightness. It has no hue, like black, white and shades of gray.



1 [ acid ] chemical substance with a pH value below 7.

2 [ acid ] A chemical substance such as a stop bath or fixer with a pH below 7 that's used to stop film or paper development.

3 [ acid ] Substanta chimica cu pH sub 7.

4 [ acid fixing solutions ] solutions which contain an acid to neutralize any carryover of alkaline developer on the negative or print.

5 [ acid hardener ] substance used in acid fixer to help harden the gelatin of the emulsion.

6 [ acid rinse ] weak acid solution used after development and before fixation. By neutralizing alkaline developer left on the photographic material it arrests development.


acid-free paper

1 [ acid-free paper ] Harite foto cu pH neutru (prin scaderea continutului in lignina si prin tamponare cu carbonat de calciu) in scopul cresterii duratei de arhivare a fotografiilor.

2 [ acid-free paper ] Has neutral or basic pH, can be made from any cellulose fiber (pulp) free of active acid pulp, lignin and sulfur. For archiving, long-term preservation. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper, thesis paper.



To import digital image files into a software application for processing or editing purposes. The term is often applied differently within different types of software.



General term used to describe the input of media for the DI process. All source media during acquisition must be digitized or transferred digitally.

Kodak cine


Adobe Camera Raw

Digital Photography School Speeking photography


Adobe Camera Raw

Underwatter Photography


1 [ acromat ] 1. Incapacitatea ochiului de a distinge culorile (med. acromatopsie).2. Fara culoare.

2 [ acromat (obiectiv) ] Obiectiv care contine un dublet acromat: dublet ce asociaza o lentila convergenta crown cu una divergenta flint, in scopul corectarii partiale a aberatiei cromatice. In acest fel sunt focalizate in acelasi plan radiatiile albastru si rosu.

3 [ acromat (obiectiv) ] Obiectiv care contine un dublet acromat: dublet ce asociaza o lentila convergenta crown cu una divergenta flint, in scopul corectarii partiale a aberatiei cromatice. In acest fel sunt focalizate in acelasi plan radiatiile albastru si verde.


acrylic painting

Uses a fast-drying, synthetic, water soluble paint that can be used on most surfaces. Made from colour pigments and a synthetic plastic binder, acrylic paint looks like oil and can be used in a variety of painting techniques.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ actinic ] the ability of light to cause a chemical or physical change in a substance.

2 [ actinic (lumina actinica) ] Zona a spectrului luminos care impresioneaza pelicula fotosensibila.



early type of exposure calculator.

ProFotos Education Glossary


1 [ action ] 'Action' is called during filming to indicate the start of the current take. See also cut, speed, lock it down.

2 [ action ] In computer parlance, a small program within a larger application that performs a set routine of operations, also called a 'macro' or a 'script.'

3 [ action control ] A mode incorporated into select cameras such as the Nikon COOLPIX AW100 and AW110 digital cameras and the Nikon 1 AW1. When the action control is set to ON, you can control certain functions of the camera simply by swinging it in the air. The default setting is HIGH, which means that even if the camera is shaken by a small amount, it will register. When set to LOW, a large amount of movement is needed to register by the camera.

4 [ action painting ] A term coined by art critic Harold Rosenberg in 1952 to describe the work of artists who painted with gestures that involved more than just the traditional use of the fingers and wrist to paint, including also the arm, shoulder, and even legs. In many of these paintings the movement that went into their making remains visible.



1 [ active ] Microsoft software component technology, mainly used by Windows to facilitate sharing of information between differing applications, e.g. digital video recorders use to remotely view security cameras online.

2 [ active autofocus ] A camera with active autofocusing uses an infrared beam to determine how far away the subject is. This is fine providing the subject isn't behind glass, because the beam will think the glass is the subject. The system is also flawed when the subject is beyond the range of the infrared, then the camera usually switches to an infinity mode.

3 [ active d-lighting ] Active D-Lighting optimizes high contrast images to restore the shadow and highlight details that are often lost when strong lighting increases the contrast between bright and dark areas of an image. It can be set to operate automatically or manually, and it's also possible to bracket pictures to get one with Active D-Lighting and one without.Active D-Lighting's image optimization, which takes place in the camera at the moment the photo is taken, applies digital processing only to the necessary portion(s) of the image. Even when shooting a subject with a wide dynamic range, Active D-Lighting is able to reproduce a realistic image that retains natural contrast.

4 [ active picture ] The TV frame area carrying picture information. Surrounded by line and field blanking.

5 [ active shutter ] Currently most common home 3D viewing technology. Glasses rapidly blink on and off, synchronized with stereo signal, so left eye receives the left-eye signal, right eye receives the right-eye signal. TV alternates different images according to refresh rate -- minimum of 120 Hz per eye recommended.


activity monitor

Video motion detection technique giving relay closure for alarms, improving security camera update time. Used by multiplexers.

canon glossary us


AKA: Actress A person who plays the role of a character. Historically, the term 'Actor' refered exclusively to males, but in modern times the term is used for both genders. On the web: Search for an actor Factual Movie(s): Rhinoskin: The Making of a Movie Star (1995)

imdb Movie Terminology


Atribut al unui material fotografic de a reproduce contururile unei imagini fotografice (vezi si claritate de contur).



subjective term for the visual sharpness of an image.

ProFotos Education Glossary


1 [ acutance ] objective measurement of image sharpness.

2 [ acutance ] A measure of how the step from high to low density reproduces in a developed film that has been exposed to a high contrast subject. A high acutance developer produces a steeper step from low to high density and, as a result, makes the image appear sharper

3 [ acutance ] A measure of the sharpness with which the film can produce the edge of an object.

4 [ acutance (edge acutance/texture acutance) ] An objective measure of sharpness which takes into account the sensitivity of the human visual system to specific spatial frequencies and the viewing distance of an image. Edge acutance refers to the ability of a photographic system to show a sharp edge between contiguous areas of low and high illuminance. Texture acutance refers to the ability of a photographic system to show details without noticeable degradations.



Valoare numerica ce masoara claritatea unei imagini, rezultata din masurarea pantei de schimbare a nuantelor de gri pe conturul unor repere.


ad (anomalous dispersion)

Sticla speciala, cu dispersie slaba si foarte buna transparenta, utilizata pentru lentile destinate corectiei aberatiilor cromatice de Tamron.


adancimea culorii

1 [ adancimea culorii ] Numar de biti folositi pentru a caracteriza fiecare pixel dintr-o imagine; cu cat se folosesc mai multi biti, cu atat in imagine apar mai multe nuante de culori; cel mai frecvent se folosesc: 1, 8, 16, 24 (cate 8 biti pentru culorile de baza: rosu, verde, albastru) sau 48 biti (cate 16 biti pentru fiecare culoare).

2 [ adancimea culorii ] Numar de biti folositi pentru a caracteriza fiecare pixel dintr-o imagine; cu cat se folosesc mai multi biti, cu atât in imagine apar mai multe nuante de culori; cel mai frecvent se folosesc: 1, 8, 16, 24 (cate 8 biti pentru culorile de baza: rosu, verde, albastru) sau 48 biti (cate 16 biti pentru fiecare culoare).


adapter ring

1 [ adapter ring ] circular mount, available in several sizes, enabling accessories such as filters to be used with lenses of different diameters.

2 [ adapter ring ] Also called a 'Stepping ring' - enables a filter of one size to be attached to a lens of another size.



1 [ adaptor ] vezi - inel adaptor

2 [ adaptor ring ] A camera lens accessory that fits onto the filter thread of a lens to allow a filter system holder to be attached. Other types are available that step-up or step-down from the actual lens filter diameter to allow other size filters to be used.



1 [ adc ] Analog-to-Digital conversion - Occurs when converting an analog signal into a set of digital values.

2 [ adc (analog to digital converter/conversion) ] Subansambu al unei camere foto digitale care transforma curentul electric, rezultat al expunerii la lumina al unui pixel, intr-un numar. Cu cat curentul electric este mai mare (lumina mai puternica) cu atat numarul este mai mare. Camerele foto digitale actuale convertesc valoarea curentului electric in numere pe 12, 14 sau 16 biti. Conversia pe 16 biti permite reproducea a mai multor nuante de gri in comparatie cu cele inferioare.


add starbursts

Add Starbursts is a Picture Play feature that is available on select COOLPIX digital cameras. Choosing it will cause star-like rays of light to radiate outward from bright objects such as sunlight reflections or street lights. This effect is suitable for night scenes.

Nikon Grossary

add-on lens

Some point and shoot digicams have a filter thread on the front of the fixed lens that will enable the attachment of an additional lens. Usually wide-angle or telephoto.

All things photography

additional camera

1 [ additional camera ] AKA: B Camera An extra camera operator, often needed for complicated action sequences or stunts. Contrast with additional photography.

2 [ additional photography ] AKA: Additional Photographer, Reshoots, Reshooting, Pickups Focus group or studio reaction to some shots or scenes may be bad enough to convince the filmmakers to discard them. In some cases, actors are recalled and parts of the movie are refilmed. This is referred to as 'Additional Photography', 'Reshoots', or 'Pickups'. Contrast with additional camera, pickups.


additive color

1 [ additive color ] Color mixture by adding light from any of the three primaries: red, green, and blue.

2 [ additive color ] see Additive Printing.

3 [ additive color ] Based on primary visible light colors (red, green, blue) which, when combined, produce white. Opposite of subtractive color which uses cyan, magenta and yellow pigments.

4 [ additive color ] Also known as ADDITIVE COLOR SYNTHESIS - Mixing colored lights to result in another light color.

5 [ additive colour printing ] Process that exposes different amounts of red, green and blue primary coloured light onto colour printing paper to create a new colour.

6 [ additive printing ] color printing method which produces an image by giving three separate exposures, each filtered to one of the three primary color wavelengths, blue, green and red.

7 [ additive synthesis ] method of producing fullcolor images by mixing light of the three primary color wavelengths, blue, green and red.


adio awl

ced wireless lighting using Nikon cameras and Speedlights that use radio frequencies to trigger the flashes and which do not require optical line of sight to trigger the flashes. Radio AWL and Optical AWL can be combined and used by a photographer for a shoot, using different groups for each of the Radio and Optical Speedlight units.

Nikon Grossary

aditionale dtp

Costurile aditionale fata de pretul initial al lucrarii, costuri generate ca urmare a interventiei pe fisiere.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A


Procedeu de obtinere a nuantelor de culori prin alaturarea, in proportii adecvate de mici puncte colorate in culorile de baza (rosu, verde si albastru).


adjustable camera

1 [ adjustable camera ] A camera with manually adjustable settings for distance, lens openings, and shutter speeds.

2 [ adjustable camera ] Commonly called themanual camera. A camera with manually adjustable settings for distance, lens openings,and shutter speeds. eg Nikon FM series, Carl Zeiss S2, Pentax K1000, Yashica FX-3super etc.

3 [ adjustable zoom speeds ] Certain 1 NIKKOR lenses feature adjustable zoom speeds, for versatility when shooting both stills and movies.


adjustable-focus lens

A lens that has adjustable distance settings.

kodak glosarry 1999


A lens that has adjustabledistance settings.

Mir glossary

adl bracketing

Bracketing automatically varies a given set of variables dependent upon which type of bracketing is chosen. Use bracketing in situations where it may be difficult to set exposure or to experiment with different settings for the same subject. ADL Bracketing is Active D-Lighting Bracketing and when chosen it takes one photo with Active D-Lighting off and another one at the current Active D-Lighting setting.

Nikon Grossary

adobe (1998) rgb

1 [ adobe (1998) rgb ] ICC color profile or working space first introduced in Adobe Photoshop 5.0 software to manage color. Larger gamut than sRGB.

2 [ adobe rgb ] Color space developed by Adobe Systems in 1998, fairly large gamut of colours, wider than sRGB, works well for documents to be converted to CMYK. Designed to include most of the colors achievable on CMYK color printers, improves on sRGB color space gamut primarily in cyan-greens.

3 [ adobe rgb (adobe rgb 1998) ] A widely accepted color space that encompasses a wider range of color than the more commonly used sRGB color space. Adobe RGB is the preferred color space for images intended for prepress applications. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/guide-printing-photographs A Guide to Printing Photographs.

4 [ adobe type manager ] A program that improves your screen display by imaging fonts directly from their Type 1 PostScript language font files. ATM is recommended for Windows 98 and ME. Not required in Windows 2000, XP, Vista, and Windows 7 since these new versions of Windows have built-in support to Type 1 fonts.

5 [ adobe type manager (atm) ] A font utility published by Adobe that allowed computers to use PostScript Type 1 fonts. Since Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Apple Mac OS X natively support PostScript and thus do not require ATM, this PostScript fontrasteriser has become obsolete on current computer systems. However, ATM Light is required for previous versions of Mac OS, including Mac OS X Classic, and for previous versions of Windows, including Windows 95, 98, and NT 4.0.



(Aperture Direct Readout) sistem optic cu prisme, adoptat de Nikon pentru unele modele de camere foto (F4, F5), prin care se putea observa in vizor valoarea selectata a diafragmei de pe obiectiv.



1 [ advance ] Of a composite print: the distance between a point on the soundtrack and the corresponding image. Of payment: an amount given before receipt of services.

2 [ advance width ] The distance between the start of this glyph and the start of the next glyph. Sometimes called the glyph's width. See also Vertical Advance Width.


advanced movie mode

1 [ advanced movie mode ] The Advanced Movie Mode allows you to film slow-motion or HD movies in PSAM modes on select Nikon 1 cameras including the V2.

2 [ advanced photo system (aps) ] A camera system brought forth in 1996 as a new foolproof photography system for weekend snapshooters and people who had not yet ventured into photography. It introduced a new film size (requiring new camera designs to use it) and a new means of photofinishing.

3 [ advanced photo system (aps): ] Breakthrough camera and film technology that has created a new generation of point-and-shoots, APS offers a choice of three print formats, improved photofinishing, and significant storage and reprinting conveniences.

4 [ advanced photographic system (aps) ] A new film format developed and introduced by Minolta, Nikon, Fuji, Kodak and Canon back in 1996.The system was developed to make it easier to load into cameras and offers many processing benefits. For more information, see APS

5 [ advanced photosystem ] A new standard in consumerphotography developed by Kodak and four other System Developing Companies - Canon,Fuji, Minolta and Nikon - based on a new film format and innovative film, cameraand photofinishing technologies. Generally, APS cameras are more compact in size,weight and enbodied most of the latest and most advance technologies available. Thereare options in various sizes of print out and it will even provide a thumbnail prints(Contact sheet) for you to select or preview prior to actual printing. There havea different series of lenses and some of the 35mm format AF lenses can even be shared(With limitation or effective focal length will increased). You can say, it is adifferent system camera all together. So much for the brighter side, but there are drawbacks as well and it is not that economical as I originally thought itsupposed to be.



1 [ ae ] (AutomaticExposure)

2 [ ae ] Auto Exposure. When the camera is set to this mode, it will automatically set all the required modes for the light conditions. I.e. Shutter speed, aperture and white balance. The 3 types are: Program Mode. The camera will choose the shutter speed and aperture automatically, effectively making your SLR a “point-and-shoot”. It will normally assign a shutter speed of 60th of a second or higher if possible.| Aperture Priority. You choose the aperture setting and the camera will automatically choose the shutter speed according to the lighting conditions. Best setting for controlling the depth of field.| Shutter Priority. You choose the shutter speed and the camera will select the correct aperture as long as there is enough light. Good for sports or action photography where you need control over the shutter speeds.

3 [ ae ] Automatic Exposure; Three kinds are available: programmed auto exposure, aperture-priority auto exposure and shutter-priority auto exposure.

4 [ ae ] Expunere automata.

5 [ ae ] Expunere automata.

6 [ ae ] Automatic Exposure (See Auto Exposure below)

7 [ ae automatic exposure metering. ] Where the camera measures the amount of light required for a scene and adjusts the exposure to suit.

8 [ ae bracketing ] Bracketing automatically varies a given set of variables dependent upon which type of bracketing is chosen. Use bracketing in situations where it may be difficult to set exposure or to experiment with different settings for the same subject. AE Bracketing will bracket the exposure over a series of three photographs. The first shot is unmodified, the second shot has a reduced exposure and the third shot has the exposure increased.

9 [ ae lock ] This enables you to lock the current exposure reading and re-frame the shot using the same setting. A half-press of the shutter is normally required to activate this function, fully pressing only when you want to capture the image.

10 [ ae lock ] Freezes a camera s exposure settings so auto exposure (AE) system won t change aperture and shutter speed values.

11 [ ae lock ] Memorarea expunerii automate (Nikon, Konica).

12 [ ae lock ] Used to hold an automatically controlled shutter speed and/or lens aperture, in case you need to recompose your picture but want to retain an previous exposure reading.

13 [ ae lock ] emorarea expunerii automate

14 [ ae lock ] Auto Exposure Lock or AE-L - permits you to take an exposure meter reading from part of a scene and to keep the reading to apply it to the entire composition. The photographer first aims the camera at a specific area, takes a meter reading, locks in that reading using the camera's AE Lock, then recomposes the image and takes the picture.

15 [ ae lock ] AE lock is used to hold an automatically selected shutter speed and/or aperture.

16 [ ae lock (ae-l) ] A button or lever on the camera or exposure meter used to lock the automatically measured light reading into a memory while you recompose.This is ideal for backlit subjects because you can move closer to the subject, take a reading without any background in the view, lock the exposure and move back to the original position to take the photo.It's also fine for landscapes when there's an expanse of bright sky. Point the camera down to the ground, lock the exposure, recompose and shoot.Use this to bias the exposure to one area of the scene or to maintain a consistent reading when lighting conditions are variable.

16 | AE LOCK (AE-L)


1 [ ae-l ] Vezi AE lock

2 [ ae-l ] Vezi AE lock

3 [ ae-l ] (AutomaticExposure Lock)Auto exposure Lock.Metering feature that used to hold the exposure setting when used in the automaticmode. Used most commonly in situation where off centering of the subject in compositionand wish to retain the exposure setting of the subject OR where the level of exposurereading both the subject of interest and the background exposure reading is differenteg. back lighting. Usedto hold an automatically controlled shutter speed and/or aperture. Recommended whenthe photographer wants to control an exposure based on a scene's particular brightnessarea with Center Weighted or Spot Metering.

3 | AE-L


1 [ aeb ] Short for Automatic Exposure Bracketing, multiple exposures are made at selected points above and below metered reading.

2 [ aeb - auto exposure bracket ] Bracket sau Bracketing - se refera la actiunea de a executa o serie de fotografii (cel putin trei) ale aceluiasi subiect cu variatia expunerii; prima - care se executa cu timpul de expunere si cu diafragma indicata de exponometru sau de experienta, a doua, supra-expusa cu 1/3 - 1 diafragma iar a treia sub-expusa cu 1/3 - 1 diafragma. In acest fel fotograful are sanse sporite de a obtine o poza corect expusa. De asemenea, fotograful poate recurge la aceasta metoda pentru a vedea efectul diferitelor expuneri asupra subiectului. Majoritatea aparatelor pro-sumer, clusiv cele digitale, efectueaza bracketing-ul in mod automat.

3 [ aeb - auto exposure bracket ] Bracket sau Bracketing - se refera la actiunea de a executa o serie de fotografii (cel putin trei) ale aceluiasi subiect cu variatia expunerii; prima - care se executa cu timpul de expunere si cu diafragma indicata de exponometru sau de experienta, a doua, supra-expusa cu 1/3 pana la 2 diafragme iar a treia sub-expusa cu 1/3 pana la 2 diafragme. In acest fel fotograful are sanse sporite de a obtine o poza corect expusa. De asemenea, fotograful poate recurge la aceasta metoda pentru a vedea efectul diferitelor expuneri asupra subiectului. Majoritatea aparatelor pot efectua bracketing-ul in mod automat. Mai multe detalii in aceasta pagina.


aegean art

From various cultures around the eastern Mediterranean from c.2800 BCE to 1400 BCE, including Cycladic, Minoan (from Crete), and Mycenean.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ ael ] Memorarea expunerii automate (Minolta).

2 [ ael ] Memorarea expunerii automate (Minolta).

2 | AEL


1 [ aerial ] Above ground; in the air. Also casually refers to a picture taken from the air, as in an 'aerial' or an 'aerial photograph.'

2 [ aerial perspective ] the distance or depth effect caused by atmospheric haze. Haze creates a large amount of extraneous ultraviolet light to which all photographic emulsions are sensitive.

3 [ aerial perspective ] A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms in those areas that are farthest from the viewer. By contrast objects in the foreground are painted in sharply outlined, brilliant, and warm colours, and background objects are shown in muted, cooler colours.

4 [ aerial perspective ] The perception of depth or distance caused by atmospheric haze and its effect on tonal change in an image.

5 [ aerial photography ] Photography conducted above ground, commonly understood to be picture-taking from an aircraft.

6 [ aerial shot ] A shot taken from a crane, plane, or helicopter. Not necessarily a moving shot.

7 [ aerial shot ] A shot taken from an airborne device, generally while moving.

8 [ aerial shot ] An aerial shot is typically made from a helicopter or created with miniatures (today, digitally), showing a location from high overhead.


aes encryption

AES stands for Advanced Encryption Standard. This is the preferred standard that is used to encrypt commercial and government data.

Nikon Grossary


Relating to or characterized by a concern with beauty or good taste (adjective); a particular taste or approach to the visual qualities of an object (noun).



Philosophy applied to art, which attempts to formulate criteria for the understanding of the aesthetic (rather than utilitarian) qualities of art.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ af ] Auto Focus. All digicams and most modern SLR lenses have this function now. The lens automatically focuses on the subject as quick as the eye. The only difference is that with an SLR you can normally select manual focus if necessary.

2 [ af ] Short for Automatic Focus, the camera and lens work together to select the correct focus.

3 [ af ] Abbreviation for 'Autofocus'

4 [ af - autofocus ] Sistem automat care aduce planul de claritate al obiectivului pe subiectul dorit; exista sisteme pasive si active. Mai multe detalii aceasta pagina.

5 [ af - autofocus ] Sistem care pune claritatea obiectivului pe subiectul dorit; exista sisteme pasive si active.

6 [ af area modes ] Nikon's three AF Area Modes—Single Point AF, Dynamic Area AF and Auto Area AF—are designed to handle any shooting situation. With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused. With Dynamic Area AF, you can select from several focusing options: 9-, 21- or all 51-point AF. Select a Single AF point and the areas surrounding it serve as backup—a significant advantage when shooting moving subjects. Select the 9-point option when you want to focus on erratically moving subjects with greater accuracy. When dealing with insufficient contrast for fast focus detection, choosing 21 or 51 points makes detection easier. The 51-point option also allows for 3D Focus Tracking, which uses color information from the RGB metering sensor to automatically follow moving subjects across the AF points. Auto Area AF uses color information and special face recognition algorithms to automatically focus on an individual's face, which is extremely helpful when there's simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.

7 [ af asist illuminator ] Spot luminos emis automat de camera spre subiect, pentru a usura autofocalizarea in conditii de lumina putina. Dupa stabilirea planului de focalizare, aceasta lumina se stinge si nu influenteaza expunerea.

8 [ af assist illuminator ] A beam of light automatically activated to provide the camera's autofocus system the necessary light to operate in poorly lit situations. The AF assist illuminator's light does not appear in the picture.

9 [ af illuminator ] An infrared or bright light beam that fires from the camera to the subject to determine camera to subject distance or to assist autofocusing in low light.

10 [ af lock ] Autofocus Lock or AF-L Causes the camera to stop automatically focusing. AF lock is typically used when the subject is outside of the viewfinder’s autofocus sensor(s). The photographer first aims the camera so that subject comes automatically into focus, 'locks' in that focus setting using AF lock so that autofocus is temporarily disabled, then recomposes the image and takes the picture.

11 [ af lock ] Autofocus lock is typically used to hold focus on the part of the scene that's most important to you.

12 [ af lock ] stops autofocus operation once the subject is in focus. Useful when shooting a subject outside the focus area in the viewfinder. The photographer should first lock the focus with the subject inside the focus area, then recompose the shot as neccesary.

13 [ af lock (af-l) ] A mode to lock the focus to a predetermined point. Useful when the subject is moving fast because you can take the photo as it reaches a certain point or when other influences could affect the focusing such as shooting through glass or in crowded locations.

14 [ af point ] The position in the field of view the autofocusing system uses to determine focus.

15 [ af point expansion ] Photographer can manually choose any autofocusing point as the primary one, and if it loses the subject, surrounding points will assist to maintain focus.

16 [ af sensor ] the sensor used to detect focus.

17 [ af sensor ] The AF sensor is a sensor used to detect focus.

18 [ af servo ] Also known as Continuous Focus, AF Servo is maintained by partially pressing the camera s shutter release button, which enables you to maintain focus continuously on a moving subject as the subject moves within the frame. Shutter-response times are usually faster in AF Servo, since the subject is already in focus. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/choosing-autofocus-modes Choosing Autofocus Modes.

19 [ af servo ] Essentially, motor-driven autofocus; engage it and a digital SLR's autofocus system will continuously track (focus) on a moving subject.

20 [ af stop feature ] Another feature unique to Canon's four Image Stabilized super-telephoto lenses. Four buttons appear on the outer barrel near the front of these lenses; pushing any one will temporarily lock AF if the camera is in the AI Servo AF mode. Custom Functions on many newer EOS bodies allow these buttons to assume a variety of additional functions.


af-assist beam

Light which provides just enough illumination of the subject to help the autofocusing system.

canon glossary us


(AutoFocus Continuous) - autofocalizare continua pentru subiectul in miscare.



Autofocalizare cu transmiterea distantei de focalizare corecta (Auto Focus lenses with Distance transmission).



Obiective Nikkor fara inel de diafragma.



1 [ af-i ] Obiective Nikkor cu motor integrat de focalizare (Auto Focus lenses with Integrated motor).

2 [ af-i &af-s lenses ] Nikon's new seriesof AF lenses, involves the intergration of coreless motors into their super telephotolenses. This gives these lenses quick, ultra quiet autofocus operations. While theAF-S lenses housing a silent wave motor for even quicker and quiet operations thanthe AF-I lenses, which was being in the stage of being replaced by the newer series.

3 [ af-i (nikon) ] Lens with built-in autofocus drive motor. CPU is also built in. AF-I Nikkor lenses send information on distance to the camera body and are classified as D-type AF Nikkor lenses.

4 [ af-i nikkor lens ] A NIKKOR lens with a built-in conventional rotor type autofocus drive motor.



1 [ af-l ] Memorarea autofocalizarii (Nikon).

2 [ af-l ] Memorarea autofocalizarii (Nikon).

2 | AF-L


1 [ af-lock ] Procedura de blocare voluntara a focalizarii pe un anumit subiect; in acest mod este posibila pastrarea planului de focalizare chiar si in cazul reincadrarii.

2 [ af-lock ] Procedura de blocare voluntara a focalizarii pe un anumit subiect; in acest mod este posibila pastrarea planului de focalizare chiar si in cazul reîncadrarii.



1 [ af-on ] Activarea functiei de autofocalizare (Nikon).

2 [ af-on ] Activarea functiei de autofocalizare (Nikon).

2 | AF-ON


1 [ af-s ] (Silent Wave Motor) Motor intern folosit la obiectivele Nikon pentru a obtine focalizarea intr-un mod rapid si silentios. Poate compensa lipsa motorului de focalizare din corpul camerei (unde este cazul).

2 [ af-s ] 1. Obiective Nikkor care utilizeaza motor ultrasonic (Silent) integrat pentru focalizare.2. AutoFocalizare unica, pentru subiectele statice.

2 | AF-S

af-s: autofocus silent

Focusing is driven by a Silent Wave motor in the lens instead of the focus drive motor in the camera. AF-S lenses focus faster than standard AF-NIKKORs and almost completely silently. AF-S lenses with a II designation weigh less and are generally smaller than their equivalent predecessors.

Nikon Grossary


1 [ af/m ] Comutator al focalizarii manuale/automate (unele obiective Canon mai vechi).

2 [ af/m ] Comutator al focalizarii manuale/automate (unele obiective Canon mai vechi).

2 | AF/M


1 [ af/mf ] Comutator al focalizarii manuale/automate (Canon, Minolta, Pentax).

2 [ af/mf ] Comutator al focalizarii manuale/automate (Canon, Minolta, Pentax).

2 | AF/MF


Canon Lens Class and Technology Abbreviations - Arc-Form Drive is the first autofocus motor used in Canon EF lenses. It is much louder than USM motors, somewhat slower and not as quick. It also has slower reaction time so does not follow subjects as well as newer motors. There is no full-time manual focus override. If an autofocus Canon lens has no indication on its barrel what sort of AF motor is used, it is either AFD or Micro Motor.

Canon Abreviations


1 [ afm ] (Adobe Font Metrics) A specification for storing (in a text file) font metrics information such as character widths, kerning pairs, and character bounding boxes.

2 [ afm (adobe font metrics) ] A text file related to PostScript fonts that stores font metrics information such as character widths and kerning pairs. This file is often not needed as long as there is a PFM file (Windows format), so some fonts may come without an AFM file.



1 [ afocal ] Having no finite focal point or infinitely distant - a lens or an optical system with zero focal power.

2 [ afocal lens ] lens attachment that alters the focal length of the camera lens without disturbing the distance between the lens and the film plane.

3 [ afocal photography ] Occurs when aiming a camera’s lens, focused on infinity, into a telescope’s eyepiece when the telescope is also focused on infinity. The image is effectively transmitted as parallel light rays, and does not need to be brought into focus.

4 [ afocal projection ] An astrophotography term used when photographs are taken by attaching a camera to a telescope’s eyepiece.


african art

Guide to classical African sculpture, religious and tribal artworks and more.

Vizual Art Cork


the treatment of negatives and prints to correct certain faults in exposure and development, or to create special effects.

ProFotos Education Glossary


1 [ agent ] A person responsible for the professional business dealings of an actor, director, or other artist. An agent typically negotiates the contracts on behalf of the actor or director, and often has some part in selecting or recommending roles for their client. Fictional Movie(s): Postcards from the Edge (1990)

2 [ agent (~ de spalare) ] Substanta chimica (organica) ce grabeste indepartarea reactivilor chimici din stratul de gelatina in timpul spalarii.

3 [ agent (~ de umezire) ] Substanta chimica (organica) cu efect detergent, care faciliteaza patrunderea apei (si a reactivilor dizolvati) in stratul de gelatina; astfel se reduce riscul aparitiei petelor de subdevelopare, cauzate de eventualele bule de aer aderente de film in timpul umplerii dozei de developare cu revelator.



Miscarea, continua sau in reprize, a solutiilor de prelucrare a produselor argentice (filme sau hartie), in scopul developarii / fixarii lor uniforme.



1 [ agitation ] Keeping the developer, stop bath, or fixer in a gentle, uniform motion while processing film or paper. Agitation helps to speed and achieve even development and prevent spotting or staining.

2 [ agitation ] method by which fresh solution is brought into contact with the surface of sensitive materials during photographic processing.

3 [ agitation ] Gently moving developing chemicals to evenly process film or photographic prints.

4 [ agitation ] Keeping the developer,stop bath, or fixer in a gentle, uniform motion while processing film or paper. Agitationhelps to speed and achieve even development and prevent spotting or staining.

5 [ agitation ] Gentle movement of liquid photo-processing chemicals (developer, stop-bath, fixer) during processing of film or paper in order to achieve uniform results.


ai (auto iris)

1 [ ai (auto iris) ] Short for Auto Iris. Opens and closes lens aperture as light levels change, compensates for variations in light levels, from sunlight to shadows. Can prevent camera damage in very bright sunlight.

2 [ ai (automatic indexing) ] Indexarea automata a diafragmei la obiectivele Nikkor. Obiectivele Nikkor AI au punere la punct manuala.

3 [ ai (automatic maximum aperture indexing) system ] AI became standard on Nikon cameras and NIKKOR lenses in 1977. Non-AI lenses coupled to the camera's meter through a system that required a pin on the camera to be mated to a slotted prong on the lens before the lens was mounted, then the aperture ring on the lens had to be turned from one extreme to the other to index the meter to the maximum aperture of the lens. AI eliminates this entire procedure because meter coupling and indexing occur automatically when the lens is mounted on the camera. Most AI lenses made until a few years ago were also supplied with the coupling prong so they would be compatible with either metering system.

4 [ ai (nikon) ] Automatic index; Nikon's system for telling the camera's exposure meter what the lens' maximum aperture is.

5 [ ai focus ] Focalizare automata 'inteligenta' (Canon).

6 [ ai focus ] Focalizare automata inteligenta (Canon).

7 [ ai servo af ] Autofocusing system determining speed and direction of moving subjects, focusing camera lens at a predicted position to increase the probability of getting a sharp image.

8 [ ai servo af ] Sistem de focalizare 'inteligenta' destinat in special fotografierii subiectelor in miscare. In modul AI Servo AF aparatul focalizeaza continuu urmarind cele mai mici deplasari din cadru, util in cazul obiectivelor lungi unde campul de profunzime este redus.

9 [ ai servo af ] Sistem de focalizare inteligenta destinat in special fotografierii subiectelor in miscare. In modul AI Servo AF aparatul focalizeaza continuu urmarind cele mai mici deplasari din cadru, util in cazul obiectivelor lungi unde câmpul de profunzime este redus.



1 [ ai-p ] A manual-focus NIKKOR lens with a built-in CPU which transfers data from the lens to the camera's metering systems.

2 [ ai-p (nikon) ] Obiective AI-S (cu focalizare manuala) dotate cu un cip care transmite corpului distanta focala si diafragma maxima.

2 | AI-P (NIKON)


Automatic Indexing and Speed: indexarea automata a diafragmei maxime si comunicarea distantei focale la obiective Nikkor.


ai-s: automatic indexing (modified)

AI-S coupling is a refinement of AI and became standard on NIKKOR lenses in 1982. The diaphragm action in an AI-S lens is compatible with Nikon cameras that allow the aperture to be controlled from the camera, as is required for programmed and shutter-priority automatic exposure control. All AF-NIKKOR lenses, as well as most manual-focus NIKKOR lenses made since 1982, are AI-S.

Nikon Grossary

ai/s (nikon)

Automatic index/Shutter; Nikon's lens mount permitting automatic operation in shutter-priority and program auto-exposure systems.


aims of lighting

To enhance mood, atmosphere, and drama; to illuminate the story; to separate planes; to suggest depth; to direct attention; to reveal character; to convey time of day; to enrich and, occasionally, bedazzle. Minimum aim: to stimulate microchips and silver halides.

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ air ] A relatively large area of white space in a layout.

2 [ air bells ] bubbles of air clinging to the emulsion surface during processing.

3 [ air brushing ] method of retouching b&w or color photographs where dye is sprayed, under pressure, on to selected areas of the negative or print.

4 [ air lens ] The air spaces between the glass lens elements making up a photographic lens can be thought of as lenses made of glass having the same index of refraction as air (1.0). An air space designed from the beginning with this concept in mind is called an air lens. Since the refraction of an air lens is opposite that of a glass lens, a convex shape acts as a concave lens and a concave shape acts as a convex lens. This principle was first propounded in 1898 by a man named Emil von Hoegh working for the German company Goerz.



Instrument for spraying paint, propelled by compressed air. Invented in 1893, it has been much used by commercial artists, whether for fine lines, large areas, or subtle gradations of colour and tone.

Vizual Art Cork

airplane mode

Airplane Mode disables all wireless or GPS connections on a camera. Select Nikon COOLPIX cameras have built-in GPS or wireless connectivity and must be placed in airplane mode when flying in a plane, in hospitals and other such locations.

Nikon Grossary

airtoair photography

photography of aircraft in flight from another aircraft.

ProFotos Education Glossary

aisys (aspectual illumination system)

Short for Aspectual Illumination System. Proprietary optical projection system developed by Canon, making use of vertical and horizontal directions of light from source illuminating LCOS panel. Allows compact liquid crystal projectors delivering bright images with high levels of contrast, excellent gradation characteristics. Fourth generation appeared in 2010, in REALIS WUX4000 series projectors.

canon glossary us


Prescurtare folosita de Pentax pentru a caracteriza obiectivele ce incorporeaza lentile asferice.



In Antiquity, a carbonate of lime used in Egyptian sculpture, especially for small portable pieces. Also: modern alabaster, a lime sulfate which can be highly polished but is easily scratched, popular in 14th-century Europe for tomb effigies.

Vizual Art Cork

alan smithee

AKA:Allen Smithee The sole pseudonym that the Directors Guild of America allowed directors to use when they wish to remove their name from a film. The name has reportedly been retired by the Directors Guild of America, after 1997's An Alan Smithee Film: Burn Hollywood Burn revealed the alias to the general public. It appears that project-specific pseudonyms are now used instead, selected on a case-by-case basis when the DGA agrees that a film has been taken away from a director and cut and/or altered to such an extreme extent that it completely deviates from that director's original vision.

imdb Movie Terminology

alarm input

Sensor device -- e.g. door contact or passive infra-red motion detector -- connected to security camera, providing enhanced security. Can be self-powered or needing external power (usually 12V).

canon glossary us


1 [ alb ] Amestec de culori perceputa de ochiul uman ca fiind acromata, standardizata in iluminare prin protocolul D65 iar in fotografie ca D55.

2 [ alb absolut ] In teorie, un material care reflecta exact in aceeasi proportie toate radiatiile luminoase. In practica se foloseste ceramica alba pentru etalonarea spectrofotometrelor.



Procedeu fotografic (negativ-pozitiv sau diapozitiv) prin care nuantele de culori sunt redate in diferite intensitati de alb, gri si negru.


albert effect

effect that creates a reversed image. An exposed frame of film, treated with dilute chromic acid is exposed to light. Development then gives a positive image by darkening the film grains that were not initially affected by exposure.

ProFotos Education Glossary

albumen paper

1 [ albumen paper ] printing paper invented by BlanquartEvrard in the mid19th century where egg whites were used to coat the paper base prior to sensitization. The albumen added to the brightness of the white base and substantially improved printed highlights.

2 [ albumen print ] The use of albumen derived from egg whites was first used in 1848 for dry plates, before being superseded by the wet-collodion process from 1851. Albumen had far greater success for coating on to paper where it provided a smooth surface for the photographic emulsion. This was described by Louis Desire Blanquart-Evrard in 1850 and albumen paper remained popular until the 1890s.



Proteine in albusul de ou; albusul de ou a fost folosit in trecut ca emulsie pentru placile si hartiile fotografice. Procedeul a fost pus la punct de Blanquart-Evrard.


alc (automatic level control)

Short for Automatic Level Control, feature of some security cameras, camera can bring out image detail in bright or dark areas, e.g. if sunlight creates dark shadows, ALC can focus on needed image.

canon glossary us

alcohol thermometer

instrument used for measuring temperature. It is an inexpensive and less accurate version of the mercury thermometer.

ProFotos Education Glossary


A procedure to perform a task. Given an initial state, an algorithm will produce a defined end-state. Computer algorithms are used to perform image-processing operations.

Kodak cine


1 [ aliasing ] A digital artifact consisting of patterns or shapes that have no relation in size and orientation with those found in the original image. This is often caused by too low a scan resolution or sampling rate. The best solution is to acquire the image at a sufficient sampling rate or use an anti-aliasing algorithm.

2 [ aliasing ] This is an effect caused by sampling an image at to low a rate. It causes rapid change (high texture) areas of an image to appear as a slow change in the sample image. Once this has happened, it is extremely difficult to reproduce the original image from the sample.

3 [ aliasing ] Artifact created by the presence of frequencies in the image that are too high compared to the sampling frequency of the sensor. Staircasing-effects or Moiré patterns are two different forms of aliasing.

4 [ aliasing ] Commonly seen as jaggies or jagged edges on diagonal lines in a video image, this defect or distortion results from sampling limitations. Also seen as twinkling or brightening (beating) in picture detail.

5 [ aliasing ] Digital images are made up of square pixels and when the image is low resolution there are fewer pixels per inch. This creates a rough step-like appearance that is most noticeable on diagonal straight edges. This staircase effect is often described as jagged.

6 [ aliasing ] Efect de zimtuire a liniilor care cad oblic in raport cu reteaua captatorului digital. Vezi si antialiasing.

7 [ aliasing ] The process by which smooth curves and lines that run diagonally across the screen of a low-resolution digital file take on a jagged look as opposed to a smooth, natural rendition. Aliasing is an artifact that results from a sample resolution that is not more than twice the frequency of what is being captured, or the Nyquist Rate. A common form of aliasing is moiré. Smoothing and anti-aliasing techniques can reduce the effects of aliasing.

8 [ aliasing ] The jagged appearance of a digital image's diagonal and curved lines, resulting from the square shape of pixels. (See 'Anti-aliasing' below for additional information.)

9 [ aliasing ] A type of digital image distortion most often seen when straight lines or edges in a digital image are enlarged to the point at which they appear jagged.



The positioning of text within the page margins. Alignment can be flush left, flush right, justified, or centered. Flush left and flush right are sometimes referred to as left justified and right justified.

Adobe Glossary of typographic terms


Transformator - redresor destinat alimentarii cu curent continuu a diverselor aparate electronice de la reteaua casnica de curent.



denotes the degree of alkali in a solution, measured in pH values. All values above pH 7 are alkaline.

ProFotos Education Glossary

all-in-one (aio)

Printer which also has capability of scanning and photocopying, some also send/receive faxes. Sometimes reffered to as multifunction.

canon glossary us

all-over space

Jackson Pollock was the first artist to use all-over space in his 'drip' paintings. It refers to paintings where there is no focal point but where everything on the canvas has the same degree of importance.

Vizual Art Cork

alla prima

Technique, commonly used in painting since the 19th century, whereby an artist completes a painting in one session without having provided layers of underpainting.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ allegory ] work of art that treats one subject in the guise of another. An allegoric photograph usually illustrates a subject that embodies a moral 'inner meaning'.

2 [ allegory ] An allegory is the description of a subject in the guise of another subject. An allegorical painting might include figures emblematic of different emotional states of mind, for example envy or love, or personifying other abstract concepts, for example sight, glory, or beauty. These are called allegorical figures. The interpretation of an allegory therefore depends first on the identification of such figures, but even then the meaning can remain elusive.



The space between two columns of set type; sometimes also called a column gutter or column margin.

ProximaSoftware Glossary

allover painting

A canvas covered in paint from edge to edge and from corner to corner, in which each area of the composition is given equal attention and significance.


alpha channel

A layer in a graphic image file used to store matte information for compositing.

canon glossary us


1 [ alphabet ] A writing system where there are glyphs for all phonemes -- consonants and vowels alike -- and (in theory anyway) all phonemes in a word will be marked by an appropriate glyph.See Also: abjad, abugida, syllabary and the relevant Wikipedia article.

2 [ alphabet ] The characters of a given language, arranged in a traditional order; 26 characters in English.


alphabetical coding

:Some early lenses such asNikon and Olympus uses some alphabetical coding to illustratre the composition oftheir lenses. Fora na exmaple, each ZUIKO Lens is described with an alphabeticalprefix and suffix such as F . ZUlK0 AUTO-S, AUTO-T, etc. The prefix represents thenumber of elements in a lens in alphabetical order. For an instance, ''A''=1element, ''B''=2 elements, ''D''=4 elements, and so forth. ''AUTO''signifies automatic diaphragm. The suffix represents the type of lense: ''S'':Standard, ''W''=Wide Angle and ''T''=Telephoto.While another example:

Mir glossary


In Christian church architecture, the picture or decorated screen behind the altar. It may consist of a single painting or an elaborate group of hinged panels.

Vizual Art Cork

alter ego

Another side of oneself, a second self or identity.


alternate character

A version of a letterform that is designed as a part of a font, but is not the standard letterform. It may incorporate a swash, or be a different structure of the letter.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


Different shapes (or glyphs for the same character in a typeface, for example small caps, swash characters, contextual alternates, case-sensitive forms, etc. When alternates are built-in as OpenType features, certain (older) operating systems and applications will not be able to access them.

Font Shop Glosary


chemical used in acid hardening fixing baths.

ProFotos Education Glossary

aluminiu (saruri de ~)

Sarurile de aluminiu sunt folosite ca intaritori ai gelatinei in baile de fixare.



1 [ aluminum ] Aluminum is a relatively soft, durable, lightweight, ductile, and malleable metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite. It is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust.

2 [ aluminum compounds ] groups of chemicals often used as hardeners in fixing baths.


amator (fotograf ~)

Fotograful amator, de cele mai multe ori autodidact, practica fotografia din pasiune si nu pentru a-si castiga existenta. Desi de multe ori are sens peiorativ, unele realizari ale fotografilor amatori depasesc nivelul pretins de la profesionisti.


ambient light

1 [ ambient light ] The available light completely surrounding a subject. Light already existing in an indoor or outdoor setting that is not caused by any illumination supplied by the photographer.

2 [ ambient light ] also referred to as available light, is the light that is occurring in the scene without adding any flash or light modifiers. This could be daylight, or man made light such as tungsten or fluorescent bulbs.

3 [ ambient light ] Available light - this can be any kind of light that's already there, such as daylight or artificial light - as opposed to light the photographer adds with a flash gun or other photographic lighting unit.

4 [ ambient light ] Existing light before introduction of any other light source, e.g. light in room created by source(s) other than projector or screen.

5 [ ambient light ] Light already existing in an indoor or outdoor setting that is not caused by any illumination supplied by the photographer.

6 [ ambient light ] The available naturallight completely surrounding a subject. Light already existing in an indoor or outdoorsetting that is not caused by any illumination supplied by the photographer i.e.not by artificial light source.

7 [ ambient light ] The general (and often undesirable) Illumination surrounding the shooting or projection area; not exactly the same as Available Light or Natural Light. Tip: use the term to ward off meddling clients, as in I can't light it your way because of the ambient light. They are likely to nod sagely.

8 [ ambient light ] Existing light surrounding a subject; the light that is illuminating a scene without any additional light supplied by the photographer. 'Available light' and 'existing light' are two other terms that mean the same thing.

9 [ ambient light ] the available light surrounding a subject. Light already existing in an indoor or outdoor setting that is not caused by any illumination supplied by the photographer.

10 [ ambient light ] The natural light in a scene.

11 [ ambient light reading ] A measurement of ambient light.

12 [ ambient light: ] The light in the scene, as opposed to the light provided by the photographer with flash, photofloods, etc.

13 [ ambient light: ] Light from the sun, also called natural light. Read more on ambient light underwater photography.

14 [ ambient metering range ] The range, usually indicated as a range of EVs (exposure values), that the meter can work in. The larger the range the more versatile the meter. An ISO film speed is usually quoted to indicate what the measurement scale is based on.


ambientala (lumina ~)

Lumina naturala disponibila intr-o scena.



Mid19th century photographic process introduced in 185152 by Frederick Scott Archer and Peter Fry. It used weak collodion negatives which were bleached and backed by a black background which produced the effect of a positive image.

ProFotos Education Glossary

american cinema editors

1 [ american cinema editors ] AKA: ACE Honorary society of film editors founded in 1950 by Jack Ogilvie, Warren Low and others. On the web:

2 [ american federation of television and radio artists ] AKA: AFTRA An association with jurisdiction over some works that can be recorded by picture or by sound. See also the Screen Actors Guild. On the web: Official Home Page

3 [ american society of cinematographers ] AKA: ASC An organization founded in 1919 and dedicated to advancing the art of cinematography through artistry and technological progress, to exchange ideas and to cement a closer relationship among cinematographers. Membership is international and by invitation based on an individual's body of narrative filmwork. Use of the abbreviation ASC, e.g. for on-screen credits, indicates membership in the society. The society publishes 'American Cinematographer' magazine. On the web: Official Home Page

4 [ american standards association (asa) ] Responsible for supplying the speed rating of photographic film. Doubling the ASA number indicates twice the light sensitivity. ASA was replaced with ISO in the 1980s.



1 [ amidol ] soluble reducing agent which works at low pH values.

2 [ amidol ] Agent reducator folosit in unele formule de revalor, care poate actiona la pH mic.


ammonium chloride

1 [ ammonium chloride ] chemical used in toners and bleachers.

2 [ ammonium persulfate ] chemical used in superproportionalreducers.

3 [ ammonium sulfide ] pungent but essential chemical in sulfide or sepia toning.

4 [ ammonium thiosulfate ] highly active fixing agent used in rapid fixing solutions which works by converting unused silver halides to soluble complexes.


amoled (active-matrix organic light emitting diode)

1 [ amoled (active-matrix organic light emitting diode) ] See OLED

2 [ amoled (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode) ] Tehnologie OLED combinata cu o matrice activa TFT. Fiecare pixel este controlat de doi tranzistori (On/Off). Este folosit pentru ecranele LCD ale unor camere foto digitale.



1. banda neagra, opaca la lumina, care serveste la incarcarea sau descarcarea in conditii de securitate a peliculei nedevelopate in / din aparatul de filmat. 2. tehnica folosita in cinematografie prin care se plaseaza in primul plan un detaliu, pentru a da profunzime imaginii.



1 [ amp ] (Automatic Multi-Pattern) metoda de masurare a expunerii care foloseste o matrice se senzori.

2 [ amp calculations ] Formula: Amps = watts ÷ volts. Tip: When the no-nonsense electrician asks: How many amps will you need at 120 volts? just divide the maximum watts you expect to use by 100 (it has a built-in safety factor and you won't have to hunt for a pencil). Need 3,000 watts? 3,000 ÷ 100 = 30 amps. Remember, if you don't know watts what, you'll blow it - with the electrician.



Puterea consumata de un dispozitiv electronic sau capacitatea de energie ce poate fi stocata intr-un acumulator reincarcabil.



The symbol for 'and' (&) that is a monogrammatic.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


Mid19th Century process based on an underexposed albumenonglass negative. This was viewed by reflected light against a black background to give a positive image similar to a ambrotype.

ProFotos Education Glossary


Metoda de realizare a fotografiilor tridimensionale, prin utilizarea unor ochelari colorati diferit pentru fiecare ochi.



1 [ anaglyph ] result of forming stereoscopic pairs from two positives each dyed a different color, usually green or red.

2 [ anaglyph ] Used to describe the stereo photography method of viewing images using deep red and green spectacles. The two pictures have their red and green content displaced which gives the three-dimensional appearance when viewed through the special eyepieces.

3 [ anaglyph (stereoscopic) ] Popularly used with 3D comics and some 3D films, this form of stereoscopy uses color filtering to separate left eye and right eye images which are superimposed as a single image. The colored filters are red and green or red and cyan, with each eye seeing only the required image through the complementary colored filter.

4 [ anaglyph glasses ] Use color filters to separate left, right images, most common: red/cyan, blue/amber, green/magenta. Left-eye and right-eye images in 3D signal are color-tinted, color filters in glasses direct correct image to each eye.



1 [ analog ] A recording technique (for video or audio) that is continuously variable (as opposed to digital, which is either on or off using 1's and 0's).

2 [ analog ] Equipment or methods not using electronic digitization of a signal into data, rather a continuously variable signal of some sort. Analog Signal: Signals greatly affected by noise within system.

3 [ analog scale ] A graphic display in the viewfinder, LCD screen or LCD data panel, using simple markings, to show information such as exposure or camera tilt.



chart, grid or electronic instrument used to determine correct color filtration when making color prints.

ProFotos Education Glossary


Deformare (compresie) a unei imagini pe una dintre axe; folosita pentru a inregistra o imagine panoramica (16:9) pe un cadru obisnuit (3:2). La proiectie se utilizeaza un obiectiv complementar.



1 [ anamorphic ] An optical system having different magnifications in the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the image. Basically, special camera lenses squeeze the image horizontally at the time of exposure. This 2-to-1 squeeze uses as much of the negative available and still allows room for an optical sound track on the release print. The print is un-squeezed by the projector lens, which gives the characteristic wide screen (2.35:1) aspect ratio.

2 [ anamorphic ] A method of creating a wide screen image with standard film, using a special lens on the camera and projector that compresses the width of the image that is exposed on the film and then expands it when projected.

3 [ anamorphic ] AKA: Cinemascope An optical system which has different magnifications in the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the picture. See also aspect ratio, contrast with spherical. Cinemascope is a tradename of an anamorphic technique.

4 [ anamorphic ] An image created by using special lenses that optically squeeze a wide aspect ratio into a smaller ratio. The projection system uses specialized lenses to restore the aspect ratio to normal.

5 [ anamorphic lens ] lens capable of compressing a wide angle of view into a standard frame.

6 [ anamorphic lens ] An optical design that gives different image magnification in the horizontal and vertical planes creating a widescreen image.

7 [ anamorphic lens ] Optics constructed with magnification along mutually perpendicular radii, giving different magnifications for horizontal and vertical dimensions of projected image. Able to project source image of one aspect ratio as different aspect ratio.

8 [ anamorphic lens ] a lens that compresses a wide-angle of view into a standard frame.

9 [ anamorphic widescreen ] AKA: 16:9 Enhanced DVD mastering process whereby a film source with an aspect ratio greater than 4:3 (usually also greater than or equal to 16:9) is transferred to the DVD video master in such a way that the picture is vertically stretched by a factor of about 1.33 (e.g. if the picture had an aspect ratio of 16:9, it now has one of 4:3). The idea is to use as much resolution of the video master as possible so widescreen pictures use the 4:3 frame optimally, gaining another 33% of vertical resolution and looking markedly sharper. When playing a DVD with anamorphic widescreen the display (16:9 capable TV or projector and screen) has to vertically squeeze the picture by a factor of 0.75 so a circle is still a circle. If the display cannot do this the DVD player will do the squeezing and add black bars on the top and bottom of the picture. In that case the additional 33% resolution are not available.



1 [ anastigmat ] compound lens which has been corrected for the lens aberration 'astigmatism'.

2 [ anastigmat (obiectiv) ] Obiectiv corectat pentru aberatiile de astigmatism cu un menisc anastigmat.

3 [ anastigmat (obiectiv) ] Obiectiv corectat pentru aberatiile de astigmatism cu un menisc anastigmat.


anchor class

Used to specify mark-to-base and cursive GPOS subtables. See overview.

Font Forge Glossary

ancient art

Umbrella term encompassing early forms of creative expression from ancient Mediterranean civilizations, like Sumerian, Egyptian, Minoan, Mycenean, Persian.

Vizual Art Cork

and howell perforation (bh)

A film perforation shaped with flat top, flat bottom, and curved sides.

Kodak cine

angle of flash coverage

1 [ angle of flash coverage ] The measurement in degrees of the angle formed by lines projecting from the center of the flash to the extremities of the field of coverage.

2 [ angle of incidence ] when light strikes a surface it forms an angle with an imaginary line known as the :normal,' which is perpendicular to the surface. The angle created between the incident ray and the normal is referred to as the angle of incidence.

3 [ angle of incidence ] Light striking a surface is called 'incident light.' It becomes 'reflected light' when it reflects from the surface. The 'angle of incidence' is the angle at which the incident light strikes the surface, and is measured from a line that is perpendicular to the surface (called the 'normal').

4 [ angle of incidence ] The angle of light hitting a surface. A basic rule of physics says that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflectance, which means that the angle of the light coming towards the surface is the same as the angle of light reflected off of the surface. For example, if light hitting a surface came from a light source that was on a 45 degree angle from the surface, the light reflecting off of the surface would travel on a 45 degree angle as well.

5 [ angle of light ] The angle formed between the light/subject axis and camera/subject axis is probably the most important aspect of light in determining mood, modeling, and message. Both the horizontal and the vertical angle should be indicated. Examples: true Rim Light 180 degrees for both; Key Light commonly 15 to 45 degrees for both. Tip: On the job, pros tend to use less specific designations such as Top, Side, and 3/4-back, which indicate the approximate angle yet allow for fine-tuning based on the subject.

6 [ angle of reflectance ] See Angle of Incidence.

7 [ angle of reflection ] see Glare Angle

8 [ angle of view ] The area of a scene that a lens covers or sees. Angle of view is determined by the focal length of the lens. A wide-angle lens (short focal length) includesmore of the scene—a wider angle of view—than a normal (normal-focal length) or telephoto (long focal-length) lens.

9 [ angle of view ] This is calculated by the focal length of the lens and the size of the image sensor. The 35mm equivalents differ according to the sensor size.

10 [ angle of view ] is the maximum angle of acceptance of a lens which is capable of producing an image of usable quality on the film.

11 [ angle of view ] Lens coverage determined by lens focal length, wide-angle lens has short focal length, covers wider angle of view than standard or telephoto lens with comparatively longer focal lengths. Expressed in degrees.

12 [ angle of view ] The amount of a distant scene that can be viewed using a camera lens. This varies with the focal length of the lens and film format.

13 [ angle of view ] The amount of a scene that can be recorded by a particular lens. This is determined by the focal length of the lens.

14 [ angle of view ] The angle accepted by a lens or meter which depends upon its Focal Length and the camera Aperture (commonly, the horizontal angle). Answer Print, Trial Print (film) One of the early lab attempts (typically there are two or three) to combine picture and sound. It is also the time for light and color correction and exploration; the time when all your previous efforts can be spoiled or perfected. Be there. See: Timed Print (an earlier stage).

15 [ angle of view ] The area of a scene, expressed as an angle, which can be reproduced by the lens as a sharp image. The nominal diagonal angle of view is defined as the angle formed by imaginary lines connecting the lens second principal point with both ends of the image diagonal (43.2mm). Lens data for EF lenses generally includes the horizontal (36mm) angle of view and vertical (24mm) angle of view in addition to the diagonal angle of view.

16 [ angle of view ] The area of a scenethat a lens covers or sees. Angle of view is determined by the focal length of thelens. A wide-angle lens (short-focal-length) includes more of the scene-a wider angleof view-than a normal (normal-focal-length) or telephoto (long-focal-length) lens.Currently, the widest view available is 220 degree (achieved by Nikon's Nikkor 6mmF2.8 fisheye lens - 220 degree; while the narrowest is Nikon, 2000mm F11 Reflex Nikkor,only slightly over 1 degree of view. It can also be explained as the extent of theview taken in by a lens. For any particular film size, it varies with the focal lengthof the lens. Usually expressed on the diagonal of the image area. Basically,there are three types of angles which can be measured (based on horizontal, verticaland diagonals of the film frame), the lense must be designed to cover the widestangle in the diagonal direction. Thus, the angle of view is the angle between imaginarylines drawn from the opposite ends of the film plane to the second nodal point ofthe lense. All objects within this angle will be recorded by the lense on the film.

17 [ angle of view ] Also known as the 'Field of view,' 'FOV' and the 'Angle of the field of view', it is the extent of the view taken in by a lens. The focal length of a lens, in conjunction with film size or image sensor size, determines the angle of view. Wide-angle lenses have a wider angle of view than do telephoto lenses. A 'standard' or normal lens has an angle of view equal to the diagonal of the digital image sensor or the diagonal of the film, which is generally around 52 or 53 for 35-mm film.

18 [ angle of view ] See Picture Angle.

19 [ angle of view: ] The amount of a scene taken in by a particular lens focal length. Short focal lengths have a wide angle of view, allowing you to photograph a larger portion of the scene than long focal lengths, which have a narrow angle of view.

20 [ angle of view: ] The maximum angle a lens covers in the field. Measured in degrees, and qualified by terms such as wide-angle, normal, and telephoto. A wide angle lens has a wider angle of view than a telephoto lens. A 135mm lens on a 35mm SLR covers an 18-degree angle of view a 28mm lens covers a 75-degree angle of view.

21 [ angle of view: ] measure of how wide the view of a lens is.



unit of measurement used to indicate specific points of wavelengths within the electromagnetic spectrum. Visible light rays occur between 4000 7000 Å.

ProFotos Education Glossary


1 [ angular ] An object, outline, or shape having sharp corners, or angles.

2 [ angular aperture ] The angle between the subject point on the optical axis and the diameter of the entrance pupil, or the angle between the image point on the optical axis and the diameter of the exit pupil.

3 [ angular field ] the angle subtended at the lens by the diameter of the largest circle within which the lens gives an image of acceptable sharpness and even illumination.


angulon (leica)

Termen folosit de Leica pentru a denumi obiectivele sale superangulare, de exemplu Super Angulon M f = 21 mm, f:4.



Stare fizica a unor substante, obtinute prin eliminarea apei (deshidratare) din starea cristalina (hidratata). Produsul contine mai multa substanta activa pe unitatea de greutate.



dehydrated form of chemical. More concentrated, so that less weight is needed in a formula than the crystalline kind.

ProFotos Education Glossary

animal style

Type of nomad art originating with the Celts in the 7th century BCE in southern Russia and the Caucasus; it was characterized by the predominance of animal motifs (zoomorphs), frequently distorted, ornamenting all kinds of portable objects including metalwork, textiles, wood and bone.

Vizual Art Cork


(Animal Artist) Term was originally used to describe the 19th-century school of French bronze sculptors who specialized in small animal figures. It has since been extended to embrace animal painters, such as Sir Edwin Landseer(1802-73), best-known for his portraits of dogs.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ animation ] AKA: Animated, Animator The process of creating the illusion of motion by creating individual frames, as opposed to filming naturally-occurring action at a regular frame rate. See also computer generated animation, claymation, time lapse. Contrast with motion capture, rotoscoping.

2 [ animation ] The process of photographing drawings or objects a frame at a time; by changing a drawing or moving an object slightly before each frame is taken, the illusion of motion is realized.

3 [ animation art ] The creation of a motion picture from a series of still drawings.



A style of animated movie which had its roots in the comic books of Japan. Animation enjoys an immense variety of subject matter and audiences in Japan. Outside of Japan, 'Anime' is often used to describe only the adult oriented science fiction and fantasy entries in the field. On the web: List of Anime titles at the IMDb.

imdb Movie Terminology


Signaling device, visual or audio, e.g. wireless annunciators using infrared beams trigger audible signal when interrupted, used in security/retail applications.

canon glossary us

ansel adams

The most influential photographer for the cause of creating national parks in the USA. A great photographer and a great photographic print maker.

Photo Tips


1 [ ansi ] American National Standards Institute.

2 [ ansi ] speed rating system for photographic materials devised by the American National Standards Institute.

3 [ ansi ] Short for American National Standards Institute. This organization, among many other standards, sets the standards for measuring projector brightness, for example.

4 [ ansi (american national standards institute) ] A figure generated to indicate the light sensitivity of printing paper. Not to be confused with the ANSI computer character standard.

5 [ ansi contrast ] American National Standards Institute standard. Ratio between white and black. Larger ratio means greater ability of projector to show subtle color details, tolerate room light. Uses pattern of 16 alternating black and white rectangles, with average light output from white rectangles divided by average light output of black rectangles equalling contrast ratio. In contrast to Full On/Off contrast which measures ratio of light output between all white image (full on) and all black (full off) image.

6 [ ansi lumens ] American National Standards Institute standard for measuring light output perceived by human eye, measurement of overall brightness of projector. Latter calculated by dividing square meter image into 9 equal rectangles, measuring lux (brightness) reading at center of each rectangle, averaging nine points. Lamp choice, other technology, affects light output, e.g. halogen lamp appears dimmer than other metal-halide even when two have same ANSI lumens rating.


answer print

1 [ answer print ] The first print (combining picture and sound, if a sound picture), in release form, offered by the laboratory to the producer for acceptance. It is usually studied carefully to determine whether changes are required prior to printing the balance of the order.

2 [ answer print ] The first graded print of a film that combines sound and picture, which is created for the client to view and approve before printing the rest of the copies of the film.

3 [ answer print ] This is the first corrected print made from the A&B Rolls, printed with the optical track. It is sometimes called a married print because it is the first time that picture and sound are wed together on the same piece of print stock. If you are not overly optimistic about the results of the timing, you can call this the First Answer Print. When there are further corrections in timing the next print is known as the Second Answer Print, followed by a Third Answer Print and so on.


anti aliasing

This is the process whereby you can reduce the “Stepping” effect on your images, by smoothing the edges where individual edges are visible. A great program for correcting this is Genuine Fractals by LizardTech. It is a plug-in for Photoshop.

All things photography


1 [ anti-aliasing ] A method of smoothing out pixels' jagged edges using software.

2 [ anti-aliasing ] Blurring the edges of a font on screen to soften the look of bitmapped type. Anti-aliasing is usually desirable at large point sizes (16 points or above).

3 [ anti-aliasing ] The process of reducing stair-stepping by smoothing edges where individual pixels are visible

4 [ anti-aliasing ] Smoothing the edges of objects in a digital image to reduce the appearance of 'stair steps'. Most image-editing applications contain functions that soften the edges in an image so the aliasing is less-visible.

5 [ anti-aliasing ] An optical process that samples the edges of an image to fill in the missing areas that cause a jagged appearance.

6 [ anti-aliasing (print) ] Process of removing or reducing jagged distortions in curves and diagonal lines, making lines appear smoother.

7 [ anti-aliasing (video) ] The smoothing and removing of under-sampling (aliasing) effects in a video, using filtering and other techniques.



A light-absorbing dye thats present in the film to prevent reflections and light spread that would create a halo around bright highlights. The dye disappears during processing.



1 [ anti-shake ] Although this term literally refers to technology that combats camera shake to reduce blur in an image, a camera that is advertised as 'anti-shake' does not employ image stabilization technology, but instead increases a camera’s ISO sensitivity to provide a faster shutter speed.

2 [ anti-shake (image stabilization) ] Also known as Image Stabilization (IS), Vibration Reduction (VR), or simply image stabilization, anti-shake technology is a method of reducing the effects of camera movement on the photographic image. Image stabilization can be achieved in the lens or in the camera body. In-camera image stabilization is achieved by mounting the camera sensor on a floating micro-geared stage that rapidly shifts the sensor in the opposite direction of the camera s movement, which effectively cancels out the image movement. With in-camera image stabilization, the benefits of the system can be realized with The alternative method of canceling camera movement is by employing a gyroscopically driven floating element in the rear portion of the lens that rapidly shifts the element in the opposite direction of the camera movement. Needless to say, either process is quite complex and requires extreme high-speed data processing coupled with precision lens/sensor movements to achieve the desired effect.The ultimate benefit of image stabilization technology is that it enables you to handhold a camera several shutter speeds slower than non-image-stabilization-enabled cameras or lenses. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/image-stabilization-when-use-it-and-when-turn-it Image Stabilization: When to Use it and When to Turn it Off.



Metoda de prelucrare a imaginilor digitale prin care se diminueaza efectul de aliasing. Antialiasing-ul produce o scadere a rezolutiei imaginilor digitale.


antifogging agent

constituent of a developer that inhibits or reduces fogging during development.

ProFotos Education Glossary

antihalation backing

1 [ antihalation backing ] dye used on the back of most films capable of absorbing light which passes straight through the emulsion. In this way it reduces the amount of extraneous light that can be reflected from the camera back through the emulsion.

2 [ antihalation backing (coating) ] A dark layer coated on or in the film to absorb light that would otherwise be reflected back into the emulsion from the base.


antinous release

alternate term for a camera cable release.

ProFotos Education Glossary


The common German and Scandinavian names for serif faces, as opposed to “Grotesk” which means sans serif face. The Scandinavian name is “Antikva”.

Font Shop Glosary


Greek and Roman civilization until the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. Greek and Roman sculpture was admired during the Renaissance as an ideal art, and study of The Antique formed the basis of the curriculum in most art academics.

Vizual Art Cork

antiscreen plates

photographic plates containing dyes that reduce the blue sensitivity. Used unfiltered, they can give results similar to those obtained with yellow filtered orthochromatic plates.

ProFotos Education Glossary


Substanta chimica ce se adauga in solutia de revelator si care impiedica developarea cristalelor de halogenura de argint neexpuse. Cel mai cunoscut compus chimic antivoal este bromura de potasiu.


aparat de marit

Dispozitiv realizat dintr-o sursa de lumina si un condensor, ce ilumineaza puternic negativul, a carui imagine este preluata de un obiectiv si proiectata pe o platforma unde se aseaza hartia foto pentru realizarea copiei pozitive.



annealed polyethylene naphthalate. A polyester material used as the base on Advanced Photo System film.

ProFotos Education Glossary


Opening, in a lens, the mechanism which controls the size of the light path as predetermined by the photographer or the camera s exposure system. Also: f/stop.

canon glossary us


1 [ apertura ] Vezi: diafragma

2 [ apertura ] Vezi: diafragma



1 [ aperture ] (1) Lens: The orifice, usually an adjustable iris, which limits the amount of light passing through a lens. (2) Camera: In motion picture cameras, the mask opening that defines the area of each frame exposed. (3) Projector: In motion picture projectors, the mask opening that defines the area of each frame projected.

2 [ aperture ] - In photography, an aperture is an adjustable opening in the lens that regulates how much light passes through. Aperture controls depth of field - how much of the image, from foreground to background, appears sharp. A large aperture allows in both light rays directed straight at the lens (which produce a sharp image) and those coming in at angles (which appear blurry). The smaller the aperture, the fewer of these off-angle light rays enter the lens, allowing more of the image to appear sharp. Aperture is measured in a unit called f-stops, in which smaller numbers actually represent larger openings. An aperture of f1.4 (which only a few lenses can achieve), for example, is a very wide opening that puts very little of the image in focus. An aperture of f/32 (also rare) makes essentially everything in a sweeping landscape sharp.Between those extremes are aperture values that produce varying depth of field.

3 [ aperture ] Lens opening. The opening in a camera lens through which light passes to expose the film. The size of aperture is either fixed or adjustable. Aperture size is usually calibrated in f-numbers—the larger the number, the smaller the lens opening.

4 [ aperture ] The lens opening that allows more, or less light onto the sensor formed by a diaphragm inside the actual lens.

5 [ aperture ] The opening of such letters as C, S, e. (Compare bowl, counter, eye.)

6 [ aperture ] The opening through which light passes to expose sensitized material or a sensor. It is usually located behind or within a lens mount, originally as removable 'stops' and later as an iris diaphragm. The size of the aperture is defined in f-numbers.

7 [ aperture ] circular hole in the front of the camera lens which controls the amount of light allowed to pass on to the film.

8 [ aperture ] the variable opening in the lens through which light passes to the film or digital sensor. Measured in f-stops. I like to compare it to your pupil which opens and closes to allow more or less light to enter your eye depending on the brightness level of the room. Learn more about Aperture and how to use it here.

9 [ aperture ] A hole in the lens that adjusts in diameter, similar to the way the pupil of an eye works. This controls the amount of light reaching the film or CCD to record an image. Every different diameter opening has a number which indicates the size - it equals the focal length of the lens divided by the diameter of the aperture. These numbers are also called stops. See f/number.

10 [ aperture ] AKA: F/Number, F-Stop, Effect Aperture, Relative Aperture A measure of the width of the opening allowing light to enter a camera. The apparent diameter of a lens viewed from the position of the object against a diffusely illuminated background is called the 'effect aperture'. The ratio of focal length of a lens to its 'effective aperture' for an object located at infinity is called the 'relative aperture', or 'f/number'. Larger apertures allow more light to enter a camera, hence darker scenes can be recorded. Conversely, smaller apertures allow less light to enter, but have the advantage of creating a large depth of field. See also shutter speed.

11 [ aperture ] Lens opening. The holeor opening formed by the metal leaf diaphragm inside the lens or the opening in acamera lens through which light passes to expose the film. The size of aperture iseither fixed or adjustable. Aperture size is usually calibrated in f- numbers-thelarger the number, the smaller the lens opening. Aperture affects depth of field,the smaller the aperture, the greater is the zone of sharpness, the bigger the aperture,the zone of sharpness is reduced. The hole or opening formed by the metal leaf diaphragminside the lens; controls amount of light and depth of field, prevents vignettingand reduces lens aberrations; the size of the aperture is indicated by its f-number,i.e., the ratio of the diameter of the opening to the focal length of the lens; alarge aperture is indicated by a small numerical f-number.

12 [ aperture ] Ratio of effective focal length and entrance pupil diameter of a lens. Same as f-Number or f# or f/d. The smaller the aperture, the “faster” (brighter) the lens.

13 [ aperture ] The adjustable opening—or f-stop—of a lens determines how much light passes through the lens on its way to the film plane, or nowadays, to the surface of the camera s imaging sensor. Faster lenses have wider apertures, which in turn allow for faster shutter speeds. The wider the aperture is set, the shallower the depth of field will be in the resulting image.Wider apertures allow for selective focus, the ability to isolate your subject from background and foreground elements within the frame. Conversely, if you stop the lens aperture down to its smallest openings, you increase the depth of field, or the amount of focus from foreground to background. Generally speaking, most lenses display the highest level of resolving power when set to about three stops down from the widest aperture.The term highest level of resolving power does not mean the greatest level of depth of field. It just means what is in focus cannot be rendered any sharper by that particular lens, regardless of the image’s depth of field.For more on aperture, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/understanding-aperture Understanding Aperture.

14 [ aperture ] The aperture stop of a photographic lens can be adjusted to control the amount of light reaching the film or image sensor. In combination with variation of shutter speed, the aperture size will regulate the film's or image sensor's degree of exposure to light.

15 [ aperture ] The maximum size of the hole through which light enters the camera

16 [ aperture ] The partially enclosed, somewhat rounded negative space in some characters such as ‘n’, ‘C’, ‘S’, the lower part of ‘e’, or the upper part of a double-storey ‘a’.

17 [ aperture ] The variable opening produced by the iris-diaphragm through which light passes to the film plane. Measured in f/stops.

18 [ aperture ] This is the same as the Iris.

19 [ aperture ] opening in the camera that lets in the light.

20 [ aperture ] A circle-shaped opening in a lens (a hole, really) through which light passes to strike the image sensor or the film. The aperture is usually created by an iris diaphragm that is adjustable, enabling the aperture to be made uniformly wider or narrower, thereby letting in more or less light. The size of the aperture is expressed as an f-number, like f/8 or f/11.

21 [ aperture ] The circular opening inside the lens that can change in diameter to control the amount of light reaching a camera's sensor or film. The diameter is expressed in numbers called f/stops; the lower the number, the larger the aperture opening.

22 [ aperture (light and camera) ] The camera, projector, or printer opening that controls the size and proportions of the recorded image - the Frame. See: Aspect Ratio. The area from which light is emitted from a Fixture is also an aperture and the size, among other factors, influences the Quality of the light.

23 [ aperture / effective aperture ] The aperture of a lens is related to the diameter of the group of light rays passing through lens and determines the brightness of the subject image formed on the focal plane. The optical aperture (also called the effective aperture) differs from the real aperture of the lens in that it depends on the diameter of the group of light rays passing through the lens rather than the actual lens diameter.

24 [ aperture preview ] A mechanical lever or electronic button used to close the lens aperture down to the actual exposure setting so depth of field can be previewed.

25 [ aperture preview ] Controlled by a button or switch on some cameras, this feature permits you to look at the scene in the viewfinder with the aperture stopped down to the opening you intend to use when taking the picture. It is a handy aid in checking the effect of depth of field - i.e. what will be in focus.

26 [ aperture priority ] A metering system in the camera that allows the photographer to choose the aperture while the camera selects the shutter speed.

27 [ aperture priority ] An exposuremode on an automatic or autofocus camera that lets you set the aperture while the camera sets the shutter speed for proper exposure. If you change the aperture, or the light level changes, the shutter speed changes automatically.

28 [ aperture priority ] – A mode (abbreviated AV) available on nearly all advanced and some point-and-shoot digital cameras that allows the user to set a specified aperture value (in f-stops). The camera automatically adjusts the shutter speed to achieve proper exposure for the selected aperture.

29 [ aperture priority ] A metering mode in which the photographer sets the desired lens aperture (f-stop) and the camera in turn automatically sets the appropriate shutter speed to match the scene being recorded. Portrait photographers usually prefer wider apertures for shallower depth of field (DOF), while landscape photographers prefer smaller apertures, which bring more of the scene into sharper focus. See Shutter Priority, below.Aperture priority is a preferred method of maintaining a fixed degree of depth of field while shooting under rapidly changing lighting conditions. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/understanding-camera-shootingexposure-modes Understanding Camera Shooting/Exposure Modes.

30 [ aperture priority ] An exposure mode onan automatic or autofocus camera that lets you set the aperture while the camerasets the shutter speed for proper exposure. If you change the aperture, or the lightlevel changes, the shutter speed changes automatically. Apart from the sport or actionarena, aperture priority is the most common & effective automatic preferencein photography. It can also explained as automatic exposure system in which the lensaperture is set by the photographer, and the camera sets the shutter speed. Can beused in the stop-down mode with any lens that does not interfere with the meteringsystem.

31 [ aperture priority ] Autoexposure systems wherein the photographer selects the aperture and the camera selects the appropriate shutter speed.

32 [ aperture priority ] Often abbreviated A or Av (for aperture value) on a camera mode dial, is a setting on some cameras that allows the user to choose a specific aperture value while the camera selects a shutter speed to match.

33 [ aperture priority (also called aperture value or av) ] A function or shooting mode of a semi-automatic camera that permits the photographer to preset the aperture and allow the camera to automatically determine the correct shutter speed. What does that mean? You select the aperture setting you want and the camera then automatically calculates the appropriate corresponding shutter speed for proper exposure. It's like a fully-automatic camera except you control the size of the aperture.

34 [ aperture priority ae ] When using this mode, the user selects the aperture giving control over the Depth of Field. A large aperture letting more light in gives a small depth of field, meaning not much will be in focus. Whereas a small aperture, not letting much light in, will give a greater depth of field or more will be in focus from the front to back of the image.

35 [ aperture priority camera ] semiautomatic camera on which the photographer sets the aperture and the camera automatically sets the shutter speed.

36 [ aperture priority exposure ] An auto-exposure mode where you select the required lens aperture and the camera sets the necessary shutter speed, to give the correct exposure based on the auto meter reading. This mode is ideal for landscape and still-life photography where maximum depth-of-field is required. It's either indicated on the camera as AP (aperture priority) or AV (aperture value).

37 [ aperture priority: ] An autoexposure mode in which the aperture is selected and the exposure system selects the appropriate shutter speed for a correct exposure. Sometimes referred to as AV or simply A on exposure mode controls.

38 [ aperture ratio ] A value used to express image brightness, calculated by dividing the lens effective aperture (D) by its focal length (f). Since the value calculated from D/f is almost always a small decimal value less than 1 and therefore difficult to use practically, it is common to express the aperture ratio on the lens barrel as the ratio of the effective aperture to the focal length, with the effective aperture set equal to 1. (For example, the EF 85mm f/1.2L lens barrel is imprinted with 1:1.2, indicating that the focal length is 1.2 times the effective aperture when the effective aperture is equal to 1.) The brightness of an image produced by a lens is proportional to the square of the aperture ratio. In general, lens brightness is expressed as an F number, which is the inverse of the aperture ratio (f/D).

39 [ aperture ring ] A ring that is situated near the lens throat on all manual focus lenses and some autofocus models that adjusts to control the amount of light reaching the film or CCD when recording an image. Cameras that don't have an aperture ring often have an electronic control to adjust the aperture either automatically or manually.

40 [ aperture ring ] A ring, located onthe outside of the lens usually behind the focusing ring, which is linked mechanicallyto the diaphragm to control the size of the aperture; it is engraved with a set ofnumbers called f-numbers or f- stops.

41 [ aperture ring ] ring located on the outside of the lens usually behind the focusing ring, which is linked mechanically to the diaphragm to control the size of the aperture.

42 [ aperture value ] See Aperture priority exposure.


aperture-priority auto exposure

A shutter speed that is automatically selected by the camera to match the photographer's manually set lens aperture for a correct exposure. Especially useful for controlling depth-of-field.

Nikon Grossary


1 [ aperture: ] Circular opening behind your lens that lets light in. The diameter changes as you change your f-stop. Read more about aperture.

2 [ aperture: ] The opening of a lens, the size of which is controlled by a diaphragm. The term is commonly used to designate f-stops, such as f/4, f/5.6 etc., which are actually arrived at by dividing the focal length of the lens by the diameter of the aperture. Thus, f/11 on a 110mm focal length lens means the opening is 10mm. The wider the opening, the lower the f-number, the more light is let through the lens. Each step in aperture represents a halving or doubling of light. Thus, f/8 allows in half as much light as f/5.6, and twice as much light as f/11.



1 [ apex ] The point at the top of a letter where two strokes meet, for example in the capital ‘A’.

2 [ apex ] Where strokes come together at the uppermost point of a character; examples of different types: rounded, pointed, hallow, flat, and extended.

2 | APEX


Short for Application Programming Interface. These are definitions creating a communication system with the operation of a subsystem.

canon glossary us


1 [ aplanat ] lens which has been corrected for spherical aberration.

2 [ aplanat (obiectiv) ] Obiectiv corectat pentru aberatiile cromatica si de sfericitate (dublet acromat + menisc anastigmat).

3 [ aplanat (obiectiv) ] Obiectiv corectat pentru aberatiile cromatica si de sfericitate (dublet acromat + menisc anastigmat).



1 [ apo ] Apochromatic. Havingthe ability to bring all colours of the visible spectrum to a common plane of focus,within close tolerances, usually refer to a lens with such superior colour correction.Also refer to ''ED'', ''LD'', ''SD'', ''UD''.

2 [ apo ] Apochromatic; a type of lens which focuses different wavelengths of light on the filmplane for improved image sharpness. Especially useful in telephoto lenses. (Chromatic aberration is corrected).

3 [ apo ] See Apochromatic

4 [ apo (apochromatic) ] the ability to bring all colors of the visible spectrum to a common plane of focus, within close tolerances. It usually refers to a lens with such superior color correction.

5 [ apo - apocromatic ] Obiectiv fotografic corectat pentru aberatiile cromatice, astfel incat radiatiile rosii, verzi si albastre sunt focalizate in acelasi plan.

6 [ apo - apocromatic ] Obiectiv fotografic corectat pentru aberatiile cromatice, astfel încât radiatiile rosii, verzi si albastre sunt focalizate in acelasi plan.



1 [ apochromat ] lens corrected for chromatic aberration in all three primary colors.

2 [ apochromat (apo) lens ] A special design of lens that is highly corrected to avoid chromatic aberration by bringing the three blue, red and green wavelengths to one point of focus rather than the usual blue and green of an achromatic lens. Because red is also brought to the same point of focus, you don't need to refocus when taking infrared pictures with this type of lens.


apochromat, apochromatic lens

A lens which corrects chromatic aberration for three wavelengths of light, with aberration reduced to a large degree particularly in the secondary spectrum. EF super-telephoto lenses are examples of apochromatic lenses.

Canon glossary EU


often shortened to 'APO,'it means corrected for spherical and chromatic aberration. Lenses that are apochromatic cause all visible light wavelengths to focus on the sensor or film plane. Lenses that are not corrected for chromatic aberration tend to focus red, green and blue wavelengths on different planes.

Photo Tips

apocromat (obiectiv)

1 [ apocromat (obiectiv) ] Obiectiv complex format din sticle crown, flint si din fluorina. In acest mod de obtine focalizarea corecta a culorilor fundamentale.

2 [ apocromat (obiectiv) ] Obiectiv complex format din sticle crown, flint si din fluorina. In acest mod se obtine focalizarea corecta a culorilor fundamentale.



lens treatment designed to cut down diffraction fringes that appear around the images bright points of light.

ProFotos Education Glossary


Abbreviation for a software application, commonly accepted as a program intended for use on a smart phone. ThePhotographyTips.comPosing Guide apps for the iPhone 5, IPad, iPod Touch and iOS7 are a good example.

Photo Tips

apple advanced typography

1 [ apple advanced typography ] Apple's extension to basic TrueType fonts. Includes contextual substitutions, ligatures, kerning, etc. Also includes distortable fonts.

2 [ apple box ] A rectangular wooden box used to support people, props, or equipment at any of three different heights. Thinner half-apples offer other options, alone and in stacked combinations.

3 [ apple box ] This is a wooden box, often helpful on the set to raise up equipment, for the camera person to stand on if the tripod is up very high etc. Often you will find them used as seats by the less involved participants. There are also half apples and quarter apples, which as you might expect, are half and one quarter as thick respectively.



A computer program, such as an image editor or image browser.

Nikon Grossary

applications (apps)

The COOLPIX S800c and S810c digital cameras feature the Android platform, which runs apps or applications that can be downloaded to the camera, for shooting and sharing of digital images and video.

Nikon Grossary

applied art

The designing and decorating of functional objects or materials to give them aesthetic appeal, e.g. printing type, ceramics, glass, furniture, metal work and textiles. The term is frequently used to differentiate this type of work from the fine arts (painting, drawing, sculpture) whose value is primarily aesthetic.

Vizual Art Cork


Textile decoration in which cut fabric shapes are stitched to a fabric ground as a design.

Vizual Art Cork


In the visual arts, appropriation is the intentional borrowing, copying, and alteration of preexisting images and objects.



1 [ aps ] Advanced Photo System, a camera and film system designed jointly by Kodak, Fuji, Nikon, Canon and Minolta. The film cartridge, with a slightly smaller film than 35 mm film, is as easy to load as a battery film as it slots effortlessly into a chamber on the camera, and can be exchanged for another film without having to finish the roll. It also has a status indictor on one end showing if the film is unused, partially used, used but unprocessed or processed. So you won't hand in an unexposed roll for processing or put a film through the camera twice and double expose everything. The system allows the photographer to have his settings recorded on the back of his prints, which is automatically done by the processing lab. Although a few APS SLR models were made by Canon and one other manufacturer, most APS cameras tend to be compact and easy to use, but they are often less versatile than 35mm cameras at equivalent price points. The APS system is now regarded as an interim product, used only by consumers, which was popular for a short time, until better compact cameras became available at affordable prices. Most manufacturers have discontinued production of APS cameras. APS film is still available here and there, and processing labs still accept APS film.

2 [ aps ] Acronym for 'Advanced Photo System'.

3 [ aps (advanced photo system) ] consumer photography developed by Kodak and four other companies Canon, Fuji, Minolta and Nikon . It is based on a new film format and photofinishing technologies.

4 [ aps - advanced photo system ] Un format de film foto care permite pe langa imagine inregistrarea unor parametrii de fotografiere.

5 [ aps - advanced photo system ] Un format de film foto care permite pe lânga imagine înregistrarea unor parametrii de fotografiere.



1 [ aps-c ] Advanced Photo System type-C should not be confused with the Advanced Photographic System (APS) camera/film system, since the former is digital and the latter is analogue. APS-C is a type of image sensor found in certain digital single lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. These sensors are smaller than the ones used for the conventional 36 mm x 24 mm (35 mm) sensor SLR cameras (also called full frame DSLR cameras). Being smaller causes a 1.x multiplier for the effect of the focal distance of the lenses, in comparison with the effect of those lenses on conventional 35 mm film SLR cameras or full frame digital SLR cameras. Several manufacturers produce cameras with an APS-C sensor and some even make lenses especially for them. These lenses are found in the Canon EF-S, Nikon DX, Pentax DA and Sigma DC ranges, to name the most popular ones. The most common multiplier ratios are 1.6 (Canon), 1.5 (Nikon, Fuji, Sony, etc.), 1.3 (Canon). (1.3 crop sensors are also sometimes called APS-H.) Most manufacturers not only produce cameras with these cropped sensors, but also offer DSLR cameras with full frame sensors.

2 [ aps-c ] Designation for an imaging sensor measuring approximately 22.3 x 14.9mm.

3 [ aps-c ] APS-C stands for Advanced Photo System-type C, which is an image sensor format that is equivalent to approximately the size of the Advanced Photo System negative (25.1x16.7mm). The Nikon DX format image sensor is an APS-C format sensor.

4 [ aps-c ] – Advanced Photo System-Classic is an image sensor roughly one-third to one-half the size of a 35mm frame of film, or full-frame image sensor. APS-C image sensors are used in most consumer-level DSLRs and in many mirrorless cameras.

5 [ aps-c (apsc) ] A term used to describe the size of the digital imaging sensors used in almost all compact DSLRs. The name is derived from the APS (Advanced Photo System) film format that was introduced in 1996 for the amateur point-and-shoot market. The APS format is about half the size (23.6 x 15.8mm) of a standard 35mm frame (24 x 36mm) and has a 1.5x magnification factor (multiply the focal length x 1.5) for determining the 35mm equivalent focal length of lenses used on APS-C format cameras. APS-C format DSLRs from Nikon, Pentax, Fujifilm, and Sony (Alpha) contain APS-C sized imaging sensors.Canon compact DSLRs, which include EOS Rebel-series DSLRs, contain APS-C format imaging sensors that are slightly smaller than competitive compact DSLRs (22.3 x 14.9mm, so the lens factor for these cameras would be 1.6x). Although it does further reduce the effective field of view of your lenses, they are slightly more telephoto than their 1.5x brethren.For more on crop factor, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/understanding-crop-factor Understanding Crop Factor.

6 [ aps-c sensor ] Image sensor approximately the size of an APS (Advanced Photo System) negative (roughly 25.1x16.7 mm.)



1 [ aps-h ] Designation for an imaging sensor measuring approximately 28.7 x 19mm.

2 [ aps-h ] Dimensiune a asenzorului folosit in modelele Canon EOS-1D Mark III, Canon EOS-1D Mark II N, Canon EOS-1D Mark II si Canon EOS-1D, ce are 28,7 x 19 mm si factor de multiplicare: 1,3

3 [ aps-h (apsh) ] APS-H format imaging sensors (1.3x) are smaller than full-frame (24 x 36mm) imaging sensors but larger than APS-C (1.5x) imaging sensors. Although currently only available in Canon’s high-speed 1D series (not 1Ds) cameras, APS-H format sensors were also used in Leica’s first digital rangefinder, the M8, as well as Leica’s short-lived add-on digital back for the now-discontinued Leica R reflex camera system.For more on crop factor, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/understanding-crop-factor Understanding Crop Factor.

3 | APS-H (APSH)


Apusul civil - momentul in care centrul Soarelui se afla la 6° sub linia Orizontului. Incep sa se zareasca cele mai stralucitoare stele pe cer.Apusul naval - momentul in care Soarele se afla la 12° sub linia Orizontului. Pana acum Orizontul este inca vizibil si poate fi masurat cu sextantul.Apusul astronomic - momentul in care Soarele trece de 18° sub linia Orizontului. Cerul este complet intunecat si de acum se pot efectua observatii si fotografii astronomice.



1 [ aquatint ] etching technique allowing control of tonal areas to produce almost unlimited gradations from pale gray to black. Because of this it has also been used in photography as an alternative term for gum bichromate process.

2 [ aquatint etching ] Process whereby acid is allowed to bite into a copper plate prepared with resin which is then inked and printed.



Motif based on interlaced plant forms, found in the fine and decorative arts, in architecture, and especially typical of Islamic design.

Vizual Art Cork

arabic number

A numeral from 0 through 9; can be set as Old Style or Lining Figures.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


1 [ arc ] Any curved contour of a letter.

2 [ arc lamp ] photographic lamp in which light is produced by passing an electric current through two carbon rods.

3 [ arc light ] A very large, near-daylight, carbon-arc source that was used to shoot Hollywood blockbusters - now rivaled by HMI and MSR Lights.

4 [ arc of the stem ] A curved stroke that is continuous with a straight stem, not a bowl; examples: bottom of 'j, t, f, a, and u.' Also called a shoulder.


archaic greek art

Greek art of the mid 12th century BCE to c.480 BCE; one of four convenient divisions of Greek art, the others being Geometric, Classical and Hellenistic.

Vizual Art Cork


Science or art of building. Also: the structure or style of what is built. See Architecture: History/Styles.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ archival ] The ability of a material, including some printing papers and compact discs, to last for many years.

2 [ archival permanence treatments ] various treatments given to prints to make them faderesistant.

3 [ archival processing ] Extra steps are taken when developing and printing to ensure the most stable image is made.

4 [ archival techniques ] The handling, treating and storage of photographic materials in a manner that lessens their deterioration from aging or from reaction to other materials.



1 [ archival: ] Describes any negative or print storage or display material that won't cause the photographic image to fade, stain, or discolor over time. Acid-free materials are archival.

2 [ archival: ] Long-lasting. In processing, those procedures that help insure stability of the image. Also, storage materials that will not damage photographic film and paper, or computer-produced prints.



A collection of data in long term storage, usually the hard drive on your PC or an external hard drive.

All things photography


Mid19th century silver print process, on which the kallitype and sepia paper processes are based.

ProFotos Education Glossary


Element chimic (Ag) folosit sub forma de saruri (azotat, bromura, clorura, iodura) ca substante fotosensibilie.



A development by Dr. Mike Ware of Kallitype and Van Dyke Brown, Argyrotype produces brown silver prints of subtle graduation on plain artist's paper. The sensitiser, which can last a year or more if correctly stored, should be spread evenly on the print using a glass rod. After a few minutes to allow it to soak in, the print should then be dried for ten minutes at 40C or for half an hour at least at room temperature. A contact printing time of 5-10 minutes under the sun or a good source of UV light is normal. After exposure, develop and clear the print in gently running water for around 5 minutes, and then use a fixing solution for 3 minutes. At this point the colour will intensify, changing from red to a deep brown, which can be turned more blackish-brown by ironing dry at this stage.



Capacitatea unor materiale de a inregistra informatii si de a le pastra nealterate mai multe decenii.



early commercial print type made on collodionchloride or gelatinchloride paper.

ProFotos Education Glossary


1 [ arm ] A horizontal segment of a letter, at least one end of which is not attached to the vertical part. Example: the middle bar of the capital E.

2 [ arm ] A metal rod that is attached to a C-Stand which can extend off to the side.

3 [ arm ] The horizontal stroke in a character that does not connect to a stem at one or both sides.

4 [ arm ] The short, upward sloping stroke or horizontal projection of characters like the 'X' and 'L'.

4 | ARM


A vertical or horizontal stroke that only intersects another stroke at one point and is open on the other end.

Font tympanus (codedrops)


Framework or skeleton on which a sculptor molds his clay.

Vizual Art Cork


A person who is responsible for weapons on the set of a movie or television show. Duties include providing the correct weapons to suit the era and style of the film, advising the director on use of weapons, choosing the correct blanks, creating a safe set for the use of said weapons, teaching actors about handling and using weapons, making sure use of all weapons is properly licensed, and ensuring the safety of everyone on the set while weapons are in use.

imdb Movie Terminology

armory show

International exhibition of modern art held in New York in 1913 in the 69th Regiment Armory building. Exhibits included the work of the more Avant-Garde US artists and of the School of Paris. The exhibition was enormously popular and marked the birth of a real interest in modern art in 20th-century America.

Vizual Art Cork

arp (address resolution protocol)

Short for Address Resolution Protocol. Associates IP address with hardware MAC address. On local network, request is broadcast to discover MAC address for IP address, network receives ARP request, names IP address, machine at address returns physical address so can receive data.

canon glossary us


An arrangement of digital image sensors. The number of sensors determines the total number of pixels available. See Digital cameras - How they work for info about a digital camera's sensor array.

Photo Tips


1 [ art ] See: Fine Art and also Visual Art. For a chronological guide, see: History of Art (2.5 million BCE-present).

2 [ art ] A form of creative expression. For explanation, see: Definition and Meaning of Art. For forms and categories, see: Types of Art.

3 [ art brut ] A term used to describe drawings, paintings and any other form of art done by untrained or amatuer artists. Could be applied to drawings done by children, people who are mentally ill or anyone who is does not describe themselve as an 'artist' or who are not painting commercially.

4 [ art critics ] Commentators and analysts of the visual arts.

5 [ art department ] The section of a production's crew concerned with visual artistry. Working under the supervision of the production designer and/or art director, the art department is responsible for arranging the overall 'look' of the film (i.e. modern/high-tech, rustic, futuristic, etc.) as desired by the director. Individual positions within in this department include: production designer, production buyer, special effects supervisor, draftsman, art director, assistant art director, set decorator, set dresser, property master, leadman, swing gang, and property assistant.

6 [ art director ] The person who oversees the artists and craftspeople who build the sets. See also production designer, set designer, set director, leadman, and swing gang.

7 [ art evaluation ] How to judge the aesthetics, craftsmanship and artistic technique of a painting.

8 [ art nouveau ] Decorative style of the late 19th and early 20th centuries that flourished principally in Europe and the U.S. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms.

9 [ art schools ] The term usually refers to tertiary colleges offering Bachelor of Fine Arts Degrees (BFA), Bachelor of Design Degrees (BDes), as well as BAs in applied art subjects.


artefact (en. artifact)

Distorsiune specifica crearii imaginii de câtre celule fotosensibile sau modificare locala a imaginii cauzata de comprimari si decomprimari tip jpg.



1 [ artefacts ] Irregular flaws in image colour or sharpness caused by CCD problems, noise or compression.

2 [ artefacts ] See 'Artifacts' below. 'Artefacts' is the usual British spelling of 'Artifacts.'


articulation artist

A person who takes an artist's designs and builds them in a computer, so that animators can manipulate the figures to tell the story of the film.

imdb Movie Terminology


1 [ artifact ] (or artefact) Any object of human workmanship. Also: (archeology) an object of prehistoric or aboriginal art, as distinguished from a similar but naturally occurring object.

2 [ artifact ] A visual defect in an image caused by limitations or the malfunction of imaging equipment. See also motion artifact, contrast with cinch marks.

3 [ artifact ] Artifacts refer to distortions within an image as a result of image compression or interpolation. Artifacts can be seen as light halos around dark areas of an image or as a blocky quality in an image’s highlight areas. Forms of artifacts include blooming, chromatic aberrations, jaggies, moiré, noise, and halation. There are a number of available software applications that have been designed to diminish or eliminate artifacts from a photograph, post capture.

4 [ artifact ] Distorsiune specifica crearii imaginii de catre celule fotosensibile sau modificare locala a imaginii cauzata de comprimari si decomprimari tip jpg.



Distortions or excess noise which are caused by the sensor, the optical system or image processing (such as compression)

RadioShak support


1 [ artifacts ] Any unwanted element or defect in an image: for example, noise, compression blocking, moire patterns around patterns.

2 [ artifacts ] Conspicuous elements in the image that do not exist in the real scene. They may be caused by any part of the image acquisition system (optics, sensors or processing).

3 [ artifacts ] Sometimes spelled 'artefacts' - Picture degradations that occur as a result of image-processing tasks, such as compressing an image which can result in an increase in digital 'noise'.

4 [ artifacts (digital artifacts) ] Undesirable and unintentional defects in a digital image. Artifacts are often a result of image processing.



Deception or trickery.


artificial daylight

1 [ artificial daylight ] artificial light having a similar color temperature to daylight.

2 [ artificial light ] all light not originating from a natural source normally the sun.

3 [ artificial light ] An ambiguous term that refers to light produced by electricity as opposed to a Natural source and to illumination introduced to record images. Depending upon how it is used, it looks either artificial or natural.

4 [ artificial light ] Used to describe any continuous man made light source such as tungsten and fluorescent lighting.

5 [ artificial light ] Illumination that comes from a man-made source, such as electronic flash.

6 [ artificial light film ] color film balanced for use ion tungsten Artificial light, usually 3200 K.

7 [ artificial light. ] Light from a man-made source, usually restricted to studio photo lamp and domesticlighting. When used to describe film (also known as Type A or Type B) invariablymeans these types of lighting.

8 [ artificial light: ] Any light not directly produced by the sun. Can be tungsten, flash, household bulbs, sodium vapor street lamps, etc. In many cases, the color produced by artificial light is deficient in the blue end of the spectrum, thus daylight-balanced color films will record the light as being warm/red/amber. Tungsten-balanced slide films, or color-balancing filters over the lens will generally correct this problem. In some cases, color print film can be re-balanced when prints are made.



With this style, the photographer's unique take allows for a different perspective (for instance, the couple may not be looking at the camera). If you don't want your photos to look like anything you've seen on Pinterest, go with a pro who is eager to use a little artistic license to tell your story.

TheKnot wedding photograhy

arts and crafts

1 [ arts and crafts ] Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsperson, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

2 [ arts and crafts movement ] Mid-19th-century artistic movement in England, inspired by John Ruskin and William Morris; it attempted to raise the standards of design and craftsmanship in the applied arts, and to reassert the craftsman's individuality in the face of increasing mechanization.



Lentila cu o suprafa (sau ambele suprafete) prelucrate asferic, in obiectivele Nikkor.



1 [ asa ] Stands for American National Standards Institution, now International Standards Organization. Exposure Index or speed rating that denotes the film sensitivity. Actually defined only for black-and-white films, but also used in the trade for color films.

2 [ asa ] (American Standard Association) - sistem de evaluare a sensibilitatii filmelor argentice negative sau diapozitive (in prezent inlocuit de sistemul ISO).

3 [ asa ] American Standards Association is a now defunct rating system for film speed. The ASA system has been replaced by the universal ISO system. However, it is still a commonly used term.

4 [ asa ] American Standards Association; (see ISO).

5 [ asa ] American StandardsAssociation. Group that determining numerical ratings of speed for US made photosensitiveproducts. eg films. In 1982, its role and its influence was narrow down by the establishmentof the ISO (International Standards Organisation).

6 [ asa ] An abbreviation of the American Standards Association, ASA is the term used to describe the light-sensitivity levels of film and camera imaging sensors. Also see ISO.

7 [ asa ] see EI/ASA

8 [ asa ] The now defunct film speed rating system of the USA Standards Institute, which was formerly called the American Standards Association - hence the acronym 'ASA'. The ASA system has been replaced by the more universalISO system. A higher number ASA rating signifies faster film (i.e. greater sensitivity to light) than a lower number ASA. For example, a 400 ASA film is faster than a 125 ASA film.

9 [ asa ] original system of rating photographic materials, which was devised by the American standards Association. The ISO rating system is now used in place of the ASA.

10 [ asa ] Measure of a film's light gathering capability. Replaced by ISO for film and digital.

10 | ASA


Short for American Society of Cinematographers.

canon glossary us


Short for American Society of Composers and Performers. This agency licenses the use of copyrighted music.

canon glossary us


1 [ ascender ] That part of a lowercase letter (e.g., k, b, or d) that ascends above the x-height of the typeface. The ascender line is an imaginary horizontal line that marks the tops of most ascenders in a font. (Compare descender, extender.)

2 [ ascender ] The part of certain lowercase letters that extends above the x-height of a font.

3 [ ascender ] A stem on a lower case letter which extends above the x-height. 'l' has an ascender. See also X-height, Cap-height, Descender, Overshoot, Baseline

4 [ ascender ] Any part in a lowercase letter that extends above the x-height, found for example in ‘b’, ‘d’, ‘f’, ‘h’, ‘k’, etc. Some types of ascenders have specific names.

5 [ ascender ] The part of a lowercase letter that rises above the main body of the letter (as in b, d, h). The part that extends above the x-height of a font.

6 [ ascender ] The part of certain lowercase letter that extends above the x-height of a font.

7 [ ascender ] The part of lowercase letters (such as k, b, and d) that ascends above the x-height of the other lowercase letters in a face.

8 [ ascender line ] A line marking the topmost point of the cap line.

9 [ ascender line ] A line marking the topmost point of the cap line.

10 [ ascender line ] The imaginary horizontal line that represents the uppermost point of an ascender. A line marking the topmost point of the cap line.



Any part of a letter that extends beyond the x-height of a character set.

Font tympanus (codedrops)


1 [ ascent ] A font's maximum distance above the baseline.

2 [ ascent ] In traditional typography the ascent of a font was the distance from the top of a block of type to the baseline.Its precise meaning in modern typography seems to vary with different definers.



1 [ ascii ] (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - metoda de codificare a textului in valori binare (numere de 7 sau 8 biti) si care cuprinde 256 valori, adica orice combinatie posibila de taste.

2 [ ascii ] (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) A universal format for representing alphanumeric characters, allowing for the exchange of information between operating systems. Consists of the text itself, stripped of all special codes for formatting, such as centering, bold, underline, and indents.

3 [ ascii (american standard code for information inte ] A code for exchanging information between data processing systems and peripherals such as postscript printers.



(Advanced Streaming Format) format de fisiere cu grad inalt de comprimare care contine date audio-video pentru care redarea incepe imediat, inainte de terminarea transferului intregului fisier.


asferica (lentila)

1 [ asferica (lentila) ] Lentila slefuita dupa o suprafata care nu este sferica, astfel incat razele de lumina axiale focalizeaza mai aproape, in timp ce razele de lumina periferice focalizeaza mai departe; in acest fel se combate efectul curburii de camp.

2 [ asferica (lentila) ] Lentila slefuita dupa o suprafata care nu este sferica, astfel încât razele de lumina axiale focalizeaza mai aproape, in timp ce razele de lumina periferice focalizeaza mai departe; in acest fel se combate efectul curburii de câmp.


asian art

Architectures, arts and crafts from China, Japan, Korea, SE Asia and the Indian subcontinent.

Vizual Art Cork


Short for Application-Specific Integrated Circuit. Custom designed and manufactured chip or chipset, created for a specific function or set of functions. Not off the shelf parts.

canon glossary us

asl (aspherical)

Indicativ folosit de Tamron prin care arata in structura obiectivului este folosita cel putin o lentila asferica.


aspect ratio

1 [ aspect ratio ] Proportion of picture width to height. Some common aspect ratios include 1.85:1 (Acadamy Standard), 2.39:1 (Anamorphic), 1.78:1 (HD), and 1.33:1 (SD).

2 [ aspect ratio ] The ratio of an image's height to its width.

3 [ aspect ratio ] The ration of horizontal to vertical dimensions of an image. For example, 35mm slide film = 3:2, TV = 4:3, HDTV = 16:9, 4×5 Film = 5:4.

4 [ aspect ratio ] AKA: Aspect, Academy Ratio A measure of the relative sizes of the horizontal and vertical components of an image. 'Academy Ratio' is 1.33:1. See also anamorphic.

5 [ aspect ratio ] Aspect ratio refers to how the image appears on the screen based on how it was shot–the ratio of width (horizontal or top) to height (vertical or side) of a film frame, image, or screen.

6 [ aspect ratio ] Aspect ratio refers to the shape, or format, of the image produced by a camera. The ratio is derived by dividing the width and height of the image by their common factor. The aspect ratio of a 35mm image (36 x 24mm) is found by dividing both numbers by their common factor: 12. So, if you divide each by 12, your resulting ratio will be 3:2. Most computer monitors and digital cameras have a 4:3 aspect ratio. Many digital cameras offer the option of switching between 4:3, 3:2, or 16:9.

7 [ aspect ratio ] The proportions of the frame. In 16mm and 35mm the camera photographs a slightly square image, with an aspect ratio of 1.33 to 1. Aspect Ratios are usually shorted to leave out the '- to 1,' taking for granted that it will always be in relation to 1, an so '1.33 to 1' can just be called '1.33' In 35mm 1.33 is known as the Academy Aperture. In 35mm the image is usually shot with the Academy Aperture and then masked in the projector to produce a wider image: 1.85 in the U.S. and 1.66 in Europe.

8 [ aspect ratio ] The ratio between the width and height of an image or image sensor

9 [ aspect ratio ] The ratio of width to height in photographic prints; a ratio of 2:3 in 35 mm pictures produces photographs most commonly measuring 3.5 × 5 inches or 4 × 6 inches.

10 [ aspect ratio ] The ratio of widthto height in photographic prints - 2:3 in 35 mm pictures to produce photographs mostcommonly measuring 3.5x 5 inchesor 4 x 6inches;Advanced Photo System cameras deliver three aspect ratios as selected by the user.ATAATA- This means thecamera supports the electrical interface standard, defined by the PC Card Association(formerly PCMCIA), known as ATA (AT Attachment). This is the mobile computing equivalentof the IDE standard for desktop computers. Most computers have ATA support built-in.ATA is supported by most operating systems like Microsoft Windows 3.1, Windows '95,Windows CE, IBM OS/2, Apple System 7, etc. ATA is supported by most computer manufacturersincluding IBM, Compaq, Packard Bell, Dell, Gateway 2000, etc.

11 [ aspect ratio ] The relationship of an image s width to its height. HD s aspect ratio is 16:9 (16x9) at 1920x1080 or 1280x720 lines. Standard definition is 4:3 (4x3) at 640x480 lines. Typical 35mm film aspect ratios are 1.85:1 and 2.40:1. Projectors are fixed resolution with native aspect ratio, most common being 4:3, 16:9, 16:10, 5:4, with many projectors -- whether 16:9 or 4:3 native aspect ratio -- able to display multiple aspect ratios, with black bars either on sides or at top and bottom.

12 [ aspect ratio ] The ratio of a picture's length to its width. For example, 35mm film has an aspect ratio of 3:2 (or 1.5:1). Also applies to computer and television screens, image sensors and photographic prints. Computer monitors typically have an aspect ratio of 4:3, as do most digital cameras.

13 [ aspect ratio ] ratio of width to height in photographic prints. The ratio is 2:3 in 35 mm pictures which produces photographs most commonly measuring 3.5 x 5 inches or 4 x 6 inches.

14 [ aspect ratio ] The width of an image divided by its height. In still photography, common aspect ratios are 4:3 (images from digital cameras) and 3:2 (images from film cameras).

15 [ aspect ratio (pixel) ] The relationship of width to height of an individual pixel. Digital video has rectangular pixels--NTSC standard (ITU-R 601). HDTV and computers have square pixels.

16 [ aspect ratio, frame proportions ] The proportions of an Image; width divided by height. Example: 1:1.33 for 16mm. The ratio changes depending upon the medium of reproduction and the proportions of the monitor or screen on which they are projected, which plays havoc with Composition and the tops of heads. Tip: Foreground framing with dark shapes will appear to change the aspect ratio.



Prescurtare folosita de mai multi producatori pentru a notifica utilizarea de lentile sau de suprafete asferice in structura obiectivelorlor.


aspheric (aspherical) lens

A lens element that changes shape across its surface as opposed to one having a smooth continuous arc. Generally, an aspherical lens deviates slightly from an exactly spherical shape, and is relatively free from aberrations. Light rays are bent more at the edges of a conventional spherical lens than they are at the center, causing them to come into focus before the film plane or sensor plane. A lens made with aspherical elements focuses all the light rays passing through it on the film/sensor plane.

Photo Tips

aspherical lens

1 [ aspherical lens ] A lens with edges flattened so that it is not a perfect sphere. These produce a much superior image.

2 [ aspherical lens ] A lens element that doesn't form part of a sphere. This is physically difficult to manufacture as most grinding/polishing equipment operates with a spherical action. This sort of lens is often moulded out of plastic or coated onto a glass element.

3 [ aspherical lens ] A lens whose curvedsurface does not conform to the shape of a sphere; lenses are usually ground or moldedwith spherical surfaces; because a spherical surface lens has difficulty in correctingdistortion in ultra-wideangle lenses or coma in large-aperture lenses brought aboutby spherical aberration, an aspherical lens is used.

4 [ aspherical lens ] Photographic lenses are generally constructed of several single lens elements, all of which, unless otherwise specified, have spherical surfaces. Because all surfaces are spherical, it becomes especially difficult to correct spherical aberration in large-aperture lenses and distortion in super-wide-angle lenses. A special lens element with a surface curved with the ideal shape to correct these aberrations, i.e., a lens having a free-curved surface which is not spherical, is called an aspherical lens. The theory and usefulness of aspherical lenses have been known since the early days of lens making, but due to the extreme difficulty of actually processing and accurately measuring aspherical surfaces, practical aspherical lens manufacturing methods were not realized until fairly recently. The first SLR photographic lens to incorporate an aspherical lens was Canon's FD 55mm f/1.2AL released in March 1971. (Leica offered the 50mm f/1.2 Noctilux lens with aspherical surfaces for its rangefinder cameras many years before 1971.) Due to revolutionary advances in production technology since that time, Canon's current EF lens group makes abundant use of various aspherical lens types such as ground and polished glass aspherical lens elements, ultra-precision glass molded (GMo) aspherical lens elements, composite aspherical lens elements and replica aspherical lens elements.

5 [ aspherical lens ] lens with a curved, nonspherical surface. Used to reduce aberrations and enable a more compact lens size.

6 [ aspherical lens ] A lens with a curved, non-spherical surface. Used to reduce aberrations and enable a more compact lens size. Aspherical lenses minimize coma and other types of lens aberrations, even when used at the widest aperture. They are particularly useful in correcting distortion in wide-angle lenses and help contribute to a lighter, more compact design by reducing the number of standard (spherical) elements necessary. Aspherical lens elements correct these distortions by continuously changing the refractive index from the center of the lens.

7 [ aspherical surface ] lens surface with more than one radius of curvature, i.e. the surface does not form part of a sphere.

8 [ aspherical surface ] An Aspherical lens surface possesses more than one radius of curvature, which allows for the correction of lens aberrations that are common in simpler lens designs. Sharper definition toward the edges of an image is the most common benefit of a lens containing aspheric elements. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/optical-anomalies-and-lens-corrections-explained Optical Anomalies and Lens Corrections Explained.


aspherical, as, asph

A lens with an aspherical lens element in which at least one of the surfaces is not a portion of a sphere. Aspherical lens elements are most often used in wide angle lenses to reduce spherical aberration where non-axial rays of light focus in different points and blur the image.

Wex Photographyc


1 [ assemblage ] A three-dimensional composition made from a variety of traditionally non-artistic materials and objects.

2 [ assemblage art ] Modern form consisting of objects collected and assembled together; the components are pre-formed, not made by the artist, and not intended originally as 'art material'.


assembly printing

method of printing using image separations. Yellow, magenta, and cyan films are stacked to make a final, full color print.

ProFotos Education Glossary

asset management

Managing, tracking, and storing data throughout the entire digital intermediate process.

Kodak cine


definite OK to take photos for a specific client with mutual understanding as to the provisions and terms involved.

ProFotos Education Glossary

assistant art director

1 [ assistant art director ] An assistant to the art director.

2 [ assistant camera ] AKA: Assistant Camera Operator, First Assistant Cameraman, 1st Assistant Cameraman, 1st Assistant Camera, Assistant Cameraman, Camera Assistant A member of the camera crew who assists the camera operator. This person is responsible for the maintenance and care of the camera, as well as preparing dope sheets. In smaller camera crews, they may also perform the duties of clapper-loader and/or a focus puller. See also additional camera.

3 [ assistant director ] AKA: AD, First Assistant Director, 1st Assistant Director, 2nd Assistant Director An assistant director's duties include tracking the progress of filming versus the production schedule, and preparing call sheets. A First Assistant Director is responsible for the preparation of the shooting schedule and script breakdown used to plan the shooting of a film or television show. The AD works directly with the Director to manage of the minute to minute operations on the set during the process of filming, as well as co-ordinating the necessary communication of details of future operations as the filming progresses. Other duties include tracking the progress of filming versus the production schedule, observing all rules related to union crafts, labor contracts and location agreements, maintaining safety on the working set, and working with the Unit Manager to keep operational costs within the budgeted plan. A Second Assistant Director is responsible for information distribution and reporting, cast notification and preparations during the shooting process, recording of all data relative to the working hours of the crew and cast, management of the background cast (atmosphere or 'extras'), preparation of call sheets, production reports,and other documentation. When needed, the Second Assistant Director can assume the duties of the First Assistant Director on a temporary basis. Fictional Movie(s): Living in Oblivion (1995)

4 [ assistant film editor ] AKA: Assistant Picture Editor, Assistant Sound Editor, Assistant Editor, First Assistant Editor, Second Assistant Editor, Apprentice Editor Editing room crewmember responsible for providing any and all required logistical assistance to the editor(s). Duties vary, depending on whether the assistant is working with a picture or sound editor and whether the show is being edited on film or on a non-linear editing system. On a film-edited show, assistant picture editors will, during production: liase with the film lab and sound transfer facility regarding the processing of dailies; leader, sync and edgecode the dailies rolls; coordinate and take notes during dailies screenings; organize and maintain camera reports, sound reports, script notes, and lined script pages from the set, as well as lab reports and sound transfer reports; log all dailies footage; and reorganize footage for editing, if necessary. Ongoing, and during post-production, they will: reconstitute trims; locate and pull trims requested by the editor; check sync, clean, measure, re-splice, and add change-over marks to cut reels; coordinate screenings of cut work; take notes during screenings. Once the sound department begins work, the assistants produce change sheets detailing each day's changes to the workprint and production track and send them, along with any necessary duplicate trims, to the sound department. Assistants may be permitted by the editor to do some creative work, such as commenting on the editor's work; cutting temporary ('temp') sound effects and music into the track; and sometimes even editing scenes. After picture lock, the assistant: oversees the creation of optical effects such as fades, dissolves, etc. and cuts them into the workprint; continues to work with the sound department as necessary; and in some cases oversees the final stages of post-production, all the way through sound mix, negative conforming, and the production of final prints. The assistant editor chain of command consists of the First Assistant Editor(s), who bears the most responsibility for the smooth performance of the assistant team; the Second Assistant Editor(s); and the Apprentice Editor(s).

5 [ assistant production manager ] AKA: Assistant Production Co-Ordinator An assistant to the production co-ordinator. See also production secretary.


associate producer

An individual who performs a limited number of producing functions delegated to her/him by a producer, under the direct supervision and control of that producer. The term may also refer to a person who would qualify as an executive producer of a project, but for the fact that (s)he acts on behalf of a production company which is subordinate to another one on that project. See also co-producer and line producer.

imdb Movie Terminology

association internationale du film d'animation

1 [ association internationale du film d'animation ] AKA: ASIFA, International Animation Association ASIFA was founded in 1960 in France, chartered under UNESCO, as a membership organization devoted to the encouragement and dissemination of film animation as an art and communication form. On the web: International Home Page

2 [ association of film commissioners international ] AKA: AFCI WWW: http://www.afci.org A non-profit educational organization founded in 1975 to serve the needs of on-location film, television and commercial production.

3 [ association of independent video and filmmakers ] On the web: International Home Page A membership organization serving local and international film and videomakers—from documentarians and experimental artists to makers of narrative features

4 [ association of motion picture and television producers ] AKA: AMPTP

5 [ association of motion picture sound ] AKA: AMPS A UK-based organization whose aims are to promote and encourage the science, technology and creative application of all aspects of motion picture sound recording and reproduction, and to promote and enhance the status and recognition of the contribution of those therein engaged. On the web: Official Home Page



1 [ astigmatism ] lens aberration making a single point light source impossible to focus as a true point.

2 [ astigmatism ] Aberatie a unui obiectiv ce consta din focalizarea in planuri diferite a razelor de lumina ce se afla in planuri perpendiculare.

3 [ astigmatism ] Aberatie a unui obiectiv ce consta din focalizarea in planuri diferite a razelor de lumina ce se afla in planuri perpendiculare.

4 [ astigmatism ] One of Seidel's five aberrations. Astigmatism is an aberration that causes points to blur, degrading sharpness. It can be reduced but not eliminated by stopping down the lens.



Astrophotography is the specialized type of photography done of the night sky, stars, planets, and other celestial objects. Lunar and Solar eclipses as well as star trails also fall under Astrophotography. Specialized equipment may be necessary in photographing certain celestial subjects like telescopes, solar filters, etc.

Nikon Grossary

asymmetric digital subscriber line (adsl)

A high speed Internet connection that is many times faster than a normal modem. It allows your normal or digital phone line to be used, but you need additional hardware installed to connect to the service. Some telecom exchanges also need to be set.



1 [ ata ] term used to describe a camera, which supports the electrical interface standard, defined by the PC Card Association (formerly PCMCIA), known as ATA (AT Attachment). This is the mobile computing equivalent of the IDE standard for desktop computers.

2 [ ata rated case ] Strong enough to be shipped by common carrier (freight lines, plane, FedEx, etc.), with metal reinforced corners, handles.


atelier populaire

French for “popular workshop,” the renegade print workshop established at Paris's Ecole des Beaux-Arts during nationwide protests in France in May 1968. The workshop created new images daily to respond to events.



1 [ atm ] See Adobe Type Manager

2 [ atm ] See Adobe Type Manager

2 | ATM

atmospheric perspective

alternative term for aerial perspective.

ProFotos Education Glossary


Denumire comerciala a unui revelator pentru granulatie foarte fina, produs de Agfa.



1 [ atsc ] Short for Advanced Television System Committee, which established such advanced systems as HDTV, or high definition television.

2 [ atsc ] ATSC is the abbreviation for Advanced Television Systems Committee, which developed a set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks.

2 | ATSC


Apple's advanced typographical system. Also called Apple Advanced Typography.

Font Forge Glossary


1 [ attachment ] A file sent along with an e-mail message so that it can be viewed or saved by the recipient

2 [ attachment ] A file that is sent with an email. Sending an image file as an attachment is a common way of transmitting a digital photograph via an email.



Reduction in strength of light, electrical signal, usually because of absorption or scattering.

canon glossary us


1 [ attenuator ] For audio signals, an electronic device that reduces their strength.

2 [ attenuator (optical) ] A continuously graduated color or Neutral-Density camera filter used to tame snow, enrich sunsets, and perform Absorption magic more subtly than can be done with a Graduated Filter.


attributes of light

Every source has five main attributes that affect the quality of light emitted and the overall lighting-look: 1) Hard or Soft (or in between); 2) Intensity (the amount of light); 3) Direction (in relation to the lens/subject axis); 4) Color (of light emitted); and 5) Beam pattern (the Beam Angle, shape, and any shadow patterns). All but color are affected by the light's Size and Distance, which may also be considered attributes.

Tiffan edu Glossary


(Advanced Technology eXtra) acronim folosit de Tokina pentru obiectivele de cea mai inalta clasa, care integreaza ultimele noutati si perfectionari ale companiei.


audible noise

Noise emitted by projector, with lower dB rating meaning less noise generated. Very soft whisper is about 30 dB.

canon glossary us


1 [ audio ] Almost all digital cameras can record audio to go along with their video-capture abilities. Depending on the make and model of the camera, sound can be recorded in monaural or in stereo using the camera’s built-in microphone(s), or via higher-fidelity microphones that plug into the camera’s audio jack. Even for still images, most cameras can record short audio annotations that are embedded into the image file.

2 [ audio ] Sound converted into an electrical signal. Also, the sound component of a TV broadcast or video.

3 [ audio level ] The relative volume or loudness of a sound signal. For example, raising or lowering a recorder s audio level sets a recording s loudness.

4 [ audio limiter ] An automatic control which reduces recording volume if the sound level goes too high. It has no effect on lower or middle sound ranges of the recording.

5 [ audio meter ] A display device showing the relative volume or loudness of an audio signal.

6 [ audio mixer ] A device for combining audio/sound signals-for example, from several microphones-into one audio signal.

7 [ audio monitor ] A device allowing a sound signal to be listened to and its quality checked. Also: a VCR switch for selecting which channel is fed to headphones or perhaps the VCR s audio output.

8 [ audio monitoring ] Using a visual display or auditory (using headphones) to monitor audio levels. This helps keep audio levels at their optimum level. It also helps to minimize degradation. Volume Unit (VU Meter) and Peak Program (PPM Meter) are common types of meters used to measure audio levels. They can be hardware or software based; regardless of type, the scale and ballistics of the meter are important characteristics.



materials such as filmstrips, motion pictures and overhead transparencies which use audio backup for visual material.

ProFotos Education Glossary

australian screen directors association

1 [ australian screen directors association ] AKA: ASDA The Australian Screen Directors Association (ASDA) is an industry association representing the interests of film and television directors, documentary filmmakers, animators and independent producers throughout Australia. On the web: Official Home Page

2 [ australian screen editors ] AKA: ASE A cultural, professional and educational organisation, dedicated to the pursuit and recognition of excellence in the arts, sciences and technology of motion picture film and televisual post-production. It aims to promote, improve and protect the role of editor as an essential and significant contributor to all screen productions.

3 [ australian screen editors ] AKA: ASE A cultural, professional and educational organisation, dedicated to the pursuit and recognition of excellence in the arts, sciences and technology of motion picture film and televisual post-production. It aims to promote, improve and protect the role of editor as an essential and significant contributor to all screen productions.

4 [ australian society of cinematographers ] AKA: ACS Use of the abbreviation after a name indicates that the person is a member of the ACS. On the web: Official Home Page



1 [ auteur ] A filmmaker, generally a director, who creates a body of work with a unified sensibility that reveals, through the interplay of themes and styles, a personal worldview. The term originated with François Truffaut, whose 1954 essay 'Une certaine tendence du cinéma français' put forth the idea that the most interesting films were those that functioned as a medium of personal expression--and therefore bore the distinctive imprint of their 'author.' American critic Andrew Sarris later translated and expanded this idea into an 'auteur theory,' which proposed an evaluation of films based on their context within the filmmaker's oeuvre, rather than for their technical proficiency or greater historical significance. The term 'auteur' later came to refer to any filmmaker who performed or was intimately involved in all aspects of the moviemaking process (writing, directing, producing, editing, etc.).

2 [ auteur (french for author) ] literally the director, who is regarded as the author of a film because he/she has primary control and responsibility for the final product. The Auteur theory insists that a film be considered in terms of the entire canon of a director and that each Auteur earns that title by displaying a unique cinematic style.



1 [ auto ] De regula semnifica expunere automata (AE), dar poate insemna si mod de operare complet automat (AE + AF).

2 [ auto ] De regula semnifica expunere automata (AE), dar poate însemna si mod de operare complet automat (AE + AF).

3 [ auto area af ] Auto Area AF is one of Nikon's AF Area Modes. Auto Area AF uses color information and special face recognition algorithms to automatically focus on an individual's face, which is extremely helpful when there's simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.

4 [ auto balance ] System detecting errors in color balance in picture s black and white areas, automatically adjusting black and white levels of red and blue signals for correction.

5 [ auto distortion control ] When you take pictures underwater, the water itself sometimes causes distortion to occur. The Auto Distortion Control, available on select cameras, automatically compensates for this.

6 [ auto exposure ] E) – The aperture and shutter speed are automatically determined for exposure.

7 [ auto exposure ] In-camera system which sets the proper exposure automatically, adjusting aperture, shutter speed, and sometimes ISO speed, firing the flash if necessary.

8 [ auto exposure (ae) ] In Auto Exposure mode, the camera automatically adjusts the shutter speed and aperture for the optimum exposure for the scene being photographed.

9 [ auto exposure compensation (aec) ] Corectie (facuta de fotograf) a expunerii calculate automat de aparatul foto: +1EV inseamna plus un stop, -2EV - minus doua stopuri, etc...

10 [ auto exposure or autoexposure ] Shutter speed and aperture are set automatically by the camera based on its interpretation of the camera's exposure meter readings. Some high-end cameras employ highly-sophisticated, computerized autoexposure systems that seem to be almost foolproof, whereas most consumer cameras' autoexposure systems work best in average lighting situations.

11 [ auto focus ] F) – The ability of a camera lens to automatically find a point of focus.

12 [ auto fp high-speed sync ] Auto FP High Speed Sync is a flash mode used for fill-flash photography under brightly lit conditions. It will fill in and open up shadowed areas in order to portray the greatest detail in subjects. It's also ideal when using wide aperture lenses, and because it allows up to the fastest shutter speeds on compatible Nikon DSLRs, it is often used for action-stopping sports photography. And for portraits, you can open up your lenses to their full aperture in order to isolate your subject against a blurred background without overexposing the image. When Auto FP High Speed Sync is selected, the flash will fire for the duration of the shutter curtain's travel, thus syncing with the camera's shutter speed when that speed is set higher than the camera's normal sync speed.

13 [ auto iso ] Auto ISO or ISO Auto is a feature that allows you to tell the camera to choose which ISO to use if certain parameters are met. For instance, when there is enough light to use ISO 100, the camera does so, but when it would have to use too slow a shutter speed, then it automatically increases the ISO to 200 and maintains a high enough shutter speed to avoid camera shake. Some Nikon digital cameras let you choose from a range that you're willing to shoot within, such as ISO 400 – 800.

14 [ auto lighting optimizer ] Image-quality tool handling tricky lighting conditions, lightening dark areas of a scene, if necessary, while ensuring bright areas maintain tonal detail, automatically adjusts contrast and brightness, maintaining highlight details.

15 [ auto slow sync ] Auto Slow Sync is a flash mode that is used when shooting portraits at night.

16 [ auto slow sync red eye ] Auto Slow Sync Red-Eye is a flash mode that combines Red-Eye reduction with Slow Sync. It is used when shooting portraits against a backdrop of night scenery. Use of a tripod is suggested, to prevent blurring caused by camera shake.

17 [ auto white balance ] Some video cameras automatically adjust the relative proportion of red, blue, and green in order to neutralize color variations from one light source to another. See: White Balance for more colorful details.

18 [ auto white balance ] In Nikon D-SLRs, Auto White Balance combines with the Scene Recognition System to analyze each scene's light sources, cross-referencing this information with 5,000 actual picture data examples from over 20,000 images in the camera's onboard white balance database. A digital camera's white balance setting compensates for the different colors of various light sources—fluorescent, which has a green cast, or a cooler-than-daylight light balance; incandescent, which has a yellow or a warmer-than-daylight white balance; and daylight—so that white objects in a scene appear white regardless of the color temperature (the warmth or coolness) of the light source. Even under mixed lighting or difficult light sources like mercury vapor lights, auto white balance technology calculates an ideal white balance for remarkably faithful colors. For a thorough understanding of white balance and how it influences the final image, read Lindsay Silverman's article Setting White Balance.



1 [ auto-bracketing ] A series of photos taken rapidly by the camera each giving a slightly different auto exposure.

2 [ auto-bracketing ] Occurs when your camera is set to automatically bracket exposures for a series of images when you press the shutter release one time.



1 [ auto-exposure ] Calculare automata a expunerii, facilitate disponibila in majoritatea aparatelor fotografice moderne.

2 [ auto-exposure ] Calculare automata a expunerii, facilitate disponibila in majoritatea aparatelor fotografice moderne.

3 [ auto-exposure compensation: +2ev ] Corectie a expunerii calculate automat de aparatul foto. 1EV înseamna plus un stop, 2EV - plus doua stopuri, etc...


auto-servo af

In AF-A or Auto-servo AF, the camera automatically selects Single-servo autofocus if the subject is stationary or Continuous-servo AF if the subject is moving. The shutter will only be released (snap a photo) if the camera is able to focus.

Nikon Grossary

auto-stereoscopic 3d

Uses lenticular lenses or parallel barrier technologies to show stereo images without using glasses. Has limitations in image resolution, viewing area.

canon glossary us


1 [ autochrome ] Patented in 1904 by Auguste and Louis Lumiere and manufactured from 1907, the Autochrome process was the first practical system of colour photography using dyed starch grains and a panchromatic emulsion to produce colourtransparencies with a distinctive colour palette. Production ceased in the 1930s.

2 [ autochrome ] early commercial color photography process in which the principles of additive color synthesis were applied.

3 [ autochrome ] Early colour transparency system, using a mosaic of additive colour filters.

4 [ autochrome ] Autochrome glass plates were the first successful natural color photographic plates. They were invented and produced by the Lumiere brothers (Louis and Auguste) of Lyons, France, who patented the process in 1904, and introduced them at the Photo Club de Paris on June 10, 1907.



Dispozitiv mecanic de orologerie sau electronic care permite declansarea obturatorului cu o intarziere programata (de regula 2 sau 10 secunde). Utilizat mai ales in fotografia de autoportret sau cand se doreste reducerea tremuraturilor la declansare.



Motor alimentat din surse proprii, ce se ataseaza pe anumite camere foto cu film si care asigura derularea automata si rapida a filmului si armarea declansatorului, imediat dupa poza. autoderulatorul permite fotografia in rafala cu o cadenta de 3, 4 sau mai multe cadre / sec.


autoexposure bracketing:

1 [ autoexposure bracketing: ] AutoExposure Bracketing performs automatic exposure bracketing with varied shutter speedand/or aperture.

2 [ autoexposure lock: ] A push-button, switch, or lever that locks in exposure after the initial reading has been made, regardless of a change in camera position or light conditions after the lock is activated. Release of the lock button returns the exposure system to normal. Useful for making highlight or shadow readings of select portions of the frame, and an essential feature for critical exposure control with automated cameras.



1 [ autoexposure: ] A method of exposure where aperture and shutter speed settings are first read, then set, by the camera s exposure system. Various autoexposure modes allow for customization or biasing the readings.

2 [ autoexposure: ] The system with which your camera automatically sets the lens aperture and shutter speed to get the correct amount of light to the film.



Flash mode in which the camera automatically decides whether or not flash is needed, turning the flash on in dim light and keeping it off in bright light. It's the default mode of most point-and-shoots.

Glossary of Photo Jargon for Travelers


A method of placing text in a PageMaker document in which text flows continuously into successive columns and pages. Additional pages will be created as needed.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


1 [ autofocus ] A facility in which a camera or camcorder automatically finds the best possible focus for the image.

2 [ autofocus ] The camera focuses automatically on the subject in the center of the viewfinder when you press the shutter release.

3 [ autofocus ] device used in certain cameras, projectors and enlargers that focuses the image automatically.

4 [ autofocus ] (autofocalizare) Sistem care permite focalizarea fara interventie manuala. In general, pe langa aparatul foto, obiectivul trebuie si el sa suporte aceasta functie.

5 [ autofocus ] A system that automatically focuses the camera lens

6 [ autofocus ] Camera and lens work together to deliver proper focus, automatically, without manual adjustment. Different focusing modes adjust the point of focus and overcome focusing problems, such as moving subjects (e.g. AI Servo for predictive AF).

7 [ autofocus ] Sistem care permite focalizarea fara interventie manuala. In general, pe lânga aparatul foto, obiectivul trebuie si el sa suporte aceasta functie.

8 [ autofocus ] The ability of the camera and lens to keep the subject in focus during an exposure. Autofocus can be Continuous, meaning focus is maintained regardless of where it moves within the frame, or Single, meaning the point of focus is locked regardless of where the subject may move. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/how-focus-works How Focus Works.

9 [ autofocus ] Ability of a lens and camera to focus automatically on an object within its focusing sensors.

10 [ autofocus (af) ] System by which thecamera lens (most popular) or the camera body (only available in Contax AX) automaticallyfocuses the image of a selected part of the picture subject. The autofocus camerarevolution first popularised with the launch of Minolta's Maxxium. Currently, mostcurrent SLRs are autofocus based.

11 [ autofocus (af) ] The camera uses an infrared beam or the subject's contrast to measure the camera to subject distance and focuses the lens automatically

12 [ autofocus (af) ] A system of sensors and motors that allow lenses to obtain focus automatically; in some cameras, the system also allows the lens to maintain focus on a moving subject.



1 [ autofocus: ] A method of focusing where focusing distances are set automatically. In 35mm SLRs, a passive phase detection system that compares contrast and edge of subjects within the confines of the autofocus brackets in the viewfinder and automatically sets focusing distance on the lens. Autofocusing motors may be in the camera body or the lens itself. Active IR (infrared) autofocusing systems may also be in 35mm SLRs in the form of beams in dedicated autofocus flash units, or, in a few models, built into the camera itself. Commonly found in amateur lens/shutter cameras. These beams are emitted from the camera or flash, bounce off the subject, then return and set focusing range.

2 [ autofocus: ] Automatic focusing.


automated dialogue replacement

1 [ automated dialogue replacement ] AKA: Automatic Dialogue Replacement, ADR, Dialogue Looping, Dialog Looping, Looping The re-recording of dialogue by actors in a sound studio during post-production, usually performed to playback of edited picture in order to match lip movements on screen. ADR is frequently used to replace production track of poor quality (e.g., due to high levels of background noise) or to change the delivery or inflection of a line. ADR can also be used to insert new lines of dialogue which are conceived during editing, although such lines can only be placed against picture in which the face of the actor speaking is not visible. Fictional Movie(s): Postcards from the Edge (1990)

2 [ automated dialogue replacement editing ] AKA: Automatic Dialogue Replacement Editing, ADR Editing The process of editing sound during Automatic Dialogue Replacement.

3 [ automated dialogue replacement editor ] AKA:Automatic Dialogue Replacement Editor, ADR Editor The person who performs ADR Editing.

4 [ automated dialogue replacement mixer ] AKA:Automatic Dialogue Replacement Mixer, ADR Mixer The person who mixes the sound during Automated Dialogue Replacement.


automatic (aparat foto ~)

1 [ automatic (aparat foto ~) ] Aparat foto prevazut cu exponometru incorporat, care masoara lumina incidenta si ajusteaza automat diafragma si timpul de expunere, pentru o expunere corecta.

2 [ automatic aperture ] lens aperture mechanism that stops down to s preset size just as the shutter is fired, afterwards returning to the maximum aperture again for focusing and composing the next image.

3 [ automatic aperture ] An automatic aperture remains fully open until the shutter is released, at which time it closes down to the pre-set aperture size in order for the picture to be properly-exposed. An automatic lens has an automatic aperture.

4 [ automatic balanced fill-flash ] Nikon's TTL (through-the-lens) auto flash operation.

5 [ automatic camera ] A camera with a built-in exposure meter that automatically adjusts the lens opening, shutter speed, or both for proper exposure.

6 [ automatic camera ] A camera with a built-inexposure meter that automatically adjusts the lens opening, shutter speed, or both(program) for proper exposure.

7 [ automatic camera ] Camera that adjusts the aperture and shutter speed automatically using its built-in exposure meter.

8 [ automatic document feeder ] With fax machines, copiers, scanners, printers, this tray or attachment feeds paper into device one page at time.

9 [ automatic exposure ] The camera sets the shutter speed and aperture for the correct exposure according to the light.

10 [ automatic exposure ] A feature where the camera automatically adjusts the aperture or shutter speed or both for the proper exposure.

11 [ automatic exposure ] Automatic exposure controls on video cameras, for all their blessings, are subject to rapid, distracting brightness changes. Alternative: use it to set exposure, lock it out and make manual Stop changes, or allow the image temporarily to be dark or light. See: Through-the-Lens Metering.

12 [ automatic exposure ] Also known as 'Autoexposure,' (see above) this is a system in an autoexposure camera that meters the light and automatically adjusts the aperture and shutter speed settings for proper exposure.

13 [ automatic exposure (ae) ] With automatic exposure (AE) the camera's computer and metering system automatically select the aperture and shutter speed for a correct exposure.

14 [ automatic exposure bracketing ] A feature that sets the camera to take a series of pictures (usually three) at different exposure settings.

15 [ automatic exposure control ] system of exposure setting in a camera, in which the electric current produced or inhibited by the action of light on a photoelectric cell operates a mechanism that adjusts the aperture and/or the shutter speed automatically.

16 [ automatic flash ] A flash unit with a light-sensitive cell that determines the length of the flash for proper exposure by measuring the light reflected back from the subject

17 [ automatic flash ] Electronic flash unit that automatically adjusts flash duration and intensity based on flash-to-subject distance, providing correct exposure.

18 [ automatic focus ] The lens on the camera focuses automatically when the shutter is half pressed. The viewfinder normally has focussing points shown to assist the user in knowing what will be in focus.

19 [ automatic gain control (agc) ] Short for Auto Gain Control, for output signal consistency. Increases security camera signal strength when light levels decrease, caps it when light levels higher. A circuit designed to keep a desired output signal constant when the input signal strength varies, by changing the amplification (otherwise known as gain).

20 [ automatic iris ] lens diaphragm which is controlled by a mechanism in the camera body coupled to the shutter release.

21 [ automatic iris. ] Lens diaphragm which is controlled by a mechanism in the camera body coupled to theshutter release. The diaphragm closes to any preset value before the shutter opensand returns to the fully open position when the shutter closes.

22 [ automatic lens ] lens which remains at full aperture whatever working aperture is set, until the shutter is released. This allows optimum focusing, without affecting metering. Also referred to as Automatic aperture.

23 [ automatic lens ] A lens that remains open at its widest aperture until the shutter is released, regardless of the aperture setting. Such a lens facilitates focusing with through-the-lens (TTL) cameras since the maximum amount of light reaches the viewfinder. When the shutter is released, the aperture automatically stops down to its pre-set opening so that proper exposure is made, then returns to a wide-open position until the next time.

24 [ automatic paper sensing ] Printer s optical sensor reads unique media signature or detects paper type by measuring physical properties and compares them to signatures of other media types. Printer then optimizes setup for that specific type.

25 [ automatic two-sided printing ] Device prints on both sides of paper without manual intervention, i.e. user flipping paper over and refeeding into device.

26 [ automatic white balance or awb ] Occurs when a camera automatically determines and sets the correctwhite balance for a scene.



1 [ automatism ] The process of writing or creating art without conscious thought. The term was borrowed from physiology, which uses the term to denote involuntary processes that are not under conscious control, such as breathing. The Surrealists later applied to techniques of spontaneous writing, drawing, and painting.

2 [ automatism in art ] Drawing and painting method associated with Surrealism in which the artist does not consciously create but doodles, allowing the subconscious mind and virtually uncontrolled movement of the hand to produce an image.



1 [ autowinder ] film windon mechanism which moves the film on one frame each time the shutter is released.

2 [ autowinder ] Also known as 'Automatic Film Winder' - A camera mechanism that automatically advances the film to the first frame, then advances to the next frame when the shutter is released to take a picture, and usually also automatically rewinds the film into its cartridge when the last frame has been exposed.


autumn colors scene mode

This scene mode, available on select Nikon digital cameras, is designed to take vivid photographs of scenes with colorful red and yellow autumn leaves.

Nikon Grossary

auxiliary lens:

An add-on optical device that alters the focal length of the prime lens for close-up, telephoto, or other special effects photography. The close-up devices, for example, usually comes in +1, +2, and +3 powers the higher the number the greater the magnification.



1 [ av ] Mod de expunere cu prioritate de diafragma (engl. Aperture value - Canon, Pentax, Contax).

2 [ av ] Mod de expunere cu prioritate de diafragma (engl. Aperture value - Canon, Pentax, Contax).

3 [ av ] The Aperture value,usually refer to aperture settings.

4 [ av ] Aperture Value (See Aperture Priority)

5 [ av ] see Audiovisual.

6 [ av mode ] Abbreviation for Aperture-Priority AE mode, Camera setting where user controls which f/stop is used, and camera automatically selects shutter speed to deliver proper exposure.


available light

1 [ available light ] term applying to light normally occurring in a scene, not supplemented by illumination intended specifically for photography.

2 [ available light ] Light of almost any sort which exists and has not been introduced to record images. Its use is sometimes fast, cheap, and even beautiful. Tip: The more you understand lighting technique, the better prepared you will be to take advantage of the good stuff - when it is available. Before committing, what are the odds that it will last as long as your shooting will and that the mood is appropriate? Keep a few lights available - in case. Also see: Natural Light.

3 [ available light ] Whatever illumination is in a scene without addition of extra equipment (e.g. normal room lights without flash).

4 [ available light ] Existing light surrounding a subject; the light that is illuminating a scene without any additional light supplied by the photographer. 'Ambient light' and 'existing light' are two other terms that mean the same thing.

5 [ available light phobia ] The morbid fear of uncontrolled lighting situations.

6 [ available light: ] The light that s normal in a scene, although the term is generally used when the light level is low. Available light shooting usually involves fast film, low shutter speeds and apertures, and/or the use of a tripod.



1 [ avant-garde ] Artists whose work is ahead of that of most of their contemporaries; unconventional, experimental, innovative. Also descriptive of the work produced by such artists.

2 [ avant-garde ] French for “advanced guard,” this term is used in English to describe a group that is innovative, experimental, and inventive in its technique or ideology, particularly in the realms of culture, politics, and the arts.



Short for Advanced Video Coding, found in the MPEG-4 part 10 standard. Video compression standard agreed to by ITU and MPEG groups. Called H.264 by ITU, MPEG-4 by MPEG group, AVC by public.

canon glossary us


An H.264-compliant codec using only intra-frame compression. Used by Panasonic, for example, for its P2 cameras, with significantly more efficient compression than the DVCPRO HD codec.

canon glossary us

avc/h.264 (avchd)

Advanced Video Coding is a standard for video compression.

Nikon Grossary


Short for Advanced Video Codec High Definition, this is a specific version of a compressed MPEG-4 format (AVC/H.264)

canon glossary us

average e ttl flash metering

1 [ average e ttl flash metering ] Evaluative through the lens flash metering pattern that weights all metering segments equally.

2 [ average gradient ] A measure of contrast of a photographic image, representing the slope of a portion of a characteristic curve. The term that refers to a numerical means for indicating the contrast or the photographic image.

3 [ average metering ] Average metering takes all of the light values for a given scene—highlights, shadows, and mid-tones—and averages them together to establish an overall exposure. Average metering is best used for front-lit subjects under average lighting conditions. Backlit subjects tend to be silhouetted when metered in average mode. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/understanding-camera-metering-modes Understanding Camera Metering Modes.



1 [ averaging ] See Matrix Metering

2 [ averaging ] The light meter's arithmetic mean of all the light it gathers.



In light metering, where the light is read from most of the viewfinder frame then averaged to yield an overall, standard exposure for the scene. This setup works fine in normal lighting conditions, but may need some additional input when light is flat or contrasty.



1 [ avi ] Movie clip in Windows AVI format. A lot of digicams now have this feature for producing small video clips.

2 [ avi ] A video format used by Microsoft Windows®

3 [ avi ] Format de comprimare a unui videoclip (sub Windows).

4 [ avi ] Short for Audio Video Interleave, it is a digital format containing both audio and video in a compressed form.

5 [ avi ] AVI Stands for Audio Video Interleave, a multimedia format used to record video.

5 | AVI


Manufacturer of a popular non-linear editing system. Often used to refer to the system itself, as 'AVID editor'. Competitors include Lightworks and Apple's FinalCut Pro.

imdb Movie Terminology

aw (all weather)

Tratament special al articulatiilor si imbinarilor pentru etansarea la praf si la umezeala, utilizat de Pentax.



1 [ awb ] Automatic White Balance. Most digital cameras have this feature where the camera sets the white balance. Override is available in most DSLR’s.

2 [ awb ] See 'Automatic White Balance' above.

3 [ awb ('auto white balance') ] La camere digitale: ajustare automata a redarii culorilor prin care se evita dominantele de culoare ce pot apare in diverse conditii de iluminare (soare, cer acoperit, lumina tungsten, etc).

4 [ awb (auto white balance) ] An in-camera function that automatically adjusts the chromatic balance of the scene to a neutral setting, regardless of the color characteristics of the ambient light source. For more on this subject, see White Balance, below, as well as this explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/understanding-white-balance-and-color-temperature-digital-images Understanding White Balance and Color Temperature in Digital Images.Although AWB generally does an acceptable job of cleaning up the color balance of a scene, there are times when AWB should not be used. Examples of times you should avoid AWB are sunrise and sunset—such scenes would lose their warm qualities with the camera set to AWB. When capturing sunrises and sunsets, the camera should be set to Daylight to maintain the warm tonalities that make dawn and dusk so visually inviting.

5 [ awb (auto white balance) ] La camere digitale: ajustare automata a redarii culorilor prin care se evita dominantele de culoare ce pot apare in diverse conditii de iluminare (soare, cer acoperit, lumina tungsten, etc).


ax optic

1 [ ax optic ] Ax imaginar care uneste centrul imaginii, centrul optic al obiectivului, si centrul subiectului.

2 [ ax optic ] Ax imaginar care uneste centrul imaginii, centrul optic al obiectivului, si centrul subiectului.


axial or axis lighting

Illumination from the lens axis using light reflected from a partially mirrored glass angled 45 degrees in front of the lens. Used primarily for medical and scientific recording where access or shadows are a problem. Also see: Ring Flash.

Tiffan edu Glossary

axiala (iluminare)

Tip de iluminare in care sursa de luminaeste foarte apropiata de axul optic al obiectivului (de ex. blitzul incorporat) si prin care subiectul apare plat, fara umbre si fara relief.



1 [ axis ] (also called angle of stress) The axis is the angle at which contrast occurs, and is usually between vertical and a slightly back-slanted diagonal. It derives originally from the angle at which the stroke was made by pen or tool. To find the axis, extend a line along the thickest part of the stroke (or parallel to the thick stroke, through the thinnest areas); letters with bowls such as 'o' or 'd' are usually good letters to choose for this. If the letter is uniform in thickness, it has no axis (no angle of stress). Not to be confused with slope.

2 [ axis ] An imaginary line drawn from top to bottom of a glyphbisecting the upper and lower strokes is the axis. The slant of the axis (or lack thereof) often helps determine the type classification.

3 [ axis lighting ] light pointed at the subject from a position close to the lens.

4 [ axis of action ] In the continuity editing system, the 'Axis of Action' is an imaginary line that passes through the two main actors of a scene, defining the spatial relations of all the elements of the scene as being to the right or left. The camera is not supposed to cross the axis at a cut and thus reverse those spatial relations. Also called the '180° line.'

5 [ axis shift function ] Re-purposes lens-shift Image Stabilizer system allowing individual selection, maintenance of image center point for each camera. Small changes in convergence achieved without physically moving cameras.


azo dyes

compounds forming colors of great strength and purity. Used in camera filters and integral tripack dyebleach materials.

ProFotos Education Glossary


b (bulb)

1 [ b (bulb) ] letter on the shutter dial indicating that the shutter will stay open while the release is depressed.

2 [ b (bulb) ] At the B setting, the shutter remains open as long as the shutter release button remains fully depressed.

3 [ b (bulb) ] Timp lung de expunere, utilizat pentru fotografie de noapte. Obturatorul ramane deschis atata timp cat butonul de declansare este apasat.

4 [ b (bulb) ] A shutter speed dial setting that indicates that the shutter will remain open as long as the release button is depressed - also known as the 'B setting ' or 'Bulb' setting. The 'B' setting is used for time exposures.

5 [ b (bulb) setting ] A shutter-speed setting on an adjustable camera that allows for time exposures.When set on B, the shutter will stay open as long as the shutter release button remains depressed.

6 [ b (bulb) setting ] A shutter-speed setting on an adjustable camera that allows for time exposures. Whenset on B, the shutter will stay open as long as the shutter release button remainsdepressed. Another similar option is the ''T'' setting, where it never drainsthe battery power on automatic camera body.

7 [ b and w ] >. Abbreviation for Black and White.

8 [ b lights, the two bs ] Back Light and Background Light are frequently confused. Both begin with back, both are used to Separate Planes and imply Depth, and both are tricky to Motivate so that they appear realistic. Each, however, points in a different direction. Tip: Discretion may dictate that only one or, on occasion, neither is really needed.To paraphrase Shakespeare, in a rather different context: Two B or not two B, that is the question.

9 [ b or bulb: ] A shutter setting that indicates that the shutter will remain open for as long as the shutter release is pressed. The term originated with the rubber air shutter bulbs used to operate shutters in the old days. B settings are generally used in nighttime and time/motion study photography.

10 [ b setting ] A camera mode, also known as Bulb or Brief, that keeps the shutter open for as long as the shutter release is pressed. This is useful for recording night scenes, fireworks and light or star trails.

11 [ b w ] Short for Black and White, i.e. no colour, using only grey tones.

12 [ b wind ] When you hold a roll of 16 mm or other single-perf film so that the film leaves the roll from the top and toward the right; the perforations will be along the edge away from the observer.

12 | B WIND


1 [ b&w ] Black and white

2 [ b&w ] Black and white. Also appears as 'B and W' and 'B/W.'

2 | B&W


Coordonatele albastru-galben in spatiul CIE L*a*b*; o valoare pozitiva pentru b semnifica mai mult galben, o valoare negativa, mai mult albastru.



Bi-directional (B) frames are encoded based on an interpolation from I- and P-frames that come before and after them. B-frames require little space, but can take longer to decompress because they're reliant on frames that may be reliant on other frames. A Group of Pictures (GOP) can begin with a B-frame, but can't end with one.

Nikon Grossary


A low-budget, second tier movie, frequently the 2nd movie in a double-feature billing. B-films were cheaper for studios because they did not involve the most highly paid actors or costly sets, and were popular with theater owners because they were less expensive to bring into their theaters while still able to draw revenue.

imdb Movie Terminology


Originally film from a second camera (camera B) shooting a different perspective from the main camera (camera A) in a documentary or interview situation, with footage from the B camera (B-roll, B roll, Broll) edited into the main footage.

canon glossary us


see A-Wind.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


B.S. refers to the British Standard for film speed measurement. BSI refers to the British Standards Institute which determined the B.S. system. It employed the same film speed numbering system as the American Standards Association- ASA. Both are now defunct, having been replaced by ISO for rating of the sensitivity of film, photographic materials and a digital camera's exposure sensitivity.

Photo Tips


1 [ b/w ] Alb-negru (engl. Black&White).

2 [ b/w ] Alb-negru (engl. Black&White).

2 | B/W

baby (spot)

1 [ baby (spot) ] A 500-to-1,000w Fresnel light.

2 [ baby boom ] A small, microphone boom stand.



Mythological scene popular in paintings of the Renaissance and 17th century depicting the revels of Bacchus, Roman god of wine.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ back ] The removable part of a medium or large-format camera that holds the film or the digital recording surface. 'Backs' are attached to the back of the camera, hence their name. They shield the sensor or film from light except when exposed in the camera.

2 [ back arrow ] The back button to return to the previous screen you were on, when using the COOLPIX S800c or S810c digital cameras.

3 [ back focus ] The distance between the image sensor and the rear element of the lens, with lens mounted on the camera and focused at infinity. This distance must remain constant with zoom lenses to ensure constant subject focus during zooming.

4 [ back focus ] distance between the back surface of the lens and the image plane, when the lens is focused at infinity.

5 [ back focus ] Back focal distance, meaning the distance from the tip of the lens' furthest rear surface to the film/image sensor surface where the image is focused.

6 [ back light ] Back Light separates subject from background, saints from sinners, and one pro from another. Angle: toward the lens from above and behind the subject, or above, behind, and slightly to the side of it, high enough to cut lens Flare. It is especially helpful for video images that may suffer loss-of-edge contrast. Sins: confusing this source withBackground Light, and, for Motivation purists, using it at all. Tip: Smoke, steam, and other Translucent subjects adore Back Light of almost any color.

7 [ back light addiction ] The uncontrollable urge to smother subjects under deadly doses of Back Light.

8 [ back light phobia ] The unreasonable fear of violating the Motivation principle by using even tiny quantities of the substance.

9 [ back light scene mode ] Uses the flash to illuminate your subject that would otherwise be silhouetted by strong light from behind.

10 [ back lit ] Meaning the subject is lit from behind which can cause underexposing. Is also used for portrait photography for special effects and bringing catchlights to the hair.

11 [ back lit ] The subject is heavily lit from behind which generally causes it to be underexposed

12 [ back matter ] Material, such as indices or appendices, that comes after the main text. Also called 'end matter'.

13 [ back matter ] The book information placed after the text copy; includes index, glossary, bibliography, and appendix.

14 [ back printing ] information printed on the back of a picture by the photofinisher. The system standard requires the printing of frame number, film cassette number and processing date automatically on the back of each Advanced Photo System print.

15 [ back projection ] projection system often used to create location backgrounds in the studio.

16 [ back projection ] AKA: Rear Projection A photographic technique whereby live action is filmed in front of a screen which the background action is projected on. Originally used for scenes occurring in vehicles. Contrast this with a matte shot. Fictional Movie(s): Postcards from the Edge (1990)

17 [ back projection ] Projection, usually of a transparency, onto the rear of a translucent screen.



1 [ back-printing ] Date tiparite pe spatele unei fotografii. In mod standard sunt imprimate: numarul cadrului, numarul casetei de film si data prelucarii; pot fi adaugate date suplimentare (titlu, data efectuarii cadrului, etc.).

2 [ back-printing ] Information printedon the back of a picture by the photofinisher. The system standard requires the printingof frame number, film cassette number and processing date automatically on the backof each Advanced Photo System print; may also include more detailed information,such as customized titles and time and date of picture-taking.



1 [ back-up ] A safety precaution against losing precious image or other electronic data. You can back-up one image file or an entire computer's worth of data. Back-up options include CDs/DVDs, external hard disk drives, and online storage sites such as Nikon Image Space Nikonimagespace.com website. If the original file(s) are lost or corrupted, you can restore them with a back-up copy.

2 [ back-up or backup ] A safety measure that involves making a copy of a computer file so that the data is available to be restored in the event that the original becomes lost, corrupted or damaged. The file that's backed up may be a single image, a file folder filled with images or documents, or an entire computer drive.



1 [ backdrop ] The background in a studio.

2 [ backdrop lighting ] The even illumination of a painted or photographic background or backing, seen through the windows or doors beyond a set.



1 [ background ] The part of the scene the appears behind the principal subject of the picture.

2 [ background ] Scene in painting which provides setting for main figures or design; sometimes used synonymously with ground.

3 [ background ] The area of an artwork that appears farthest away from the viewer; also, the area against which a figure or scene is placed.

4 [ background ] The part of the scenethe appears behind the principal subject of the picture. The sharpness of the backgroundcan be influenced by apertures and shuttle set. In the flash mode, bulb setting usuallyis set for absorbing more ambience light (background information), so the end resultof the exposure won't be pitch dark.

5 [ background ] The area within the viewfinder that is behind the subject of a photograph.

6 [ background ] The part of a scene that appears to be furthest from the viewer, behind objects in the foreground.

7 [ background ] area shown behind the main subject in a picture.

8 [ background ] General term for anything behind the main subject in a photograph.

9 [ background artist ] AKA: Scenic Artist, Backgrounds A person responsible for designing or constructing the art placed at the rear of a set. See also matte artist.

10 [ background density ] density of any selection of a negative or print on which there is no image. Also referred to as Fog level.

11 [ background light, set light ] Reveals the character of the background and helps separate it from the subject. Angle: toward the back-ground, usually from the side and high enough to avoid Glare and subject or microphone shadows. Tip: Avoid overlit backgrounds except for High Key, limbo, and special effects.

12 [ background loading ] While the foreground task is running, other material is loaded into the system in the background. With a nonlinear editor, for example, when the first job is completed, the next one is ready to be worked on.

13 [ background music- ] Music accompanying action on the screen, but coming from no discernible source within the film.

14 [ background task ] With one program running in the foreground, a second is running at the same time in the background. Can be time saving, but requires significant computing power, otherwise neither task runs well.



The portion of a scene that sits behind the main, foreground subject. The background can be made sharp or unsharp through the use of selective focusing techniques and depth of field manipulation.



1 [ backing ] Coating: (e.g. anti-abrasion coating, anti-curl, or remjet backing) applied to the base side of the film to improve characteristics and performance.

2 [ backing ] dark coating, normally on the back of a film, but sometimes between emulsion and base, to reduce halation. The backing dye disappears during processing.



When camera s pan-tilt head cannot stop instantaneously. Measured in degrees. Usually caused by looseness in gears, pulleys, etc. Renders preset PTZ surveillance cameras ineffectual.

canon glossary us


1 [ backlight ] The illumination for a colour LCD display on digital cameras or phones.

2 [ backlight ] Light, either ambient or added, coming from behind the subject towards the camera. Also: a camera control which adjusts exposure for backlit subjects to prevent subject silhouetting.

3 [ backlight compensation ] A function on many cameras that avoids underexposure when the subject is backlit by a light that is bright enough to mislead the camera's normal exposure reading.

4 [ backlight compensation: ] Adjustment of exposure to prevent the subject from turning out too dark when light is coming from behind it.

5 [ backlight control ] Override of the camera's auto-exposure setting that increases the exposure by between one and two stops. Use this mode to prevent a silhouette when taking photos while the light is behind the subject.

6 [ backlight correction ] Tehnologie folosita de software-ul scannerelor Canon prin care se analizeaza imaginile luate in contralumina si care ajusteaza contrastul si luminozitatea globala si nivelul de negru in zonele care necesita corectare.



Light coming from behind the subject. When light from behind is the main source, the subject is said to be backlit.

Glossary of Photo Jargon for Travelers


1 [ backlighting ] Describes lighting from a source behind the subject. It is usually used in conjunction with other lights, but by itself it can separate the subject from a dark background or create a halo effect around it.

2 [ backlighting ] Light coming from behind the subject, toward the camera lens, so that the subject stands out vividly against the background. Sometimes produces a silhouette effect.

3 [ backlighting ] light coming from behind the subject.

4 [ backlighting ] Light coming from behindthe subject, toward the camera lens, so that the subject stands out vividly againstthe background. Sometimes produces a silhouette effect. Always use something (a hand,a lens shade to avoid the light falls onto the lens - to avoid lens flares).

5 [ backlighting ] The main source of light is behind the subject, silhouetting it, and directed toward the camera.

6 [ backlighting ] Lighting that illuminates the subject from a position opposite the position of the camera.

7 [ backlighting (lighting design) ] The main source of light is behind the subject, silhouetting it, and directed toward the camera.

8 [ backlighting or back-lighting ] Light directed at the subject from behind the subject. A backlit subject is darker than one photographed under frontal or side lighting, and may exhibit a rim of light (seeRim lighting) on the subject's edges.


backlighting, backlit

Illumination of a subject from the back. Usually the subject is dark on a bright background.

DXO Glossary


From camera position, light that comes from behind the subject. Usually, a backlit main subject will be underexposed unless the metering system is set to read selectively off the subject, or exposure on a center-weighted meter is compensated accordingly. See also fill-flash. Extreme backlighting can be exploited to create silhouettes.


backlit imaging sensor

A camera imaging device design with the back-- and therefore the light receptors -- turned to face the light, delivering greater sensitivity. Control device, panel, etc., illuminated from behind.

canon glossary us


AKA: Back lot A large, undeveloped area on studio property used for constructing large open-air sets or for filming wilderness scenes.

imdb Movie Terminology


1 [ backscatter ] An underwater photography term that refers to suspended particles in water that are illuminated, and therefore captured on an image sensor or on film as a cloud or scattering of light dots, when using a flash underwaternear the lens.

2 [ backscatter ] Refers to the effect seen when shooting underwater and the fine suspended particles in the water are illuminated by flash lighting close to the camera's lens, and show up on film or the digital image.


backside illuminated sensor

– Often abbreviated as BI or BSI, it's a type of image sensor designed to absorb more light in dim conditions. BSI is usually found in smaller sensors, such as those in some Nikon and Samsung mirrorless cameras, Sony point-and-shoot cameras and various smartphones, such as newer Apple iPhone and Samsung Galaxy S models.

Tom`s Guide


Characters that lean to the left, as opposed to italic or slanted characters that lean to the right.

Font Shop Glosary


Rewinding film in the camera to shoot a Double Exposure.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms

bad break

Refers to widows or orphans in text copy, or a break that does not make sense of the phrasing of a line of copy, causing awkward reading.

ProximaSoftware Glossary

bag bellows

1 [ bag bellows ] short flexible sleeve used on large format cameras in place of normal bellows when short focal length lenses are employed.

2 [ bag bellows ] Bag-shaped bellows that are used to allow unrestricted camera movements with a wide-angle lens attached to a large-format view camera.


baie de stopare

1 [ baie de stopare ] Etapa intermediara intre developare si fixare, cu rolul de a intrerupe actiunea chimica a revelatorului; constituita dintr-o solutie cu pH acid.

2 [ baie de stopare ] Etapa intermediara intre developare si fixare, cu rolul de a întrerupe actiunea chimica a revelatorului; constituita dintr-o solutie cu pH acid.



1 [ balance ] Placement of colors, light and dark masses, or large and small objects in a picture to create harmony and equilibrium.

2 [ balance ] Placement of colors,light and dark masses, or large and small objects in a picture to create harmonyand equilibrium. Description applied to colour films to indicate their ability toproduce acceptable colour response in various types of lighting. The films normallyavailable are balanced for daylight (550~6000K photo lamps (3400K) or studio lamps(3200K).

3 [ balance ] Compositional harmony of a scene based on the placement of elements of different sizes, shapes and colors.

4 [ balance ] placement of colors, light and dark masses, or large and small objects in a picture to create harmony and equilibrium.

5 [ balance stripe ] A second stripe found on 35mm stripe mag stock and super-8 sound film to prevent warping.


balanced composition

1 [ balanced composition ] An image composed to create a harmonious distribution or arrangement of objects, tones or patterns.

2 [ balanced line ] Audio cable with three wires, two of which are shielded. The corresponding connector has three prongs (terminals).


balancedfill-flash :

1 [ balancedfill-flash : ] A type of TTL auto flash operation which uses the camera's exposuremeter to control ambient light exposure settings, integrated with flash exposurecontrol. That is, flash output level is automatically compensated to balance withambient light, resulting in a better exposure for both subject and background.

2 [ balancedfill-flash operation ] A flashphotography technique that balances flash illumination with the scene's ambient light.This automatic operation utilizes the some camera's Automatic Balanced Fill FlashSystem with TTL Multi Sensor and a compatible dedicated TTL Speedlight.


ball and socket

1 [ ball and socket ] swiveling mount used to attach a camera to a tripod, consisting of a large ball joint designed to move in a cup.

2 [ ball bearing ] A type of bearing designed to reduce friction, a force that resists motion between moving parts.

3 [ ball terminal ] A terminal that resolves into circular shape.



1 [ ballast ] A device used to start and operate Discharge Lamps. It may include a Dimmer.

2 [ ballast (electrical ballast) ] A device limiting the amount of current in a light s electrical circuit. May control LEDs, HMIs, fluorescent tubes, etc.


ballistic photography

photography of weapons, ammunition and projectiles usually used for analysis.

ProFotos Education Glossary

balsam de canada

Masa cleioasa de culoare usor galbuie care se foloseste pentru liprea lentilelor din structura unui obiectiv, deoarece are indice de refractie (1,5) apropiat de cel al sticlei (1,5 - 1,65) si pierderi luminoase prin absorbtie practic nule.


balt (baltic)

(appended to a font or volume name) Language support; includes all necessary accents and characters for Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian (also included in CE). The supported languages may vary a little depending on the foundry.

Font Shop Glosary


Electronic device enabling transmission of video using unshielded twisted pair wire instead of coaxial cable. Word comes from combination of terms balanced, unbalanced, transforms unbalanced signal into balanced signal. In coax cable, transmitted video signal is unbalanced, susceptible to RFI, i.e. noise. Coax cable incorporates shielding to minimize noise. Video baluns transform video signal: each wire in twisted pair transmits identical signal with opposite polarized magnetic fields, with noise affecting each signal equally, when signals combined, noise is cancelled out. With designed balun, unshielded twisted pair wire can transmit video for much longer distances than coax, at lower cost.

canon glossary us


Group of painters who specialized in bambocciate (Fr. bambochades): low-life and peasant scenes, popular in the Netherlands and Italy in the 17th century. The name derives from Pieter van Laer (1592-1642), a Dutch painter nicknamed 'Il Bamboccio' ('Big Baby').

Vizual Art Cork


A radio frequency range in wireless communication, e.g. TV broadcasting.

canon glossary us


1 [ banding ] An artefact of colour gradation in computer imaging. When graduated colours break into larger blocks of a single colour, the smooth look of a proper gradation is reduced.

2 [ banding ] Smooth graduated colors reduced to larger blocks of color. This produces a visible stepping of shades in the image.

3 [ banding ] An artifact of color gradation where graduated colors are reduced to larger blocks of a single color.

4 [ banding ] Sometimes inaccurately called posterization, banding is when an image shows different bands of color or luminance instead of a smooth gradation. An example of this may be found in an image of blue sky -- instead of seeing a smooth blue, there will be bands visible across the sky as the color changes.



1 [ bandwidth ] Service provided for Internet use. A higher bandwidth allows faster connections and downloading from the internet. Large images, video or sound clips can be downloaded quickly to save time and reduce your telephone bill.

2 [ bandwidth ] The quantity of data transmitted during a given time period. With video, the higher the quality, the greater the required bandwidth, digital video, in particular, requires large amounts. Audio and video compression lowers bandwidth requirements. The term also applies to the allotted spectrum for a broadcast station, the difference in hertz between the lowest and highest frequency it uses.

3 [ bandwidth ] Bandwidth is the maximum throughput or capacity that a computer network can handle.



Several lights grouped together to create a larger or more powerful source. Tip: use soft lights or heavy Diffusion to avoid Multiple Shadows.

Tiffan edu Glossary

banketjea or banquet piece

Banketjea is a Dutch word which means 'little banquet'. A Banketjea is the name given to a still life painting which features a range of luxury foods and expensive serving pieces.

Vizual Art Cork


Many countries have either government or official movie classification boards who are responsible for determining the suitability of a movie for release in their country or region. These boards occasionally block the release of a movie either in theaters or on video. Often, a banned movie will find its way around a ban by means of bootleg distribution. See also censorship.

imdb Movie Terminology


The type design of the name of a repetitive publication, such as a newspaper, newsletter, or magazine.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


1 [ bar ] The enclosed horizontal stroke in characters 'A', 'H', and 'e'.

2 [ bar or crossbar: ] The horizontal strokes between letters. Bars are commonly used to connect points on a single stroke, such as in a lowercase 'e.' Crossbars connect separate strokes, such as in the uppercase 'A.'


bare bulb

Electronic flash unit used without a reflector or diffuser.

Photo Tips

baritat (strat)

Strat foarte subtire de gelatina si sulfat de bariu, aplicat pe suportul de hartie sau carton, peste care se plaseaza stratul fotosensibil. Sulfatul de bariu are un grad foarte ridicat de alb.


barium sulfate

compound used in the manufacture of photographic printing paper to give bright white highlights in the final print.

ProFotos Education Glossary

barn doors

1 [ barn doors ] Attachment that fits on the front of a studio light and allows the photographer to control the spread of light.

2 [ barn doors ] accessory used on spotlights and flood lamps to control the direction of light and width of the beam.

3 [ barn doors ] A set of barn doors is an attachment fitted to the front of lighting fixtures used in films, television, and theatres. The attachment has the appearance of a large set of barn doors, but in fact there are four leaves, two larger and widening on the outside, two smaller and getting narrower towards the outside. They facilitate shaping of the beam of light from the fixture, and prevent light from spilling into areas where it is not wanted, such as the camera s lens or the eyes of audience members.

4 [ barn doors ] 'Gobos' (light-blocking devices) that attach to studio lights and swivel on hinges (like the doors on a barn) to allow the photographer to control the light’s direction and the width of the light beam.



A front-of-the-light device having two or more pivotable black panels used to shape the Beam and shade the camera lens or scene.

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ barndoors ] Folding metal flaps that attach to the front of a studio light to control the light spill and prevent light straying on to areas where it's not wanted.

2 [ barndoors ] Handy blinders on the sides of lights that can be used to keep light from going everywhere. They can also be used to clip on a lighting gel. They get very hot when a light is on, so it is best to wear work gloves when adjusting them.



A quilted cozy that fits around a camera to reduce camera noise.Generally it is only effective on a camera that is pretty quiet to begin with. The term comes from barney blanket, a kind of horse blanket.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


1 [ baroque ] A term meaning extravagant, complex; applied to a style in art and architecture developed in Europe from the early seventeenth to mid-eighteenth century, emphasizing dramatic, often strained effect and typified by bold, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts.

2 [ baroque classicism ] classical style - exemplified in the paintings of Nicolas Poussin and the architecture of Carlo Fontana which flourished during the Baroque period.


barrel connector

1 [ barrel connector ] An electrical adapter for connecting two cables. It has a socket at each end.

2 [ barrel distortion ] A common geometric lens distortion causing an aquired image to pucker towards the centre and be rounded along the outer edges.

3 [ barrel distortion ] one of the common lens aberrations, where straight lines at the edge of the field are caused to bend into the shape of a barrel.

4 [ barrel distortion ] A lens aberration that causes straight edges to bow outwards, giving a barrel-like appearance.

5 [ barrel distortion ] An optical distortion resulting in the image bowing out of square. Barrel distortion is usually associated with less expensive wide-angle lenses and digital cameras, and is most apparent in architectural photographs or images containing lines that run parallel to each other in the horizontal or vertical plane. For more on this subject, see the explora article ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/optical-anomalies-and-lens-corrections-explained Optical Anomalies and Lens Corrections Explained.

6 [ barrel distortion ] Image distortion caused by a lens defect, where the edge bows outwards like a fisheye or wide-angle lens's image.

7 [ barrel distortion ] A lens effect in which the straight lines in an image appear to be inflated or sphere shaped.

8 [ barrel distortion: ] type of distortion, common in less expensive wide-angle lenses, where straight lines at the edges of the image start to appear slightly curved. This can be corrected in post-processing software. Fisheye lenses exhibit a great amount of barrel distortion, but this is the intended effect.



Straight lines arebowed in at the edges of the picture frame re sembling the sides of a barrel; present in small amounts in some wideangle or wideangle-zoom lenses, bu~ uncorrectedin fisheye lenses.

Mir glossary


A distortion which occurs with wide-angle zoom, in which straight lines at the edges curve toward the center, giving the image a barrel-like appearance

RadioShak support


1 [ baryta ] coating of barium sulfate applied as the foundation to fiber based printing papers.

2 [ baryta paper ] Fibre-based paper.



Form of sculpting characterized by only a slight projection from the surrounding surface.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ base ] The transparent, flexible support, commonly cellulose triacetate (in motion picture cameras), on which photographic emulsions are coated to make photographic film.

2 [ base ] support for photographic emulsions. Available in a choice of materials, including paper, cellulose, triacetate, glass and estar.

3 [ base ] Film has two basic elements: The base is the clear, perforated strip, and the emulsion is the thin, light-sensitive layer that is glued onto it.

4 [ base exposure time ] initial exposure time used for making a 'straight' print.

5 [ base iso: ] The ISO of a camera that provides the least noise and greatest dynamic range. Many DSLRs have a base ISO of 80 or 100.

6 [ base light ] Diffuse, overall set Illumination intended to keep video electronics quiet. This characterless illumination has been going out of style thanks to improved camera performance and skillful Lighting Directors - at least on single-camera sets.

7 [ base line ] The line along which the bases of all capital letters (and most lowercase letters) are positioned.

8 [ base plus fog ] Density of the film support plus the silver or dye produced by the effects of the developer. Pertains only to an unexposed portion of the film.

9 [ base plus fog ] Densitatea optica a filmului neexpus dar developat, data de densitatea optica a suportului de plastic la care se adauga densitatea optica a stratului de gelatina.


baseboard camera

1 [ baseboard camera ] portable large format camera with a folding baseboard. Allows a limited use of camera movements. Also referred to as a field camera.

2 [ baseboard camera ] A medium/large format camera with a fold-out baseboard that supports the lens board and bellows.

3 [ baseboard camera ] A type of portable camera that is better known as the 'Field camera.' It is essentially a view camera, because it functions in much the same way and with similar controls and features.



1 [ baseline ] The imaginary horizontal line upon which most of the characters in a typeface sit.

2 [ baseline ] The baseline is the horizontal line on which the (latin, greek, cyrillic) letters sit. The baseline will probably be in a different place for different scripts. In Indic scripts most letters descend below the baseline. In CJK scripts there is also a vertical baseline usually in the middle of the glyph. The BASE and bsln tables allow you to specify how the baselines of different scripts should be aligned with respect to each other. See also X-height, Cap-height, Ascender, Descender, Overshoot

3 [ baseline ] The imaginary line on which the majority of the characters in a typeface rest.

4 [ baseline ] The imaginary line upon which text rests. Descenders extend below the baseline. Also known as the 'reading line.' The line along which the bases of all capital letters (and most lowercase letters) are positioned.

5 [ baseline ] The imaginary line upon which the letters in a font appear to rest.

6 [ baseline ] The line along which the bases of all capital letters (and most lowercase letters) are positioned.



An invisible horizontal line on which upper-and lowercase letters rest. The baseline does not include the space occupied by descenders.

Font tympanus (codedrops)


photographic image effect usually produced by printing from a negative and a positive sandwiched together in the enlarger, slightly out of register.

ProFotos Education Glossary


Low frequency in the audio spectrum.

canon glossary us

batch numbers

1 [ batch numbers ] set of numbers printed on packages of sensitive materials to indicate common production coating.

2 [ batch numbers ] Series of numbers imprinted by the manufacturer on the packaging of film and light-sensitive products to indicate that the materials are all from the same production batch, and therefore share closely-similar qualities, such as film speed and contrast.

3 [ batch processing ] Occurs when a 'batch' of digital images on a computer are edited with the same changes applied to all at the same time.

4 [ batch scan ] The ability to scan and process more than one image in a single action. Batch scanning is only recommended if all of the images being scanned or corrected are equal in tonal values.



1 [ batik ] A wax-resist dyeing technique that is often used to make highly patterned cloth.

2 [ batik ] An artform which employs wax resistant designs on dyed textile fabrics.



A pipe, pole, or wooden strip used to support lights. See: Grid.

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ battery ] Power source. Either removeable (such as AA alkaline, lithium, rechargeable), or fixed, requiring in-camera charging using an exterior charger.

2 [ battery calibration ] Select Nikon battery chargers, which are used for newer rechargeable Lithium Ion batteries, are equipped with a battery calibration feature. Calibrate the battery as required to ensure the accuracy of the camera and charger battery level displays.

3 [ battery grip ] A camera accessory connecting to its baseplate, with additional batteries and therefore extended battery life, to power the camera. Often with second shutter button and control dial, plus hand grip.



1 [ bauhaus ] A German school of art, design, and architecture, founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius. The school’s curriculum aimed to re-establish the bond between artistic creativity and manufacturing that had been broken by the Industrial Revolution.

2 [ bauhaus ] A highly influential school (1919-33) of avant-garde design, founded by Walter Gropius (1883-1969) in Weimar. Synonymous with modernist architecture and arts & crafts.



1 [ bayer ] The most used pattern of photosites for color cameras, named after its creator, a researcher at Kodak in 1976. Photosites are grouped by four, with two sensitive to green wavelengths, one to blue wavelenghts, and one to red wavelengths.

2 [ bayer filter/mask array ] A pattern of filters -- red, green, blue -- set on a CCD or CMOS imaging chip, allowing the chip to separately capture the red, blue and green primary colors of the image, creating a color digital image. There are two times more green cells than red or blue to match our eyes capacity, and more green cells deliver less noise in the image. A complex algorithm is needed to unmask the R, G and B pixels created by the Bayer array to create white.

3 [ bayer pattern ] Un model de asezare a filtrelor rosii, verzi si albastre peste fotositurile captatorului camerei digitale. Deoarece ochiul uman este mai sensibil la verde, raportul R:G:B in modelul Bayer este 1:2:1

4 [ bayer pattern ] Un model de asezare a filtrelor rosii, verzi si albastre peste fotositurile captatorului camerei digitale. Deoarece ochiul uman este mai sensibil la verde, raportul R:G:B in modelul Bayer este 1:2:1


bayeux tapestry

Anglo-Saxon embroidery depicting the Norman Conquest in 1066.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ bayonet ] A type of lens mount commonly used with heavier lenses, such as zoom lenses. In contrast to screw-mount lenses, bayonet lenses are attached to the camera with a locking mechanism. Bayonet lenses can typically be changed much faster than screw-mount lenses.

2 [ bayonet mount ] A bayonet mount is a fastening mechanism consisting of a male side with one or more pins or claws, and a female receptor with matching slots and springs to keep the two parts locked together. Bayonet mounts are commonly used to attach interchangeable lenses to cameras, and lens hoods to lenses.



Substanta chimica cu pH peste 7, folosita pentru crestea capacitatii de reducere a revelatorilor.


baze medii

1 [ baze medii ] Saruri ale acizilor slabi (carbonati) cu alkalii tari (sodiu, potasiu) cu pH moderat alcalin, folosite in revelatori universali.

2 [ baze slabe ] Saruri cu pH usor alcalin, de ex. boraxul, folosit in revelatoarele comensatoare sau/si de granulatie fina.

3 [ baze tari ] Hidroxizi (de sodiu sau de potasiu) cu pH foarte mare, folosite in revelatoare cu actiune foarte rapida si energica. ATENTIE! Caustic! Toxic!


bbar (broad-band anti-reflection)

Tehnologie antireflex Tamron multistrat, prin care se atenueaza reflexiile parazite pe un larg spectru de culori la interfata aer-sticla.


beach or snow scene mode

1 [ beach or snow scene mode ] An automatic exposure mode which is specifically designed for the correct exposure of bright scenes. On cameras without an automatic mode for this, but with a manual mode, correct exposure can be achieved by overexposing by about two stops

2 [ beach scene mode ] A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras, that lets you capture the brightness of beaches or sunlit expanses of water with the correct exposure in such a brightly lit situation.


beach/snow scene mode

A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras, designed for use when taking photos of snow in bright sunlight or brightly lit sandy beaches, ensuring the exposure is correct for the bright scene.

Nikon Grossary


A triangular, serif-like protrusion at the end of a stroke in certain serif type designs.

Font Shop Glosary


1 [ beam ] A cone of light emitted by a Luminaire.

2 [ beam ] A collection of parallel rays of light.

3 [ beam angle ] If you're into reading light-performance data, beam angle is the point at which the Intensity of a source drops to 50% of maximum (center reading) measured in degrees of the full angle. Simply: How wide?

4 [ beam angle: ] A measurement of how wide of a beam a strobe will put out. Beam angles of 90-110 degrees are common for strobes suitable for wide-angle photography.

5 [ beam pattern ] Includes Beam Angle, beam shape, and any realistic or abstract patterns introduced into the beam. See: Finesse.

6 [ beam splitter ] mirror and prism system capable of partly reflecting, partly transmitting light.


beamsplitter rig

Uses 50/50 mirror allowing one camera to shoot through glass, other to shoot reflection. Used when cameras too wide for small interaxial separation. Expensive because requires precision made mirrored glass. Most flexible, required when subject is close to camera.

canon glossary us

behind the scenes

The off-camera goings on associated with filmmaking. Factual Movie(s): Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse (1991) Fictional Movie(s): Postcards from the Edge (1990)

imdb Movie Terminology

belitski's reducer

solution used as a chemical reducer for negatives. It consists of ferric potassium citrate or oxalate in an acid fixing solution.

ProFotos Education Glossary

belle époque

French for “beautiful era,” a term that describes the period in French history beginning in 1890 and ending at the start of World War I in1914, which was characterized by optimism, relative peace across Europe, and new discoveries in technology and science.



1 [ bellows ] The folding (accordion) portion in some cameras that connects the lens to the camera body. Also a camera accessory that, when inserted between the lens and the camera body, extends the lens-to-film distance for close focusing.

2 [ bellows ] light tight, folding sleeve which can be fitted between the lens and the film plane.

3 [ bellows ] The folding (accordion)portion in some cameras that connects the lens to the camera body (like the MamiyaRZ). Also a camera accessory that, when inserted between lens and camera body, extendsthe lens-to-film distance for close focusing or macro phtography. Some retains theautomatic functions where some have to stopdown the lens for manual exposure reading.

4 [ bellows ] The pleated expandable part of a camera, usually a large or medium format camera, to allow the lens to be moved with respect to the focal plane for focusing.

5 [ bellows ] A folding sleeve-like device usually made of fabric that fits between the lens and the camera that allows for extended separation of lens and image sensor or film plane. A bellows is used in close-up photography, and performs a function similar to that of extension tubes, except that the tubes are fixed and the bellows is minutely adjustable.

6 [ bellows attachment ] A flexible, light-proof enclosure placed between the camera and the lens for close-up and macro photography. The desired reproduction ratio can be obtained by adjusting the bellows. Provides a higher reproduction ratio than extension rings.

7 [ bellows shutter ] obsolete shutter consisting of a pair of bellows that, when closed together, form a hemisphere enclosing the lens.


below-the-line expenses

All physical production costs not included in the above-the-line expenses, including material costs, music rights, publicity, trailer, etc.

imdb Movie Terminology

ben-day dots

Colored dots (generally in four colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) used to create shading and secondary colors in the mechanical reproduction of images.


best boy

1 [ best boy ] AKA: Assistant Chief Lighting Technician, Best Boy Grip, Best Boy Electric The chief assistant, usually of the gaffer or key grip. In charge of the people and equipment, scheduling the required quantities for each day's work. The term originates from promoting the crew's 'best boy' to supervising, allowing the gaffer and key grip to stay on set and carry out the cameraman's lighting needs. The origin of the term is from 'pre-union' filming days when the line between Grip and Electric departments was less rigid. When the head of either department needed another body temporarily, he'd go to the head of the other department and ask him to 'lend me your BEST boy'. By default the 2nd in charge of either department came to be known as best-boy. This term may also have been borrowed from early sailing and whaling crews, as sailors were often employed to set up and work rigging in theatres. There are no 'best girls' per se; female chief assistants are also called 'Best Boys'.

2 [ best boy ] The Gaffer's first assistant on large film crews. Origin: may have come from the Merchant Marine, as did many other film terms.

3 [ best face ] A feature of the Samsung Galaxy Note II smart phone that is similar to the BLACKBERRY 10 smart phone's 'time shift' feature. (See 'Blackberry' below.)

4 [ best light ] Similar to a One Light, but by implication, the timer has gone through the film more thoroughly in selecting a timing light that will agree with the majority of the footage.

5 [ best moment capture mode ] This mode, available on select Nikon 1 digital cameras is ideal for fast, hard to capture subjects. By selecting this mode, you can choose to release the shutter as the scene plays back in slow motion (Slow View) or let the camera choose the best shot (Smart Photo Selector).



A half-inch videotape family of professional products developed by Sony. Often used to refer to a camcorder or recorder using the tape format, the tape, or the format itself.

canon glossary us

between the lens shutter

shutter usually placed within the components of a compound lens close to the diaphragm.

ProFotos Education Glossary

between-lens shutter

A shutter with blades that is positioned near to the aperture within a lens (also known as a leaf shutter).


between-the-lens shutter

1 [ between-the-lens shutter ] A shutter whose blades operate between two elements of the lens.

2 [ between-the-lens shutter ] aka Leaf Shutter - A shutter built into the lens as opposed to a lens in the camera body, and situated between two lens elements. Most cameras have shutters located in the camera body, known as focal-plane shutters. Leaf shutters have moveable overlapping leaves that open to let in light and close to block it out.



A shutter whose bladesoperate between two elements of the lens. Most medium format cameras like the Hasselbladhave one family of lens with shuttle and another without. Most lenses in this familyhave a smaller maximum aperture than the other family.

Mir glossary

bezier curve

Mathematical equations commonly used to describe the shapes of characters in electronic typography. The Bezier curve was named for Pierre Bezier, a French computer scientist who developed the mathematical representation used to describe that curve.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


Change of a standard behavior. Usually Exposure Bias or White Balance Bias.

DXO Glossary


refers to potassium bichromate or potassium dichromate, used for bleaching and as a sensitizer for gelatin.

ProFotos Education Glossary

biconcave lens

simple lens or lens shape within a compound lens, whose surfaces curve toward the optical center. Such a lens causes light rays to diverge.

ProFotos Education Glossary

biconvex lens

simple lens shape whose surfaces curve outward, away from the optical center. Such a lens causes light rays to converge.

ProFotos Education Glossary

bicubic interpolation

The preferred type of interpolation, wherein the value of a new pixel is calculated from the values of the eight nearest pixels. Bicubic interpolation produces the best results when compared with bilinear (see below) or nearest-neighbor interpolation. It creates greater contrast to offset blurring that's brought about by the process of interpolation.

Photo Tips


He looked thoughtful and grave- but the orders he gave Were enough to bewilder the crew. When he cried `Steer to starboard, but keep her head larboard!' What on earth was the helmsman to do? The Hunting of the Snark Lewis Carroll Bi-Directional text. That is a section of text which contains both left-to-right and right-to-left scripts. English text quoting Arabic, for example. Things get even more complex with nested quotations. The Unicode standard contains an algorithm for laying out Bidi text. See also: Boustrophedon.

Font Forge Glossary

biennale (europe), biennial (america)

Arts events held every two years: see: Best Contemporary Art Festivals

Vizual Art Cork

big nose/small ears syndrome

The comic, and mostly unattractive, appearance of a face shot from extremely close through a wide-angle lens. See: Distortion and Perspective.

Tiffan edu Glossary


Deformarea mecanica a suprafetei suportului în scopul plierii ulterioare a acestuia, se recomanda pentru suporturi cu gramaje peste 150 gr/mp.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A

bilinear interpolation

A type of interpolation that calculates the value of a new pixel from the values of four immediately-neighboring pixels that are situated to the left, the right and the top and the bottom of the new one. It needs less processing and is less desirable than bicubic interpolation.

Photo Tips


AKA: Top Billing, Diagonal Billing, Equal BillingA great deal of importance is placed on the relative sizes, positions, and order of names and the movie's title in printed publicity material as well as the opening credits. Generally, higher positions designate higher importance. Additionally, there is significant given to names which appear before or above the actual title of the movie. The person whose name is shown first in the credits or whose name is at the top of an advertisement is said to have received 'top billing'. If more than one name appears at the same time or at the same height, they are said to have 'equal billing', with the importance of the people concerned decreasing from left to right. In some movies with a large number of stars, the publicity department must go to great lengths to satisfy the demands of various parties. 'Diagonal billing' is where a different name appears first, depending on whether the material is read from top to bottom, or from left to right. In some extreme cases, multiple stars in the same movie have each demanded top billing, in which case an equal number of differently-billed advertisement have been created.

imdb Movie Terminology


see Trim Bin.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


Sistem de numarare care foloseste doar cifrele 1 si 0, folosit la calculatoare deoarece este foarte simplu de transpus in semnal electric (inchis / deschis).



1 [ binary ] A numbering system that uses two digits 0 or 1. In digital imaging terms 0 is off or white and 1 is on or black.

2 [ binary ] The foundation of digital imaging and computing is the base 2 mathematical representation of numbers: 1 and 0, also represented as on and off or high and low. In any binary representation of a number (e.g. 4 = 100 in binary), each digit is called a bit.



Join leafs or signatures together with wire, glue, etc.

canon glossary us


A component of paint that creates uniform consistency or cohesion.



Department within printing company which collates, folds, trims printing projects.

canon glossary us

binocular vision

1 [ binocular vision ] visual ability to determine three dimensions. Stereoscopic photography depends on the use of binocular vision.

2 [ binocular vision ] Using both eyes, with overlapping fields of vision, to see a single, fused, 3D image, and perceive depth/distance.


biographic picture

AKA: BiopicA filmed story of a person's life story.On the web: List of Biographical movies at the IMDb.

imdb Movie Terminology


Derived from the Greek words bios (life) and morphe (form), a term referring to abstract forms or images that evoke associations with living forms such as plants and the human body.



combination of two films, differently sensitized, but exposed as one.

ProFotos Education Glossary

bird watching scene mode

Bird Watching Mode is a Scene Mode available in select Nikon COOLPIX digital cameras such as the P600. This Scene Mode will assist you in taking photos of birds in the wild. When chosen, this mode allows you to select Single or Continuous.

Nikon Grossary


splitting of light passing through certain kinds of crystals into two rays at polarized right angles to each other.

ProFotos Education Glossary


Unglazed white porcelain, popular in Europe from the mid 17th century.

Vizual Art Cork

bispheric lens

lens having different curvatures at the center and the edge, each of which forms part of a sphere. The different edge curvature brings the peripheral rays more closely to the same point of focus as the center rays.

ProFotos Education Glossary


1 [ bit ] Binary digit, the smallest unit of digital information a computer can work with.

2 [ bit ] The smallest unit of memory. The word comes from binary and digit or 1 and 0. Also sometimes known as on and offs.

3 [ bit ] (BInary digiT) The smallest unit of computer memory

4 [ bit ] A bit (binary digit) is the smallest unit of digital information. Eight bits equals one byte. Digital images are often described by the number of bits used to represent each pixel, i.e., a 1-bit image is monochrome; an 8-bit image supports 256 colors or grayscales; while 24 or 32-bit images support an even greater range of color.

5 [ bit ] A shortened name for binary digit 0 or 1. This is the smallest unit of digital information used by a computer or digital camera.

6 [ bit ] The smallest element of binary digital data, either a 1 or a 0. Often used to describe the attributes of a pixel used in digital video, representing signal quality - an 8 bit signal can have 256 levels from black to white, a 10 bit signal can have 1024 levels.

7 [ bit ] From binary digit, is a basic unit of data storage, and has a value of either 0 or 1.Eight bits = one byte (See 'Byte' below)

8 [ bit ] A unit of measurement indicating the information capacity of one binary digit.

9 [ bit depth ] Refers to the colour or grey scale of each individual pixel. For example a pixel with 8 bits per colour (red, green and blue), gives a 24 bit image. 24 bit resolution is 16.7 million colours.

10 [ bit depth ] The number of possible color values used in a digital image. A higher bit depth improves the tonality of an image because there are more color values to choose from.

11 [ bit depth ] – The level of gradation used to define a shade of dark or light. Higher bit depth allows more accuracy and fidelity of captured images, and allows finer adjustments when editing. Most point-and-shoot cameras capture 10-bit or 12-bit images, while better DSLRs and mirrorless cameras capture at 12-bit or 14-bit.

12 [ bit depth ] Tells how much color information is available to describe each pixel in an image. For example, 8 bits per pixel X 3 colors (RGB) delivers 24 bits. Also describes the number of bits of information recorded for a digital audio sample.

13 [ bit depth ] The color or gray scale of an individual pixel. A pixel with 8 bits per color gives a 24 bit image. (8 Bits x 3 colors is 24 bits.) 24 bit color resolution is 16.7 million colors.

14 [ bit depth ] The number of bits used to represent each pixel in a digital image. This figure suggests the image colour or tone range.

15 [ bit depth ] Determines the maximum number of colors that can be displayed at one time. Bit depth is the number of bits per pixel, which determines the number of colors that the image can display. The minimum requirement for a color photograph is eight bits per pixel.

16 [ bit depth: ] Number of bits of data the camera stores per pixel; 12 or 14 bits

17 [ bit part ] A small unimportant role, usually lasting only one scene.

18 [ bit rate ] Data transfer rate, expressed in bits per second (bps), with higher numbers delivering higher quality. Some Canon Vixia camcorders, for example, captures video at a rate of up to 24 Mbps.



1 [ bitmap ] The method of storing information that actually maps an image pixel bit by bit. Formats include; .bmp, .pcx, .pict, .tif, .tiff, .gif. Most picture files are bit-mapped.

2 [ bitmap ] A digital image formed by a grid of pixels. The computer assigns a value to each pixel - ranging from 1 bit of information black or white) to as much as 42-bits per pixel.

3 [ bitmap ] A method of storing digital information by mapping out an image bit by bit. The density of the pixels determines how sharp the image resolution will be. Most image files are bitmapped. Bitmap images are compatible with all types of computers.

4 [ bitmap ] A method of storing information that maps an image pixel bit by bit.

5 [ bitmap ] A pattern used in forming paint-type graphic images or type characters with a series of dots, with a certain number of dots per inch.

6 [ bitmap ] Pixels, spatially mapped, displaying or storing a digital image.

7 [ bitmap ] Un format de imagine care reprezinta fiecare pixel ca pe o celula, celulele fiind aranjate pe randuri si coloane.

8 [ bitmap ] A bitmap is a picture that is an arrangement of tiny squares of different colors, called pixels. For the file extension, '.bmp,' see .BMP below. Bitmap is the form in which digital images are stored. Digital images are made from pixels arranged in a checkerboard-like grid known as a bitmap.BLACKBERRY 10 TIME SHIFT Time shift is a feature offered on the BlackBerry 10 smart phone from Research in Motion who say that it allows the photographer who takes a picture with the phone's built-in camera 'to go forward or backwards in time.' Essentially the camera rapidly takes a number of pictures milliseconds apart when the shutter button is depressed. The user can blend the pictures to compose an 'ideal' photograph - one, for example, in which all the people in the final photo may be smiling or have their eyes open.

9 [ bitmap ] A pixel-by-pixel description of an image, where each pixel is a separate element.

10 [ bitmap file ] Standard graphics format for Windows images, uses .bmp file extension.

11 [ bitmap font ] A font which is made up of pixels (or square dots). Bitmap fonts typically work in tandem with outline fonts, with bitmap fonts being used on the screen, and connected outline fonts automatically used in the printer. Also known as a 'screen font.'



An image format popular in the early days of PCs, but still used as the native format by the Windows operating system.

Visual art cork


The files contained in the Mac bitmap suitcase; part of the PostScript font, used for screen display on older systems with no built-in rasterization and not equipped with Adobe Type Manager. They are still necessary for display and printing. Also referred to as “screen fonts”.

Font Shop Glosary

bitum de iudea

Hidrocarbura care se intareste sub actiunea luminii. A fost utilizat de Joseph Nicephore Niepce pentru a realiza prima fotografie din lume.



hydrocarbon which hardens by the action of light. It was used by Joseph Nicephore Niepce to produce the worlds first photograph in the early 19th century.

ProFotos Education Glossary

black and white

1 [ black and white ] &W) – A term referring to a number of monochrome forms in photography.

2 [ black and white ] AKA: BW, B/W, B&WIndicates that the images have no color. The first movies were black and white (as color film stock hadn't been invented), but in more recent times many films have been shot in black and white either for artistic reasons or because it is cheaper. Some films are shot using color film stock with the final print in black and white.

3 [ black and white (b&w) ] B&W film offers opportunities and challenges. Foreground and background may merge in the absence of color separation. Tips: use more Back Light or Background Light. View the scene with a B&W viewing glass. Other differences: Color Temperature complications disappear and all those long-abandoned filters that turn blue skies black and trees white can be used again. Last tip: While many of the black and white Masters aren't around, their masterpieces are. Quote: The most difficult task for today's director of photography is to think in black and white again. He must become mentally color-blind, imagining what each scene will look like on the screen when it loses the colors it has in reality. - Nestor Almendros [AMWAC]

4 [ black balance ] Similar in concept to white balance, but referenced to black. This function is found on some professional video cameras and is used to eliminate color tints.

5 [ black comedy ] A comedy in which the humour is derived from subjects which are typically considered 'serious', or for which humour is usually considered as unsuitable. Common examples are death, war, suffering, and murder.On the web: A list of black comedies at the IMDb.

6 [ black leader or black emulsion leader ] Black leader is black, opaque film, often specifially called black emulsion leader. It is what the negative cutter uses when preparing A&B rolls. It is very important that it be emulsion leader rather than plastic leader when used for A&B rolls, since plastic leader cannot be cement spliced. It also must be very opaque, not any black piece of film will do.

7 [ black letter ] Any of various type families based on medieval handwriting. See also gothic.

8 [ black level ] Intensity of black. Darkest (blackest) part of picture. No light is emitted. NTSC black is 7.5 IRE.

9 [ black light ] see Ultraviolet

10 [ black point ] Darkest tone printer distinguishes, darkest area in image against which all others are adjusted.

11 [ black print speed ] Maximum number of pages per minute (ppm) at which printer can output pages of black text.

12 [ black silver ] finely divided metallic silver formed from silver halides by exposure and development.


black-and-white film

1 [ black-and-white film ] A film that produces a monochromatic picture in shades of gray (usually a metallic silver image).

2 [ black-and-white film ] Black-and-white film contains an emulsion that, when processed, changes colors into various shades of gray.

3 [ black-and-white film: ] Film that reproduces the subject in shades of gray (and black and white, depending on the scene's contrast) rather than in color. Black-and-white film is available in conventional or chromogenic versions.



A photographic film or paper used to create monochrome images. Though we think of black and white mainly in terms of a gray scale, prints can have a wide variety of subtle tones, from blue- to brown-black. Though the overwhelming majority of photography today is shot and printed in color, black-and-white has attracted a fiercely loyal and dedicated group of photographers.


black-figure technique

Style of decoration of ancient Greek ceramics, chiefly of 6th-century BCE Corinth. Designs were painted on the object in black metal oxide paint and then incised through to the reddish clay.

Vizual Art Cork

blackboard mode

Projector feature, projector can detect color of display surface, automatically adjusts output to optimize accurate color reproduction.

canon glossary us


The make up technique of making an actor, usually white, to resemble an African American or at least a caricature thereof such as in the final scene of The Jazz Singer (1927). There were also equivalents for Asians (Yellowface) and Native Americans (Redface). It was a standard practice in the early 20th century for the casting of actors in non-white roles and abandoned when it was recognized to be an insult to minorities which also cheated them of casting opportunies.

imdb Movie Terminology


These heavy, black typefaces (whose capital letters are often ornate) were the very first metal type. The earliest of these were from the Gutenberg workshop and were copies of letters found in handwritten manuscripts. Also known as 'Old English.'

ProximaSoftware Glossary


AKA: BlacklistA list of filmmakers or actors who have either been formally or informally discriminated against, due to their personal, political, social, or religious beliefs. In 1950s America, McCarthyism resulted in numerous filmmakers being blacklisted.On the web: Search for blacklisted people., Titles involving Blacklisting

imdb Movie Terminology


see Finger

Tiffan edu Glossary


Information contained in the video data stream outside the visible content data. Includes synchronization information, time code, automatic color tuning and captioning information. This margin area is called the blanking interval or region.

canon glossary us

blc (backlight compensation)

Short for Backlight Compensation. See Backlight.

canon glossary us


1 [ bleach ] (1) Converting a metallic silver image to a halide or other salt that can be removed from the film with hypo. When bleaching is not carried to completion, it is called reducing. (2) Any chemical reagent that can be used for bleaching.

2 [ bleach ] Chemical used to reduce image density.

3 [ bleach ] chemical bath capable of rehalogenizing black metallic silver.


bleached out

Term employed by some people when referring to overexposure.

Photo Tips


stage in most toning, reducing and color processing systems.

ProFotos Education Glossary


method of producing line drawings from photographic images. The photographic is processed in the normal way, its outlines sketched, and the black metallic silver image is then bleached away to leave a drawn outline.

ProFotos Education Glossary


1 [ bleed ] An area of text or graphics that extends beyond the edge of the page. Commercial printers usually trim the paper after printing to create bleeds.

2 [ bleed ] Printed area which extends to sheet or page edge after trimming.

3 [ bleed ] Describes a photographic print that extends to the edges of the paper (beyond the trim marks on a page) and has no visible border or defined margin area.

4 [ bleed ] term used to describe a picture with no borders, which has been printed to the edge of the paper.

5 [ bleed ] Margini de taiere.

6 [ bleed test ] Determines how much ink will seep into an adjacent color when using particular media, helps determine correct media types for a printer profile.



Video distortion, adjacent color mixes with another color area when not supposed to.

canon glossary us


Panou captusit cu un material reflectorizant, destinat iluminarii suplimentare a subiectului unei fotografii, prin reflecatrea luminii solare (de regula). Finisarea si culoarea suprafetei reflectante determina gradul de imprastiere al luminii si respectiv temperatura de culoare.



A fiberglass housing used to encase a noisy camera to make it suitable for sync sound filming.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms

blimped camera or self-blimped camera

The term is used not to mean a camera in a blimp, but a camera that is designed with internal soundproofing without the need for an external blimp. For instance, with an Arri BL the 'BL' stands for 'blimped.'

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms

blink proof

When using this feature, the camera detects that a human subject may have closed their eyes immediately after it recognizes the face. When this happens, the Did someone blink? screen will be displayed on the monitor to check the picture taken.

Nikon Grossary

blinking highlights

A feature of Nikon digital SLR cameras, the blinking highlights display indicates areas of the photograph in which highlight detail is missing.

Nikon Grossary


1 [ blitz ] Sistem chimic sau electronic care ilumineaza subiectul cu o lumina intensa si de scurta durata. Masurarea TTL (Through the Lens) a descarcarii blitzului vezi TTL.

2 [ blitz dedicat ] Blit realizat de regula de acelasi producator ca si al corpului camerei pe care se monteaza si care permite un schimb maxim de informatii intre cele doua componente.

3 [ blitz integrat ] Blitz integrat in corpul camerei fotografice, alimentat de bateriile aparatului fotografic.



AKA: HitA movie which is a huge financial success. In common usage a 'blockbuster' is a movie that has a box-office of more than $100 million upon release in North America.On the web: IMDb Box Office Charts

imdb Movie Terminology

blocked shadows

1 [ blocked shadows ] Term for lack of, or loss of, shadow detail in a photographic image, usually the result of underexposure or images captured by a lower resolution (and less dynamic) imaging sensor. Although lost shadow detail can often be (partially) reclaimed in photo-editing applications, HDR (High Dynamic Range) imaging—in which two or more bracketed images are sampled and combined into a single image file containing increased levels of shadow, highlight, and mid-tone detail—has become an increasingly common in-camera solution for retaining both shadow and highlight detail.

2 [ blocked up ] a portion of an overexposed and/or overdeveloped negative so dense with silver halides that texture and detail in the subject are unclear.



1 [ blocking ] A process during which the director and actors determine where on the set the actors will move and stand, so that lighting and camera placements may be set.

2 [ blocking ] Setting actor and camera positions and move-ments which are intimately related to lighting.

3 [ blocking ] The planning of subject position and movement in a video production scene.

4 [ blocking ] The arrangements made for the composition of a scene, especially the placement and movements of actors.

5 [ blocking in ] Before starting a painting, an artist may 'block-in' the composition of the painting using rough outlines or geometric shapes to show him how everything fits on the canvas. Virtually all portrait painters use this 'blocking in' method.

6 [ blocking out ] method of painting selected areas of a negative with an opaque liquid on the nonemulsion side. Since light is unable to penetrate these areas they appear white on the final print.


blocks and blocking

In MPEG-2, coding is performed on a block of data 8 pixels by 8 lines in size.

canon glossary us


1 [ blooming ] An effect caused by overexposing a CCD or sensor to too much light. This can cause distortions of the subject and/or colour.

2 [ blooming ] A visual effect caused by overexposing a CCD sensor, which can cause distortions of the subject and/or color.

3 [ blooming ] Glow around bright areas of picture when brightness is increased, with defocusing. Some video cameras have blooming suppression.

4 [ blooming ] Streaks or halos appearing around bright areas of an image that are caused by gross overexposure to the CCD. It's like an electronic equivalent of flare.

5 [ blooming ] The appearance of a bright or colored halo around brighter areas of digital image files. Blooming is caused when a portion of the imaging sensor in a digital camera is exposed to too much light, causing signal leaks to the neighboring pixels. See Chromatic Aberration.

6 [ blooming ] The spreading of strong Highlights into surrounding areas of the image.



See also out-take. A take of a scene not used in a movie, usually because of an on-camera mistake made by the cast or crew.

imdb Movie Terminology

blossom scene mode

A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras that is designed for taking great photos of fields of flowers or other landscape that are full of blossoming flowers.

Nikon Grossary


sheet or sheets of absorbent material made expressly for photographic prints. Wet prints dry flat and quickly when placed between blotters.

ProFotos Education Glossary

blow down

1 [ blow down ] The actual term for the opposite of a blow up is a Reduction Print, but this term has been coined by Colorlab in Rockville, Maryland, for a reduction print made from super 16mm to regular 16mm, as an alternative to the much more expensive process of blowing up super 16mm to 35mm.

2 [ blow up ] An optical enlargement of a film from one gauge to another, such as 16mm up to 35mm. The opposite of a blow up is a Reduction Print.



As a noun, blow-up (or blowup) is another term for an enlargement of a photographic print. As a verb, it is the actual enlarging of the image, as in 'Please blow up this negative [or image file] to an 11' X 14' print.'

Photo Tips


Reducing a larger format to a smaller format. An example of blowing down would be going from Super 16 down to 16 mm.

Kodak cine

blown out

having highlights that are off the chart on the right side of the histogram, having no detail in the white areas. Eg: “the bride’s dress is blown out”

Digital Photography School Speeking photography


refers to an image's highlight area when the exposure causes the highlights to be pure white with no detail.

Photo Tips


Blowout is caused by overexposure, which results in a complete loss of highlight detail. With the exception of raw files captured within two stops of the correct exposure, blown-out highlights are difficult, if not impossible, to correct after the fact.



1 [ blowup ] An enlargement; a print that ismade larger than the negative or slide.

2 [ blowup ] Occurs when a smaller film format is increased to a larger format. An example would be going from Super 16 up to 35 mm.

3 [ blowup ] An enlargement; a printthat is made larger than the negative or slide.

4 [ blowup ] enlargement; a print that is made larger than the negative or slide.


blu-ray disc (bd)

1 [ blu-ray disc (bd) ] An optical disk the size of a CD (12 cm diam.), capable of storing 25 GB of data on a single-layer, up to 50 GB on dual layer disks. Data is transferred using 405 nanometer blue-violet lasers. Maximum data transfer rate is 54 Mb/s for audio and video for Blu-ray Disc movies, 40 Mb/s for video only. A disk will hold more than 90 minutes of HD material on a single layer, about 13 hours of SD material.

2 [ blu-ray disk ] Blu-ray (BD) is an optical disk storage medium superseding the DVD format. It can store six times more data than a DVD. The name refers to the blue laser used to read the disk. Blu-ray disks normally have a capacity of 25 gigabytes. Double sided Blu-ray disks have a capacity of 50 gigabytes.


blue gun

1 [ blue gun ] A calibration switch on a TV monitor activating only the blue phosphors electron guns, for adjusting color hue and saturation with color bar test signals.

2 [ blue pedestal ] For balancing black levels. Color camera control adjusts the blue signal the camera generates when it sees no blue. The camera may have similar controls for red and green.

3 [ blue print ] alternative term for cyanotype.

4 [ blue process (film), chroma key (tape) ] Shooting action in front of a deep blue or other color Cyc becomes a separation matte for a background scene that will be added later. Tips: Try to see the background scene before you light, avoid any blue - or whatever color is used - elsewhere in the scene, light the Cyc evenly, keep shadows off it, and consult an expert.

5 [ blue sensitive ] sensitive to blue light only. All silver halides used in traditional black and white emulsions are sensitive to blue light, but early photographic materials had only this sensitivity.



A process whereby actors work in front of an evenly lit, monochromatic (usually blue or green) background. The background is then replaced in post production by chromakeying, allowing other footage or computer-generated images to form the background imagery. See also greenscreen.

imdb Movie Terminology


1 [ bluetooth ] Tehnologie de transfer de date fara fir, prin care se pot conecta diferite dispozitive (notebookuri, telefoane mobile, imprimante, camere foto, PDA-uri, etc).

2 [ bluetooth ] Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard that is used for the exchange of data over short distances. Bluetooth can connect several devices together, whether fixed or mobile. Bluetooth is often used to connect wireless communication devices (cellphones) with other devices such as an earpiece/microphone for talking on a Bluetooth compatible cellular phone. The COOLPIX S800c digital camera offers Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity.



1 [ blur ] Set of phenomena following which a point-wise light source is not imaged on the sensor on a single pixel. It is due primarily to optical causes and sensor integration. If the light source moves during the integration time, the phenomenon is known as motion blur.

2 [ blur ] Subjects within the frame move during a long exposure and are recorded during movement. This will cause them to look out of focus and blurry.

3 [ blur ] Termen englezesc pentru 'neclar'.

4 [ blur ] Denotes a photograph in which movement, either camera movement, zoom lens movement or movement within the scene (e.g. a subject in motion), is recorded at a slower shutter speed than is necessary to 'freeze' the motion as a sharp image. Blur is often intentionally created by a photographer who wishes to convey a sense of motion.

5 [ blur ] unsharp image areas, created or caused by subject or camera movement, or by selective or inaccurate focusing.

6 [ blur ] A way of softening an image or part of an image.

7 [ blur filters ] There are seven blur filters in Photoshop : Blur, Blur More, Lens Blur, Gaussian Blur, Motion Blur, Radial Blur and Smart Blur. All work by merging the colours of adjoining pixels together to give the visual impression of unsharpness.



Unsharpness because of the movement of the camera or subject during exposure. Blur can be used for many creative effects. In computer imaging, the use of Blur controls to selectively soften parts of the image.



Short for Broadcast Music, Inc., an agency licensing the use of copyrighted music.

canon glossary us


1 [ bmp ] Bitmapped graphics file format which is popular with Windows PC’s. It is an uncompressed file format like a TIFF.

2 [ bmp ] A bit-mapped file format used by Microsoft Windows. The BMP format supports RGB, indexed-color, grayscale, and Bitmap color modes.

3 [ bmp ] An uncompressed bitmapped file format (BMP) used with Microsoft Windows

4 [ bmp (basic multilingual plane) ] The first 65536 code points of Unicode. These contain most of the ordinary characters in the modern world. See Also SMP -- Supplementary Multilingual Plane (0x10000-0x1FFFF) SIP -- Supplementary Ideographic Plane (0x20000-0x2FFFF) SSP -- Supplementary Special-purpose Plane (0xE0000-0xEFFFF)



Short for Bayonet Neill-Concelman. A common RF connector often used with video or sync cables. The advantage of this connector is the locking system, so the cable cannot be pulled out without first pushing it in and turning it.

canon glossary us

board paper

Greater than 110-pound index, 80-pound cover or 200 gsm, commonly used for file folders, displays, post cards, etc. Also called paperboard.

canon glossary us


1 [ body ] Originally the physical block on which each metal charactersat, in digital type it is the imaginary area that encompasses each character in a font. The height of the body equals the point size; its width is related to the width of the character.

2 [ body art ] A type of contemporary art in which the artist's body is the 'canvas'.

3 [ body cap ] Covering which attaches to the lens mount of a DSLR to prevent entry of dirt and moisture into the mirror chamber when the lens is removed.

4 [ body colour ] Watercolour made opaque by mixing with white. Also: term used in painting to describe solid, definitive areas of colour which are then completed or modified with scumbles and glazes.

5 [ body copy ] The textual matter set in one face and point size, with a common leading and column width. (see text)

6 [ body double ] AKA: Photo DoubleFor some shots, a director may consider that a particular actor's body may not be suitable for the impression desired. In these situations, the actor is 'doubled' (replaced) by a person whose body is more suitable. Typically, body doubles are used for shots requiring nudity or depictions of physical fitness. Contrast with stunt double and stand-in.

7 [ body language ] The gestures, facial expression, and postures that convey a person's physical, mental, or emotional state.

8 [ body makeup ] Makeup applied below the neck or above the wrists.

9 [ body painting ] Ancient art of decorating the body.

10 [ body size ] The type's point size which is determined by measuring from the highest ascender to the lowest descender (plus any additional white space to the descender line).

11 [ body text ] The paragraphs in a document that make up the bulk of its content. The body text should be set in an appropriate and easy-to-read face, typically at 10- or 12-point size.

12 [ body type ] The specific typeface that is used in the main text



1 [ bokeh ] often mispronounced “bow-kay” or “bow-kuh” it is correctly pronounced as “bo-ke” like the ke in kettle. It is used to described the out of focus blurred bits in the background when “fast glass” is used. Most often bokeh occurs where small light sources are in the background, far in the distance.

2 [ bokeh ] An English transliteration of a Japanese word that means haze or blur. Pronounced boh-keh, it refers to the out-of-focus areas in a photograph with limited depth of field, particularly around, but not limited to, the highlight areas. Bokeh appears as little circles in the unsharp areas. Depending upon the shape of the opening formed by the blades of the lens’s aperture, the circles appear either more or less circular. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/understanding-bokeh Understanding Bokeh.

3 [ bokeh ] Bokeh is the English form of the Japanese word boke, which means blur. It refers to how out-of-focus parts of a photo look. Different lenses produce different-looking out-of-focus backgrounds, depending on things like the number and shape of their aperture blades. In general it could be said that the softer the out-of-focus elements look, the more pleasing the bokeh.

4 [ bokeh ] Termen de etimologie controversatata, care se refera la modul in care un anumit obiectiv reproduce subiectele aflate in afara campului de profunzime; depinde de modul de corectare al aberatiilor optice, mai ales a celei de sfericitate (vezi). Mai multe detalii in acest articol.

5 [ bokeh ] Termen de etimologie, care se refera la modul in care un anumit obiectiv reproduce subiectele aflate in afara câmpului de profunzime; depinde de modul de corectare al aberatiilor optice, mai ales a celei de sfericitate (vezi).

6 [ bokeh ] (sometimes spelled boke) - refers to the blur, or more specifically, the quality of the blur in out-of-focus areas of a photograph. There is no firm definition for what is good or bad bokeh, since its degree of quality is in the eyes of the beholder. However it seems to be generally accepted that softer, smoother edges for blurred areas are preferred.

7 [ bokeh ] The effect of a soft out of focus background that you get when shooting a subject, usually a portrait using a fast lens at the widest aperture such as f/2.8 or wider.



he Japanese word for “blur.” A measure of how pleasing the background of an image is when blurred. Different lenses blur the background differently, resulting in different bokehs.

Underwatter Photography


1 [ bold ] A common font style. The stems of the glyphs are wider than in the normal font, giving the letters a darker impression. Bold is one of the few LGC styles that translate readily to other scripts.

2 [ bold face ] A heavy, stroked typeface, in which the negative space of counters is minimized; appears thick and massive; calls attention to itself in contrast to regular text for emphasis.

3 [ bold italics ] A typestyle in which the image face is both italicized (slanted from left to right) and bolded (darkened); used to create visual interest and emphasis.

4 [ bold or boldface: ] Using a heavier weight for each stroke of a typeface so that each letter appears with more emphasis. Bolding refers to any weight in a typeface that is thicker than the standard or regular variant of the font.

5 [ bold type ] A typestyle in which the image face is darkened; used to call attention to the text on which it is used.



1 [ boldface ] A dark typeface used for emphasis, usually heavier in weight.

2 [ boldface ] A typeface that has been enhanced by rendering it in darker, thicker strokes so that it will stand out on the page. Headlines that need emphasis should be boldface. Italics are preferable for emphasis in body text.

3 [ boldface type ] A thick, heavy variety of type, often used for emphasis.



A movie which is a financial disaster. Exception: in the United Kingdom, when used with 'down' (e.g. 'went down a bomb'), the term means a rousing success.On the web: IMDb Box Office Charts

imdb Movie Terminology

bond paper

Commonly used for writing, printing, photocopying, also called writing paper, business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper.

canon glossary us

book list

A list of the individual documents that are included in a complete publication.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


1 [ boom ] An adjustable arm, usually positioned on top of a stand, that extends a light or microphone over a subject.

2 [ boom ] A long mobile beam or pole used to hold a microphone or camera.

3 [ boom ] adjustable metal arm, attached to a firm stand, on which lighting can be mounted. Some booms are also made to support cameras.

4 [ boom arm ] A metal pole that attaches to a lighting stand and holds a flash head at the end. A counterbalance weight is also usually used. This is used to get the flash closer to the subject as well as over or under it.

5 [ boom microphone ] AKA:Boom Mic, Boom, Fishpole, GiraffeA long pole with a microphone on the end. The boom is extended out near the actors. Ideally, the microphone at the end should be placed in the camera's safe area.

6 [ boom operator ] A member of the sound crew who operates the boom microphone. See also sound recordist.

7 [ boom or mike shadow ] A frequent and unwelcome (especially when it moves) part of early television which is still with us on occasion. Solutions: a large, soft Key or Bounce Light; a high-angle Key that is sharply Cut with a Flag at the top of the subject's head. The sound-man may be able to boom-in from the opposite side or raise the mike slightly without sacrificing sound quality. Other types of microphones can be used which do not create shadow problems - only sound problems. Still photographers, count your technological blessings.


boom, boom stand

An arm or pole to which a microphone or light is attached, itself attached to a vertical stand usually counterweighted for stability.

canon glossary us

booster blue

1 [ booster blue ] Various blue gels or rarely, glass, used to increase the Kelvin of a source - such as: 1/8, 1/4, or 1/2 daylight blue.

2 [ booster light ] The fixture or illumination that helps to balance out-of-balance Exterior light.


boot time

The time it takes for a digital camera to be ready to take pictures after turning it on.

Photo Tips


An unofficial and illegally copied or distributed version of a movie, often of a substandard quality. Bootleg videos are often available for movies that have yet to be released in a particular country, or have been banned.

imdb Movie Terminology


A (modern~1911) Chinese (Mandarin) alphabet used to provide phonetic transliteration of Han ideographs in dictionaries.

Font Forge Glossary


mild alkali used in fine grain developing solutions to speed up the action of the solution.

ProFotos Education Glossary


1 [ border ] Decorative rule or design around matter (text, illustration, image, etc.) on page.

2 [ border ] edge of a photographic print either left white, or printed black.



1 [ borderless ] Quite simply, this means a printed photograph with no border around it.

2 [ borderless printing ] Photos with no white space between image and paper s edges. Also known as border-free printing, edge-to-edge printing.


boric (acid)

1 [ boric (acid) ] Substanta chimica folosita in unele formule de fixatoare pentru intarirea si cresterea rezistentei la zgariere a gelatinei filmelor.

2 [ boric acid ] compound used in certain fixers to prolong shier hardening life.


boudoir shoots

This sexy set of photographs is usually done separately from your soon-to-be-spouse and given to them as a gift. Unlike the rest of your wedding album, these aren't meant to be shared with anyone but each other—but you can bet they'll be fun to look at privately for years to come!

TheKnot wedding photograhy


1 [ bounce ] Alternating characters in an up and down position.

2 [ bounce ] Dispozitiv translucid de difuzie a luminii, care se aplica peste blitz in scopul de a diminua duritatea iluminarii cu flash-ul electronic.

3 [ bounce ] Dispozitiv translucid sau reflectorizant de difuzie a luminii, care se aplica peste/langa blitz in scopul de a diminua duritatea iluminarii cu flash-ul electronic.

4 [ bounce board ] A large white card made of foam or posterboard used to reflect soft light and for the soft key and fill.

5 [ bounce card ] A white or silver card used for soft indirect lighting of the subject by bouncing light off the card. Can also be used to provide a gentle brightening of shadow areas. Especially out-of-doors as it does not require power.

6 [ bounce card, bounce board ] A white reflecting panel used for Fill or subtle Kicks. See: Show card.

7 [ bounce flash ] Flash illumination of a subject by reflection off a surface (such as a ceiling or wall) as opposed to direct flash, which is flash light aimed straight at the subject. (Sometimes also called 'Bounce lighting,' especially when the light source is not from a flash.)

8 [ bounce head ] A feature of electronic flashguns that have a head that points upwards so that the light can be bounced off a ceiling to soften and spread the light.

9 [ bounce light ] A super-soft source produced by reflecting lights off white (or at least color-neutral) panels or walls. Also, the terminal treatment of lighting kits by belligerent or under-tipped baggage handlers.

10 [ bounce light ] light that is directed away from the subject toward a reflective surface.

11 [ bounce light ] Refers to a flash unit aimed at a reflecting surface, such as a wall or ceiling, to illuminate the subject with reflected light.

12 [ bounce light or bounced light ] Light reflected off a surface before striking (illuminating) the subject.

13 [ bounce light: ] In flash photography, directing the burst of light from the flash so it literally bounces off a ceiling, wall, or other surface before it illuminates the subject. This method of flash is often preferred because it softens the overall light and eliminates the harsh, frontal effect of an on-camera, straightforward flash.

14 [ bounce lighting ] Flash or tungsten light bounced off a reflector (such as the ceiling or walls) to give the effect of natural or available light.

15 [ bounce lighting ] Flash or tungsten lightbounced off a reflector (such as the ceiling or walls) or attachment that fits onthe flash (like the LumiQuest's Pocket Bouncer) to give the effect of natural oravailable light.


bounced light

Light that is reflected off a surface before reaching the subject. Flash is often bounced off a ceiling or card to soften the result. Reflectors can be used to bounce light into shadow areas to reduce contrast.



A person whose political, economic, and social values are believed to be determined mainly by concern for material wealth and conventional respectability (noun). Characteristic of those persons (adjective; often used synonymously with middle-class).



1 [ boustrophedon ] Writing 'as the ox plows', that is alternating between left to right and right to left writing directions. Early alphabets (Old Canaanite, and the very early greek writings (and, surprisingly, fuþark)) used this. Often the right to left glyphs would be mirrors of the left to right ones. As far as I know, no modern writing system uses this method (nor does OpenType have any support for it). See Also Bidi.

2 [ boustrophedon ] Writing with alternating tines written in opposite directions; one line is written from left to right, then the next line's letters are reversed, written from right to left.



Video distortion, straight lines appear curved. See also Barrel Distortion, Pincushioning.

canon glossary us


1 [ bowl ] A generally round or curved portion of a letter that encloses a counter. The exception in the lower curved part of a lowercase g, which is known as a loop.

2 [ bowl ] The curved part of the character that encloses the circular or curved parts (counter) of some letters such as ‘d’, ‘b’, ‘o’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ is the bowl.

3 [ bowl ] The enclosed oval or round curve of letters like 'D', 'g', b', and 'o'. In an open bowl, the stroke does not meet with the stem completely; a closed-bowl stroke meets the stem.

3 | BOWL


The fully-closed section of a letter created by single or adjoining strokes.

Font tympanus (codedrops)

box camera

1 [ box camera ] Simple camera with a fixed, single-element lens and a light-tight box to hold the film/sensor. The shutter and aperture are usually pre-determined and unalterable (typically 1/25 sec at ƒ11.) Early consumer cameras developed by George Eastman were box cameras (e.g. the 'Brownie' camera). They could not be focused, per se. The lens was set to a hyperfocal distance that gave acceptably-sharp pictures if the subject was a given distance from the camera and correct exposure depended upon bright sun illuminating the scene.

2 [ box camera ] simplest type of camera manufactured, and first introduced by George Eastman in 1888. It consists of a simple, single element lens, a light tight box and a place for film in the back.



AKA: Gross, B.O., BOA measure of the total amount of money paid by cinema-goers to view a movie.On the web: IMDb Box Office Charts

imdb Movie Terminology

bp (battery pack)

1 [ bp (battery pack) ] Sistem suplimentar de baterii folosit in alimentarea diverselor aparate foto pentru o autonomie crescuta.

2 [ bp (battery pack) ] Sistem suplimentar de baterii folosit in alimentarea diverselor aparate foto pentru o autonomie crescuta.



High capacity, rechargable lithium-Ion battery used in both camcorders and EOS D-series cameras.

canon glossary us


1 [ bps ] Short for Bits Per Second, the measurement of the speed of digital data traveling through a device.

2 [ bps ] Short for Bytes Per Second, the measurement of the speed of digital data traveling through a device.

2 | BPS


1 [ bracket ] The bracket is a curved or wedge-like connection between the stem and serif of some fonts. Not all serifs are bracketed serifs.

2 [ bracket flash ] Often called handlemount flash. It comprised of one arm of the L-shaped bracket extends under the camerabody and uses the camera's tripod socket to mount the camera on the bracket. Thevertical arm of the bracket serves as a handle and mounts a flash unit in an accessoryshoe often on top of the handle portion, but there are other methods. Flash mountedin a bracket usually requires a separate electrical cord to make the electrical connectionbetween camera body and flash unit.

3 [ bracket or bracketing ] Refers to taking a series of pictures, at least three, of the same subject with varying exposures - (1) the main exposure, which is presumed to be correct, but may not be; (2) an overexposure, generally of one or s stop’s difference from the main exposure, and (3) an underexposure of one or two stop’s difference from the main exposure. The theory behind exposure bracketing is that the photographer is not certain that the main exposure is best for the subject matter, and the subsequent different exposures will provide 'insurance' that at least one of the images will be acceptably exposed. Sometimes, though, the photographer may simply want to see the effects of different exposures of a scene. The term 'bracket' is analogous with grammatical brackets or parentheses, where they are located on either end of a phrase. 'Bracketed' exposures fall on either side of the exposure that is presumed to be correct. Note:White balance can also be bracketed in many digital cameras.



1 [ bracket: ] Making exposures above and below the normal exposure, or overriding the exposure suggested by the camera s autoexposure system. Useful as a fail-safe method for getting correct exposure in difficult lighting conditions. Bracketing can also be used to make subtle changes in the nuance of tone and light in any scene. With slide film, bracketing will show an effect in 1/3 stop increments with negative film a full stop of bracketing is advised.

2 [ bracket: ] The curve that connects the serif to the stem or stroke. Less often known as a fillet.


bracketed serif

A serif in which the transition from the stem stroke to the serif stroke is one continuous curve, Serifs may have differing degrees of bracketing.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


1 [ bracketing ] Can apply to flash or exposure. It is used to create usually 3 photographs. One photo is exposed by the cameras meter automatically, one under exposed and one overexposed by a predetermined number of stops. Also “exposure bracketing”.

2 [ bracketing ] Method of exposing one or more exposures on either side of the predicted exposure to obtain the best result.

3 [ bracketing ] Taking additional pictures of the subject through a range of exposures—both lighter and darker—when unsure of the correct exposure.

4 [ bracketing ] taking a series of images at different exposures or EV. You may see a setting on your camera that says AEB (auto exposure bracketing). This is often used when creating HDR images or in difficult lighting situations where you may want to have a range of exposures from light to dark.

5 [ bracketing ] – Setting a camera to automatically take two to six quick shots with a change in a single setting to increase the chance of getting a perfect shot. The most common kind of auto-bracketing is exposure bracketing, but ISO, white balance, flash and focus can also be bracketed in many cameras.

6 [ bracketing ] Bracketing involves taking multiple images of the same scene, usually in 1/3, 1/2, or full-stop increments, to create a choice of exposure options. Many cameras offer the option of bracketing as a custom function. An advanced application of bracketing is HDR imaging (High Dynamic Range) in which several bracketed images are sampled in-camera and selectively combined into a single, optimized image file.

7 [ bracketing ] Modalitate de obicei automata de a varia expunerea cu un numar de trepte de diafragma sau de fractiuni de diafragma, pentru ca din citeva expuneiri una sa fie in mod sigur buna. Exista si braketing de claritate si de temperatura de culoare, si al aparatului sau al blitzului.

8 [ bracketing ] Modalitate de obicei automata de a varia expunerea cu un numar de trepte de diafragma sau de fractiuni de diafragma, pentru ca din câteva expunerii una sa fie in mod sigur buna. Exista si braketing de claritate si de temperatura de culoare, si al aparatului sau al blitzului.

9 [ bracketing ] Photographers shooting tricky jobs may make safety Exposures above and below the right one, generally at 1/2- or 2/3-Stop intervals.

10 [ bracketing ] See Exposure bracketing.

11 [ bracketing ] Take a series of pictures at different exposures.

12 [ bracketing ] Taking a series ofphotographs of the same subject at different exposures to insure the ''correct''exposure; useful when shooting in situations where a normal metering reading is difficultto obtain. Taking additional pictures of the subject through a range of exposures-bothlighter and darker-when unsure of the correct exposure.Some top cameras have provisionfor automatic bracketing, while manually you can bracket by the use of, say, adjustapertures or shuttle speeds setting or both, manually influent the ASA setting oreven adjust the flash output power etc..

13 [ bracketing ] Taking multiple exposures of the same scene using different exposures, to ensure proper exposure is attained. Exposures can range from two on up, e.g. metered exposure, one f/stop more exposure, one f/stop less exposure. Some cameras offer automated bracketing, with one press of the shutter button, and the number and range of over- and under-exposures defined by the user.

14 [ bracketing ] The filming of several takes of the same shot at different f-stops to achieve the desired result. Usually this technique is applied to shooting titles much more than anything else. (It is a good idea to film a few frames of black in-between since it is sometimes difficult to tell where the camera was stopped.)

15 [ bracketing ] technique of shooting a number of pictures of the same subject and viewpoint at different levels of exposure.

16 [ bracketing ] An exposure technique to assure an accurate, or preferable, exposure by shooting a sequence of images at different settings.



Shooting a subject 3 times, with the 2nd and 3rd shot at higher and lower exposures. Used to ensure a correct exposure or for blending multiple exposures into an HDR image.

Underwatter Photography


The symbols used in algebraic formulas, (,).

ProximaSoftware Glossary


The place where type is divided; may be the end of a line or paragraph, or as it reads best in display type.

ProximaSoftware Glossary

breakdown script

AKA: BreakdownA detailed list of all items, people, props, equipment, etc required for a shoot on a day-by-day basis. Recording such lists aids in continuity and allows optimization of the time of actors and the crew.

imdb Movie Terminology

breaking the frame (stereoscopic)

1 [ breaking the frame (stereoscopic) ] In a 3D video, when a stereo object intersects the picture frame at any point, it is said to be breaking the frame. This intersection causes contradictory visual depth cues -- one says the object is in front of the frame, the other that the object is behind the frame.

2 [ breaking the motion barrier ] The challenge still photographers face when they cross over into video and film and deal with time and movement as they affect lighting. See: Consistency of lighting; Moving Lights; and Moving Subjects.


bridal portrait

Traditionally, the bride would go to a photographer's studio a few months before the wedding to be photographed in her gown (perhaps even holding a replica of her bouquet). While this is now less common, some women still choose to pose for this formal shot so they can include it in their wedding announcement. A modern take on this is the engagement shoot (see below).

TheKnot wedding photograhy

bridge camera

1 [ bridge camera ] – This camera type falls between simple point-and-shoots and DSLRs or mirrorless cameras in both size and capabilities. They generally incorporate some advanced features — such as larger sensors, more powerful processors or sophisticated controls — but their lenses are not removable. Some bridge cameras have very long zoom lenses; 30X or greater is not uncommon.

2 [ bridge camera ] The term originated in reference to film cameras that 'bridged the gap' between point-and-shoot cameras and SLRs. Today, a bridge camera refers mainly to a digital camera with a fixed lens that has some of the characteristics of both point-and-shoot and dSLR cameras, usually with a relatively small sensor. Bridge cameras are sometimes referred to as Superzoom cameras because their lenses typically have a very wide range of focal lengths.



1 [ bridging ] High impedance video line is parallel to video source.

2 [ bridging shot ] A shot used to cover a jump in time or place or other discontinuity. Examples are falling calendar pages, railroad wheels, newspaper headlines and seasonal changes.

3 [ bridging shot ] A shot used to cover a jump in time or place or other discontinuity. Examples are: falling calendar pages | railroad wheels | newspaper headlines | seasonal changes |



method of illumination used in photomicrography which will show a specimen against a white or light background.

ProFotos Education Glossary

brightline viewfinder

viewfinder in which the subject is outlined by a bright frame, apparently suspended in space. This may show parallax correction marks, or lines indicating the fields of view of different focal lengths.

ProFotos Education Glossary


1 [ brightness ] Value of a pixel in a digital image giving its value of lightness from black to white, with o being black and 255 being white.

2 [ brightness ] The value of a pixel in an electronic image, representing its lightness value from black to white. Usually defined as brightness levels ranging in value from 0 (black) to 255 (white)

3 [ brightness ] The degree of luminance or light intensity in an image or a scene. Pure white has maximum brightness; pure black the minimum.

4 [ brightness (photo) ] In a histogram, graphic representation of tonal distribution of captured image, from darkest to lightest tones, with accurate detail. Each image pixel can record any one of 256 levels of brightness, from pure black to pure white, histogram shows how brightness levels are distributed in image.

5 [ brightness (print) ] Adjustment controlling lightness and darkness of an image, measured by percentage of reflected light.

6 [ brightness (projector) ] Projectors, measured in ANSI lumens, requirements depend on image size, audience size, amount of ambient light, etc.

7 [ brightness range ] The difference in luminance from the darkest to lightest areas of the image.

8 [ brightness range ] The range of brightness between an image's highlights and shadow areas.

9 [ brightness range ] subjective term describing the difference in illumination between the darkest and lightest areas of the subject.

10 [ brightness ratio, contrast ratio ] The all-too-often awful truth about a subject or scene that has inappropriate or excessive Contrast. Meter reading procedure: Take two reflected-light readings: 1) the lightest significant area of the subject or scene and 2) the darkest. Divide 1) by 2). Each medium or method of reproduction has different brightness ratio limits. Movie theaters can project a maximum of about 125:1 (7 stops plus); modern, well-adjusted video cameras 30 or, some pros suggest, 40:1. Also see: Lighting Ratio and Contrast.


brightness, luminance

A measure of a surface's or subject's reflectivity in a given direction.

Tiffan edu Glossary


The luminance of objects. The brightness of any area of the subject is dependent on how much light falls on it and how reflective it is. Brightness range is the relationship we perceive between the light and dark subjects in a scene. Brightness contrast is a judgment of the relative measure of that range, such as high, low, or normal. Brightness values are sometimes referred to as EV (exposure values), a combination of aperture and shutter speed. Brightness values in the scene are translated to tonal values on film.



intensity of light reflected from a surface. It is sometimes an alternative term for luminosity.

ProFotos Education Glossary

brilliant colortm

Developed by Texas Instruments for its DLP projectors, produces six channels of color (red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, yellow) for increase in color gamut.

canon glossary us

british academy of film and television arts

1 [ british academy of film and television arts ] AKA: BAFTA

2 [ british film commission ] AKA: BFCThe British Film Commission (BFC) is a government-funded organisation established in 1991, as an initial point of contact to assist in the making of international and domestic film and television throughout every stage of production in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. It is now known as the UK Film Council.On the web: Official Home Page

3 [ british film institute ] AKA: BFIThe BFI exists to promote greater understanding and appreciation of, and access to, film and moving image culture in the UK.On the web: Official Home Page

4 [ british society of cinematographers ] AKA: BSCOn the web: Official Home Page


broad lighting

1 [ broad lighting ] Broad lighting occurs when the main light illuminates the side of the subject's face that is turned toward the camera.

2 [ broad lighting ] portrait lighting in which the main light source illuminates the side of the face closes to the camera.

3 [ broad lighting ] When photographing a portrait subject, broad lighting is the technique whereby you place the main light on the side of the face which is facing the camera and light source. It is often used to give a fuller look to the subject's face.


broad, broad light

Typically, a semi-hard, non-focusing light with a wide Beam Angle. Unlike a true Soft Light, direct illumination from the Lamp is not blocked and the Aperture is usually smaller.

Tiffan edu Glossary


Transmission method with two or more signals sharing same carrier, or, popularly, high-speed data transmission.

canon glossary us


A heavy fabric interwoven with a rich, raised design.



obsolete, special method of producing a bromide print. The result acquired the texture of its support and appeared similar to an etching.

ProFotos Education Glossary

bromide paper

1 [ bromide paper ] Printing paper mainly with silver bromide emulsion.

2 [ bromide paper ] most common type of photographic printing paper. It is coated with an emulsion of silver bromide to reproduce black & white images.



1 [ bromoil ] Bromoil printing has the advantage that images are created from bromide enlargements - so 5x4 inch or 8x10 inch internegatives are not required. The bromide print is bleached, leaving behind a faint image, which then picks up an pigment applied by means of a brush. Any colour of pigment may be used.

2 [ bromoil process ] old printing process invented in 1907, consisting of three stages. First, an enlargement is made on bromide paper and processed. Second, the silver image is removed in a bleacher which also modifies the gelatin so it will accept lithographic ink. Third, while still damp the gelatin is inked up by hand to create the image.



Alloy of copper and tin, used for cast sculpture. Bronze sculpture is made from this alloy. Hence bronzist, a maker of bronze sculpture, plaques, etc.

Vizual Art Cork


Ink -- particulalry black ink -- takes on undesirable reddish-brown color upon drying.

canon glossary us


Asezarea filelor si legarea într-o coperta moale.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A


1 [ brownie ] Aparat fotografic de tip box, fabricat de Kodak, lansat in 1900 la pretul de 1 USD, care a facut accesibila fotografia pentru milioane de utilizatori.

2 [ brownie ] Brand name of Kodak’s first consumer box cameras.

3 [ brownie ] trade name given to early Kodak box cameras.



To look randomly through a collection - for example, a number of images or a website's pages.

Photo Tips


The application you use to surf the Internet. Microsofts Internet Explorer is the most common browsers for Mac and PC platforms. Other common ones are Mozilla Firefox, Opera and Netscape Navigator.



1 [ brush ] Implement for applying paint, usually of hog or sable hair set in a wooden handle.

2 [ brush development ] method of development in which developer is applied to the material with a brush or similar instrument.

3 [ brush stroke ] The individual mark made by each application of paint with a BRUSH, usually retaining the mark of the separate brush hairs.



1 [ brushwork ] General term for manner or style in which paint is applied, and often considered by art historians as an identifying characteristic of a particular artist's work.

2 [ brushwork ] The manner in which a painter applies paint with a brush.


bs (basque)

(appended to a font or volume name) Language support; includes all necessary accents for Basque.

Font Shop Glosary


1 [ bsi ] British Standards Institute - institutul britanic de standardizare.

2 [ bsi ] abbreviation for British Standards Institute.

2 | BSI


1 [ bss ] (Best Shot Selector) tehnologie folosita de Nikon prin care se efectueaza automat pana la zece declansari, imaginile sunt stocate in memoria-tampon si analizate de procesorul camerei; doar cea mai clara si bogata in detalii imagine este apoi salvata pe cardul de memorie.

2 [ bss (best shot selector) ] An exclusive Nikon technology, Best Shot Selector automatically selects the image with the sharpest focus from a series of up to ten consecutive images; only the sharpest shot is saved to the memory card. When Best Shot Selector is chosen, a series of images are stored in the camera's memory where they are evaluated by the camera's computer. The single image with the highest level of detail is then automatically transferred to the memory card.


bubble chamber photography

1 [ bubble chamber photography ] method of analyzing the paths of highspeed subatomic particles.

2 [ bubble effect ] Bubble Effect is a special effect found in select Nikon COOLPIX cameras such as the S32, it allows you to bubble effect to your images, so your subject will look as if it is projected on a bubble. A guide will be displayed in the monitor, and you simply compose your shot so the subject is within the guide.

3 [ bubble jet ] vezi Imprimanta jet.

4 [ bubble jet ] Canon's name for its inkjet printing system.



Slang for the US Dollar.IMDb Box Office Charts

imdb Movie Terminology


1 [ buffer ] Temporary storage areas held in your camera or computers RAM. This acts as a temporary holding area for data that will be manipulated by the CPU before saving it to another device. For example if you are shooting in continuous mode, when the RAM buffer on your digital camera is full it will slow to a much slower rate while the buffer empties to your compact flash card or other device.

2 [ buffer ] A temporary storage area usually held in RAM and used as a temporary holding area for data

3 [ buffer ] Temporary storage of data so that other applications can continue to run while the data is being transferred.

4 [ buffer ] chemical substance used to maintain the alkalinity of a developing solution, particularly in the presence of bromine which is produced during development.

5 [ buffer ] Memory in a camera or digital device that stores information before it is written to a storage source.

6 [ buffer memory ] A buffer memory is a temporary holding area for image data waiting to be processed in a camera. Buffers enable a camera to continue capturing new image files without having to shut down while previous image files are processed. Printers also make use of buffers, which allow you to queue up several pictures at a time while the printer outputs previously queued-up image files.

7 [ buffer memory ] A temporary storage area/device holding data from the image sensor before it is handled by the image processor.

8 [ buffer ram ] Memorie rapida, pentru stocarea temporara informatiilor, dupa care acestea sunt scrise pe card (a carui viteza de scriere este mult mai lenta); in acest fel se pot efectua mai multe poze, in succesiune rapida.

9 [ buffer ram ] Memorie rapida, pentru stocarea temporara informatiilor, dupa care acestea sunt scrise pe card (a carui viteza de scriere este mult mai lenta); in acest fel se pot efectua mai multe poze, in succesiune rapida.



The action of the digital camera preloading data into a reserved area of its memory. Certain Nikon cameras feature modes that utilize the buffering of image or video data specific to the chosen mode.With regards to the Nikon 1 camera system, the camera fills the buffer with data before the shutter is fully depressed. When using the Smart Photo Selector mode, the camera stores this pre-recorded data and can access it if the data holds the best shots taken. When using the Motion Snapshot mode, the video captured before and after the still image is captured is stored in the camera's buffer for use in creating the final Motion Snapshot.

Nikon Grossary


A problem in software or hardware that was'nt discovered when it was originally created. This can cause conflicts, erratic operation and crashes and can often be fixed by introducing an upgrade programme or installing a newer bug-free version.


built environment

Human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity.


built-in flash

1 [ built-in flash ] A flash unit that is an integral part of a camera, attached to the camera body. Some built-in flash heads may be designed to automatically pop up and fire when the ambient light is insufficient for proper exposure.

2 [ built-in light meter ] A reflective exposure meter that is a built-in component of a camera.

3 [ built-in loop through ] Allows second screen or projector to be connected, displaying same signal. Often found in education-use projectors.

4 [ built-in meter ] See Built-In Light Meter (above).


builtin meter

reflective light meter built directly into the camera so that exposures can be easily made for the cameras position.

ProFotos Education Glossary


1 [ bulb ] Flashbulbs - A special flashbulbthat can be used at certain shutter speeds is called ''

2 [ bulb ] Term used for a long exposure setting normally more than 30 seconds. The start of the exposure is made by pressing the shutter, only ending when the shutter button is released. Excellent for night photography and a remote release is recommended to prevent camera shake as you press the shutter button.

3 [ bulb ] the “B” setting on your camera where the shutter remains opened as long as the button or cable release (remote trigger) is pressed. On a Canon it may be on your mode dial on top of the camera, or at the low end of the shutter speed settings (also where it is on a Nikon)

4 [ bulb ] ) – A setting on the shutter speed dial of a film camera that allows you to keep the shutter open for as long as the shutter release is held.

5 [ bulb ] The glass part only of a photo Lamp.

6 [ bulb ] A setting that permits the camera's shutter to remain open so long as the shutter release button is depressed. (Note that the button must remain depressed. The shutter closes when the shutter button is no longer held down.) Used for extreme low lighting situations, situations where blur is desired or where proper exposure requires a long shutter opening.

7 [ bulb ] See B.

8 [ bulb (b setting) ] A shutter speed setting that holds the shutter open for as long as the shutter release button remains pressed. Commonly used for long time-exposures. When using the Bulb setting, use a cable release to make sure you don't cause camera shake.

9 [ bulb (b) ] Timp lung de expunere, utilizat pentru fotografie de noapte. Obturatorul ramâne deschis atâta timp cat butonul de declansare este apasat.

10 [ bulb (b) ] Timp lung de expunere; obturatorul se deschide la apasarea butonului declansator si se inchide la ridicarea degetului.

11 [ bulb mode ] A camera shutter setting with shutter open as long as shutter button is held down, or as long as remote release accessory is engaged.


bulk film

1 [ bulk film ] Film sold in long uncut lengths. It usually works out much cheaper in this form and is cut into required lengths.

2 [ bulk film ] Film produced in very long, uncut strips - rolls that are too long to fit into cameras not equipped with a bulk camera back accessory. Many photographers buy their film in bulk, then load the bulk film into a 'bulk film loader' which permits them to cut the bulk film into however many frames they wish, and to load the smaller strips into film cartridges that permit film reloading. It is an economical way to purchase film.

3 [ bulk film ] film purchased in long lengths. Used in a bulk camera back or with a bulk film loader.



Component on underwater housings that allows connection of electronic sync cords.

Underwatter Photography


1 [ bullet ] A dot or other special character placed at the left of items in a list to show that they are individual, but related, points.

2 [ bullet ] A typeset character (a large dot or symbol) used to itemize lists or direct attention to the beginning of a line. (See dingbat.)

3 [ bullet camera ] Taking its name from its shape, security camera similar to spot cam, small, narrow. Limited by fixed focal length lens (not zoom).


bun de tipar

1. Acordul dat de catre client sau de catre responsabilul cu calitatea din cadrul tipografiei cu privire la calitatea produsului tiparit

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A

bundesverband kamera (german society of cinematographers)

AKA: BVKOn the web: BVKamera.org

imdb Movie Terminology


(appended to a font volume name) A discounted font volume.

Font Shop Glosary

buon fresco

see: fresco.

Vizual Art Cork

burduf port-obiectiv

Subansamblu elastic ce se interpune intre corpul camerei foto si obiectiv si care permite variatia continua a tirajului. Se utilizeaza mai ales in macrofotografie.



Metal tool used for engraving

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ burn ] Permanent freezing of image onto camera or monitor display surface.

2 [ burn in ] On a CRT screen, this spot, streak, or blemish doesn t go away regardless of the image being displayed. Usually caused by extended display of a contrasty image.



1 [ burning ] darkroom technique that singles out specific pieces of a photograph to add more light to the exposure of the photographic paper, thus darkening the spot.

2 [ burning ] Selectively darkening part of a photo using an image editing program or a mechanical technique in a traditional darkroom. Also the writing of material to a CD or DVD.

3 [ burning (1) or burning-in ] Also known as 'Printing in.' In a darkroom, providing extra exposure to an area of the print to make it darker, while blocking light from the rest of the print. (2) The act of copying data (e.g. photographic images) onto a CD or a DVD, also known as 'writing.'

4 [ burning in ] see Printingin.

5 [ burning up ] Overly bright, washed-out parts of a scene or subject, often as a result of subjects moving too close to an intense source. See: Moving Subjects, Graduated Scrim, and Floater for remedies.



1 [ burning-in ] Giving additional exposure to part of the image projected on an enlarger easel to make that area of the print darker. This is accomplished after the basic exposure by extending the exposure time to allow additional image-forming light to strike the areas in the print you want to darken while holding back the image-forming light from the rest of the image. Sometimes called printing-in.

2 [ burning-in ] Basically, a darkroomprocess that gives additional exposure to part of the image projected on an enlargereasel to make that area of the print darker. This is accomplished after the basicexposure by extending the exposure time to allow additional image-forming light tostrike the areas in the print you want to darken while holding back the image-forminglight from the rest of the image. Sometimes called printing-in.

3 [ burning-in ] Darkroom technique used to darken selected areas of a print. Several image-editing programs also include a similar tool to darken pixels.

4 [ burning-in ] Procedeu folosit in laborator, prin care se expune suplimentar, cu ajutorul unei masti, o portiune din cadru pentru a-i creste gradul de inegrire.



In darkroom work, giving additional exposure to a portion of a print made from a negative to add density and tonal information. Often used to balance tones in contrasty scenes. The same term is used in digital darkroom programs.



Jargon that refers to loss of details in the highlight portion of a scene due to overexposure. With slide film, it might mean that no image detail has been recorded on the film, or that highlights show no texture or tonal information. A highly burnt-out, or burnt-up slide may show clear film base in overexposed areas.



1 [ burst ] Anumite aparate de fotografiat pot fi setate sau construite pentru a face fotografii in rafala - modul burst.

2 [ burst ] Fotografie in rafala, cu cadenta de mai multe imagini pe secunda.

3 [ burst (continuous) ] The digital SLRs' version of a film camera's motor drive sequence.

4 [ burst (photo) ] A rapid sequence of still images, up to about 10 frames per second (fps). Often used for photographing moving objects.

5 [ burst (video) ] A portion of the video sync signal controlling hue and color accuracy.

6 [ burst mode ] Also know as continuous mode or “Auto wind” on older SLR’s. However, today’s Digital SLR’s have bust modes of up to 8 frames per second. Great for sports and action shots.

7 [ burst mode ] An informally-used name for the camera setting which allows the capture of a rapid sequence of still images.

8 [ burst mode ] The ability to rapidly capture images as long as the shutter button is held down

9 [ burst phase ] A color camera control which adjusts the timing of the burst signal, varying the picture s color hues. May be found on other video gear.

10 [ burst rate ] The number of consecutive images a digital camera can capture continuously before filling the memory buffer or memory card. To capture a burst of images, the camera must first be locked into Burst mode or Continuous mode.

11 [ burst rate ] The number of digital still images captured in rapid sequence.

12 [ burst rate ] The number of photographs per minute that can be taken with a given camera. Time delays occur because the camera must save image data when a picture is taken and get ready for the next shot to be captured.



1 [ bus ] A subsystem transferring data between components inside a computer or between computers and peripherals, e.g. USB, FireWire.

2 [ bus network ] Transmission medium serves as connection between all attached terminals, easiest, cheapest way to connect multiple clients. Computer motherboards, Ethernet networks use bus architecture.



Portrait sculpture showing the sitter's head and shoulders only. See Portrait Busts.

Vizual Art Cork

butterfly lighting

1 [ butterfly lighting ] A slightly high-angle, slightly Diffused source, cen-tered on a (frequently female) subject's face to minimize nose shadow, skin texture, and double chins and emphasize cheekbones and beauty. See also: On-the-nose Key

2 [ butterfly lighting ] In a studio, the main light is placed fairly high, directly in front of the face - aimed at the center of the nose. It casts a shadow shaped like a butterfly beneath the nose.

3 [ butterfly lighting ] lighting in which the main source of light is placed high and directly in front of the subject.

4 [ butterfly lighting ] A lighting technique that is flattering when used with most portrait subjects. It is called Butterfly lighting because of the distinctive butterfly shaped shadow that is present under the subject's nose from the placement of the light(s). The main light is placed above and in the same direction the subject is facing and so produces even, soft light.

5 [ butterfly or overhead ] Diffusion material, in a large sheet, erected like a tent over the subject to soften light.


butterfly, overhead

A large frame with a fabric diffuser or net to soften or reduce harsh sun or light. A miracle-worker when you have a calm day, a stand (two for an Over-head), weights, and the crew to Rig it or a studio to hang it.

Tiffan edu Glossary


Graphic element inside interface representing embedded action, function.

canon glossary us


1 [ byte ] A collection of 8-bits of memory in a computer. I.e. 8 bits is a Byte, 1000 bytes is a Kilobyte (KB) or 8000 bytes, 1000Kb is a Megabyte (MB) or 8,000,000 bytes and so on.

2 [ byte ] 8 bits or 10 bits.

3 [ byte ] A group of 8 bits, the basic unit of information for the computer

4 [ byte ] The standard measurement of a digital file size. One byte is eight binary digits (bits), allowing 255 possible combinations of 1s and Os. A kilobyte (KB - not to be confused with kb [kilobit]) is 1024 bytes.

5 [ byte ] (pronounced 'bite') is the standard unit of digital storage. A byte is composed of 8 bits. (See 'Bit' above.)8 bits = 1 byte (e.g. 10110101)1 kilobyte (KB) = 1,024 bytes1 megabyte (MB) = 1,048,576 bytes or 1,024 kilobytes1 gigabyte (GB) = 1,024 megabytes 1 terabyte (TB) = 1024 gigabytes (1,099,511,627,776 bytes)

6 [ byte ] A unit of measurement of information storage equaling eight bits.

6 | BYTE

byzantine art

Of the eastern Roman Empire centred on Constantinople, formerly Byzantium, from the 4th century AD. At various times it embraced both Classical Greek realism and stylized, hieratic, Oriental art.

Vizual Art Cork

bézier curve or bézier splines

Bézier curves are described in detail in the Bézier section of the main manual.

Font Forge Glossary



1 [ c ] 1. fotografiere in rafala (Nikon, Canon EOS modele mai vechi), 2. focalizare continua (Minolta).

2 [ c ] 1. fotografiere in salva (Nikon, Canon EOS modele mai vechi), 2. focalizare continua (Minolta).

3 [ c ] Short for Chrominance or color portion of a video signal.

4 [ c 41 ] Kodak's standard chemicalprocess for developing color negative film, an industrial reference standard.

5 [ c clamp ] One of several ways to attach a light to a ladder, for example.

6 [ c drive ] Your computer's main hard drive, on which your operating system is found, among other applications and files.

7 [ c format ] (Classic format) format al imaginii in care raportul laturilor este 3:2 (sau apropiat).



CRC (Close Range CorrectionSystem): Check Nikon's terms page for more.''Classic''format - one of the three selectable Advanced Photo System print formats; identicalto the 2:3 aspect ratio used in 35 mm photography and suitable for most general-purposeshots.

Mir glossary


1 [ c-41 ] A chromogenic color print film developing process. C-41 is the most popular film process in use.

2 [ c-41 ] Procedura de developare a negativelor color folosita de Kodak (si compatibile).

3 [ c-41 ] The standard processing formula for most colour negative and chromogenic films.

4 [ c-41 ] Kodak’s standard photochemical process for developing color negative film.

4 | C-41


The current process for all standard color negative films.



1 [ c-mount ] A lens-to-camera connector with thread 1 inch (25mm) in diameter, 32 threads per inch, and with 7.526mm (0.69 in) distance from the camera s CCD to the rear mounting surface of the lens. Found in older versions of security cameras, with 17.5mm flange back distance, to achieve focus needs 5mm ring inserted between camera and lens.

2 [ c-mount ] A screw mount type of lens, commonly used on smaller 16mm cameras, like the Bolex.

3 [ c-mount ] Montura pentru camere de filmat, cu diametrul interior de 1 inch, pas de 1/32 inch si distanta pana la planul filmului de 0,69 inch.



A Type C print, C-print, or Kodak C-print, is a color photographic print made on negative-type color photographic paper which has at least three emulsion layers of light-sensitive silver salts. Type C is a negative-to-positive chromogenic print. The most common Type C print process is RA-4 . It is the most common format of color photographs.

galery 51


A type of light stand with fixed legs that swing out, or together when not in use, usually equipped with an arm, and typically used to hold a flag.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


Abbreviation for Camera Roll.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


Stands for Color Temperature Blue. This is an abbreviation for the color correction gels used in lighting to convert the color temperature from tungsten to daylight. They come in gradients: Quarter Blue, Half Blue, Full Blue.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


Stands for Color Temperature Orange. This is an abbreviation for the color correction gels used in lighting to convert the color temperature from daylight to tungsten. They come in gradients: Quarter Orange, Half Orange, Full Orange.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


(catod) pol negativ.


cabinet picture

small or medium-sized painting executed at an easel, and designed for collectors, especially popular from the 17th century; see Easel Picture.

Vizual Art Cork

cable drive

1 [ cable drive ] Remote control of a camera s focus and zoom using a system of cranks or knobs and cables mounted on or near a tripod s handles.

2 [ cable guard ] Metal shields to move cables aside so the camera dolly doesn t hit or roll over them.

3 [ cable release ] Cable which allows the shutter to be fired with minimum vibration or camera shake; essential for long exposures.

4 [ cable release ] A cable that plugs into your cameras shutter release button and eliminate camera shake from the force of pushing the shutter release by hand.

5 [ cable release ] A cable that screws into the camera (on film camera bodies usually into the shutter release, on digital bodies elsewhere) so the shutter can be fired remotely with minimal shake. Some have a lock so that the shutter can be held open on the B setting.

6 [ cable release ] A flexible cable with a push-button on one end that, when depressed, forces a wire through the cable to depress a camera’s shutter release button. The cable release attaches to the camera directly over the shutter release button. A cable release has minimal effect on camera movement, and is therefore especially handy for the photographer who wishes to avoid blur in time exposures.

7 [ cable release ] e and button device designed to allow photographers to trip the camera's shutter without touching the camera. Generally used with a tripod-mounted camera to insure even greater steadiness.

8 [ cable release: ] A flexible encased wire attached to a threaded metal coupler that screws into the shutter release button on the camera. When one end of the wire is depressed with a plunger the other end activates the shutter. Electronic cable releases for all-electronic cameras work with electrical impulses rather than mechanical plungers. Usually, the two types are incompatible. Useful for long exposures to avoid camera shake and for remote release of the shutter.

9 [ cable sync ] A somewhat archaic method of sync sound shooting, where a cable runs from a Pilot tone generator in the camera to the tape recorder.



Alternative to cable TV set-top box. Allows consumer option to choose type of set-top box wanted, rather than one imposed by cable company. PMCIA-type card handling decryption. New version proposes interactive features, e.g. pay-per-view, interactive program guides.

canon glossary us


An area of internal memory that temporarily holds reusable data to ensure a faster access time. Large programmes, such as PhotoShop, require quite a bit of cache, otherwise they get very slow.



The process that saves bitmaps in memory or on the printer's hard disk in order to minimize the amount of time spent generating bitmaps. The first time a particular letter is imaged, its bitmap is generated and cached. Subsequent uses of that letter can use the cached version for huge performance gains.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


Short for Computer Assisted Drawing.

canon glossary us


Element chimic folosit, sub forma de sulfura de cadmiu, in exponometrele vechi. In prezent nu se mai foloseste.



1 [ caf ] Focalizare automata continua (Contax).

2 [ caf ] Focalizare automata continua (Contax).

2 | CAF


A photographic alternative process whereby caffeine, sodium carbonate and optionally Vitamin C are used in aqueous solution as a film and print photographic developer.

Guid to Film Photography

calculator dial

Adjustable scale on an electronic flash unit that, once it is set with the film speed or your digital camera's ISO sensitivity setting, is used to determine the appropriate aperture for the flash-to-subject distance.

Photo Tips


Named for a stack of smooth calendar rollers made of metal that paper is run across to give a smooth fin-ish to the sheet. Often the paper is flooded with a liquid clay-like coating before it's run through the calendaring stacks, which gives a hard, shiny surface to the paper.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


1 [ calibrare ] Proces de ajustare a unui lant de prelucrare digitala a fotografiilor (camera fotografica digitala/scanner, monitorul calculatorului si imprimanta), astfel incat sa se obtina rezultate corecte.

2 [ calibrare ] Proces de ajustare a unui lant de prelucrare digitala a fotografiilor (camera fotografica digitala/scanner, monitorul calculatorului si imprimanta), astfel încât sa se obtina rezultate corecte.



Adjust using reference as standard.

canon glossary us


1 [ calibration ] Sets each device in the post-production pipeline to a specific standard. Calibration ensures all devices acquire, display, and output an accurate image.

2 [ calibration ] > The act of adjusting the colour of one device to match that of another. For example when you match the calibration of your screen to that of your printer to ensure what you see is what you print. It is also used in the film SLR’s Canon EOS-3 and EOS 5 which have eye-controlled focussing. You calibrate the cameras focussing to where your eye is looking in the viewfinder. (Some fighter planes also have this. The missile follows the trajectory of the pilot’s eye).

3 [ calibration ] Comparing something to a known standard, e.g. using spectrophotometer on monitors, printers, projectors to match output colors to known color standard.

4 [ calibration ] Estimation of the specific parameters of a device; for example, the main calibration parameters of a sensor are sensitivity, spectral responsitivity, and noise; the main parameters of a lens are distortion, vignetting, chromatic aberration and MTF.


california job case

The large drawers of shallow height used to sort hand-set lead type into small compartments that were arranged based on the frequency of use of the char-acters.

ProximaSoftware Glossary

call sheet

A listing of which actors will be required for which scenes, and when they will be required. Call sheets are created by assistant directors and others.

imdb Movie Terminology


In typography, this usually refers to Roman or Italic alphabets which appear to have been written with a pen or brush. Derived from the Greek word 'kalligraphia,' which means 'beauMful writing.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


1 [ calligraphy ] Decorative handwriting or lettering.

2 [ calligraphy ] The Oriental fine art of drawing/writing.



A selection of type (word or phrase) that is set in larger or bolder type from the body-copy font for emphasis.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


Procedeu fotografic inventat de W.H.F. Talbot in care hartia este sensibilizata cu iodura de argint (deseori numit si Talbotipie).



A photographic process patented by William Henry Fox Talbot in England and Wales on 8 February 1841, also known as Talbotype.The process was a significant enhancement of Talbot's photogenic drawing process and used silver iodide combined with gallic acid to enhance its sensitivity. After exposure the paper was developed to produce a negative and then chemically fixed to make it permanent. The calotype was the first negative/positive process and it provided the basis of modern photography. See: Art of Printmaking.

Visual art cork

cam link head

Camera support which keeps the camera from abruptly nose-diving when tripod head movement controls are released, holding the camera in a safe, horizontal position.

canon glossary us


Single piece camera and video recording mechanism.

canon glossary us


1 [ cameo ] A bit part played by a famous actor who would ordinarily not take such a small part. Originally meaning 'a small piece of artwork', the term was borrowed by director Michael Anderson when attempting to attract famous actors to play bit parts in Around the World in 80 Days.

2 [ cameo ] Portion of monitor display area: 1/16th screen area. Simultaneous viewing of up to 16 different camera pictures (cameos) possible using multiplexers, create multiple analog signals from security cameras, combine into multiple cameos on screen.



1 [ camera ] A device for recording images.

2 [ camera angle ] Describes the position of the camera relative to the subject. Where the camera is placed and the type of lens being used will determine howthe viewer perceives the subject.

3 [ camera angle ] Camera angle refers to where the camera is placed in relation to the subject of the image.

4 [ camera angle ] The angle at which the camera is pointed at the subject:: Low | High | Tilt |

5 [ camera angle ] The point of view or viewing position adopted by the camera with respect to its subject. Most common types are High-angle shot (the camera is higher than its subject) Low-angle shot (the camera is lower than its subject)

6 [ camera angle ] Same as 'shooting angle' or 'viewpoint'. The position of the camera relative to the position of the subject.

7 [ camera angles ] Various positions of the camera (high, medium, or low; and left, right, or straight on) with respect to the subject, each giving a different viewpoint or effect.

8 [ camera angles ] Various positions of the camera (high, medium, or low; and left, right, or straight on) with respect to the subject, each giving a different viewpoint, perspective or visual effect.

9 [ camera angles ] Various positions ofthe camera (high, medium, or low; and left, right, or straight on) with respect tothe subject, each giving a different viewpoint, perspective or visual effect.

10 [ camera control pro 2 ] Nikon software that provides simplified remote control of Nikon D-SLR cameras from a personal computer. Picture Control Utility: In certain Nikon digital SLRs such as the D3, D700, D300, D90, D3100 and D7000, customized image adjustment, including tone compensation curve data, can be saved to tailor the camera's behavior to the photographer's vision, improving efficiency when using multiple cameras at the same time. Software is compatible with Wi-Fi operation. Also compatible with Nikon's Image Authentication Function. For more information about Camera Control Pro 2, click here.

11 [ camera core ] A 2 inch Core.

12 [ camera crew ] The group of crewmembers directly involved with operation of the camera. Individual job titles include: clapper-loader, camera operator, assistant cameraman, director of photography, focus puller, grip, key grip, dolly grip, additional camera.Fictional Movie(s): Ed Wood (1994), Living in Oblivion (1995)

13 [ camera de unica folosinta ] (Disposable Camera) - camera foto ieftina, realizata din mase plastice, gata incarcata cu film (argentic) si care, dupa expunerea tuturor cadrelor (24 sa 36 pozitii) este trimisa intr-un cnetru specializat pentru developarea filmului si realizarea de fotografii pe hartie. Camera fotografica este,apoi, trimisa la reciclare.

14 [ camera dolly ] A wheeled cart or similar device upon which a movie camera is mounted to give it smooth, horizontal mobility.

15 [ camera jitters ] The nervousness many people show when being photographed.

16 [ camera loader ] AKA: Clapper-Loader, Clapper LoaderThe person who operates the clapboard at the beginning of a shot, also responsible for loading film stock into film magazines. The action of slapping the clapper was invented as a way of synchronizing the visual and audio components of a shot. Recent innovations in audio-visual synchronization have made this unnecessary, but it still occurs extensively. See also assistant cameraman.

17 [ camera log ] A record sheet giving details of the scenes photographed on a roll of original negative.

18 [ camera lucida ] An optical device used by artists that employs a prism to superimpose a virtual scene or subject image onto a drawing board so that an outline can be traced on to paper. It was invented by William Hyde Wollaston in 1807.

19 [ camera lucida ] Dispozitiv optic usor si portabil, prevazut cu o oglinda semitransparenta, prin care un pictor vedea suprapuse imaginea din scena dorita (reflectata de oglinda) si schita la care lucra (vazuta prin oglinda semitransparenta).

20 [ camera modes ] manual: full manual the user is setting the ISO, shutter speed and aperture. Shutter priority (Tv on a Canon or S on a Nikon) the user is selecting ISO and shutter speed, the camera is then choosing the aperture to make a correct exposure. Aperture priority (Av for Canon users, A for Nikon) the photographer selects the ISO and aperture and the camera picks the shutter speed. Learn more about camera modes.

21 [ camera movement ] Camera movement refers to the actual or perceived physical movement of the camera apparatus through space.

22 [ camera negative (film) ] Both still film cameras and motion picture film cameras can shoot negative film, both of which produce the reverse of the colors and/or tones seen by our eyes. Prints are made from still negs, motion picture negative film has to be printed on another film stock or transferred for final viewing. Modern camera negative stock can record more detail in both the shadows and highlights than can be shown on the final print film, its exposure range is almost 10 stops. This latitude can handle both over- and under-exposure, and allows for changing the look of a scene. Camera color neg film has an orange tint and is low contrast, print film is not tinted and is high contrast.

23 [ camera noise ] The sound of the camera running. Even supposedly quiet cameras will make some noise.

24 [ camera obscura ] An optical device that came into use during the Renaissance. It consists of a box or a darkened room with an opening on one side projecting an image on to the facing side. It was used by Old Masters as a drawing aid because it preserved perspective. By the 18th century the use of lenses and a mirror set at 45 degrees made for smaller, portable camera obscurae.

25 [ camera obscura ] (camera ottica) device that uses a lens to project a reduced image of an object on to a flat surface so that the outline may be traced. Popular with artists from the Renaissance to the 18th century.

26 [ camera obscura ] Dispozitiv prin care acum multe secole, artistii proiectau scena dorita, prin intermediul unui mic orificiu (stenopa), intr-o cutie ermetica la lumina, pe peretele opus, translucid, pentru o schita. Camera obscura a stat la baza aparatului fotografic.

27 [ camera obscura ] A Latin term that means 'dark room' or perhaps 'dark chamber.' A camera obscura is a device used by early artists (centuries before Christ) to display a scene on the wall of an otherwise-darkened room so that it could be more-easily copied. In a manner similar to the pinhole camera, a small hole placed in an opposite wall permitted light to enter the room (the 'camera'), and the scene outside became transmitted inside, and was shown inverted on the rear wall or sometimes on a screen. The camera obscura is the origin of the modern camera.

28 [ camera operator ] AKA: CameramanThe person who operates the camera to the specifications dictated by the director of photography. A director or a director of photography sometimes assumes this role. (Luc Besson always operates the camera on films he directs.) See also Society of Operating Cameramen, Steadicam operator.Fictional Movie(s): Living in Oblivion (1995)

29 [ camera original ] Film exposed in a camera.

30 [ camera original ] A slightly more adamant way of saying Original.

31 [ camera raw ] See RAW.

32 [ camera reports ] A form of paperwork used to log shots and takes and put down any notes either to the lab or for future organization in the editing stage. There is generally one camera report per camera roll. Camera reports can be used to communicate specific timing requests to the lab (for instance, if a shot if lit with unusual color gels, this can be noted to let the timer know not to correct the color). Camera reports are extremely helpful to analyze any problem with the footage, since they provides a written record of the coverage (the least of which is that if the slate has the wrong information written on it, which happens now and then, a note can be made in the camera reports to keep the assistant editor from getting confused about which take is which).

33 [ camera resolution ] expressed in megapixels is the dimensions your camera’s sensor is capable of capturing. For example Canon’s new 6D has a resolution of 5472 x 3648 which equals 19,961,856, which they’ve rounded off to 20 megapixels. This is not the only factor in image quality, but generally the large the number, the larger prints you can produce from it without loss of quality.

34 [ camera roll ] Each roll that you shoot becomes a camera roll. It is often helpful to label them with a number in the order that they were shot. The usual way is with the abbreviation C.R. followed by a number. The lab will then assemble and print them in that order. This makes things less confusing when you first get back your footage.

35 [ camera shake ] this is a blurry image which has resulted from an insufficiently fast enough shutter speed, while hand holding the camera. So how slow is too slow? Many teachers will say that 1/60th of a second is the rule of thumb. I tend to recommend 1 over the focal lens of your lens instead, as the longer the lens the more amplified any shake will become.

36 [ camera shake ] Motion of the camera when taking a picture, induced by movement of the hands or of the whole body, for example.

37 [ camera shake ] Slight movement of the camera when the exposure is being made.

38 [ camera shake. ] Movement of camera caused by unsteady hold or support, vibration, etc., leading,particularly at slower shutter speeds, to a blurred image on the film. It is a majorcause of un-sharp pictures, especially with long focus lenses.

39 [ camera shake: ] The unwanted movement passed along to your camera by involuntary hand and body tremors, it's a major cause of unsharp pictures.

40 [ camera stock ] This is film. It is also called camera stock to distinguish it from Print Stock.

41 [ camera tape ] Cloth tape specifically for use on film shoots, much like gaffer’s tape. Camera tape is typically 1 inch wide and white so that it can be used together with a sharpie for labeling magazines with the emulsion type and camera roll number. It is valid to use the terms gaffer’s tape and camera tape interchangeably (they are both really the same type of tape) depending on how the tape is being used. It is designed not to leave a sticky residue behind on the camera.


camera-top light, on-board light

The flat-light look of on-board lights for news-type shoots can be improved. Tips: Use heavy Diffusion or aim the light at a wall or use a low-wattage lamp in order not to overwhelm any face-saving Available Light.

Tiffan edu Glossary


A light-tight box containing light sensitive film or sensor that is used to make images. Today s cameras incorporate microprocessors and sophisticated exposure systems in a sense, the instrument itself mirrors the age, just as the pictures it makes reflect the world in which we live.



1 [ camp ] AKA: CampyA form of comedic parody where the clichéd conventions of a dramatic form like adventure are deliberately exaggerated to the point of ridiculousness. Often unfairly used to describe superhero films and shows as Batman is a prime example of this form of comedy.On the web: List of 'camp' titles at the IMDb.

2 [ camp de profunzime ] Un obiectiv, in afara de obiectul exact pe care este pusa claritatea, mai reda clar un spatiu din fata si spatele acestuia. Acest spatiu este mai mare sau mai mic, functie de diafragma si distanta focala si mai ales cercul de difuzie ales. Campul in care parti din imagine sunt redate clar se numeste camp de profunzime.

3 [ camp de profunzime ] Un obiectiv, in afara de obiectul exact pe care este pusa claritatea, mai reda clar un spatiu din fata si spatele acestuia. Acest spatiu este mai mare sau mai mic, functie de diafragma si distanta focala si mai ales cercul de difuzie ales. Câmpul in care parti din imagine sunt redate clar se numeste câmp de profunzime.


canadian society of cinematographers

AKA: CSCUse of the abbreviation after a name indicates that the person is a member of the CSC.On the web: Official Home Page

imdb Movie Terminology


1 [ canal ] Sectiune de informatii despre o imagine. De exemplu, in sistemul RGB, informatiile sunt stocate pe trei canale: R (rosu), G (Green - verde) si B (Blue - albastru).

2 [ canal alfa ] Canal suplimentar, codat pe 8 biti, care include masti (ale unor parti ale imaginii).



Unitate de masura a iluminari (cd). 1 cd = 1/683 W/sterradian.



1 [ candid ] Candid pictures (sometimes referred to simply as 'Candids') are unposed and often (but not necessarily) taken without the subject's knowledge.

2 [ candid photographs ] Unposed images often taken without the knowledge of the subject. They were made possible by small hand cameras; the first was reputedly taken in 1892. The term was first used in 1930 by the Weekly Graphic .

3 [ candid photography ] This type of photography focuses not so much on planning and careful setup, instead it concentrates on showing spontaneity: a candid photographer prefers not to plan his pictures and captures people without having them pose. He likes to be unobtrusive in order to achieve this. This, of course, contrasts with other types of photography where the photographer carefully stages or composes his images, like in portrait, landscape or still life photography. A candid photographer captures moments in time from life as it really is. Also see street photography, documentary photography.

4 [ candid pictures ] Unposed pictures ofpeople, often taken without the subject's knowledge. These usually appear more naturaland relaxed than posed pictures.

5 [ candid pictures ] nposed pictures of people, often taken without the subject's knowledge. These usually appear more natural and relaxed than posed pictures.



An unposed, spontaneous photograph of a person or group of people.

Glossary of Photo Jargon for Travelers


Photos taken of people acting in a natural, spontaneous, unposed way. Often used to describe a category of wedding photographs.

Nikon Grossary

candle power

One of several ways to measure and compare Incident Light levels. More common photo/video ones: Foot Candles, Lux, and Lumens.

Tiffan edu Glossary

candlelight scene mode

A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras that allows you to capture the ambient lighting of a candlelit scene.

Nikon Grossary


A container for 35mm film for use in cameras.

Guid to Film Photography


1 [ canon ] A group of artistic, literary, or musical works that are generally accepted as representing a field.

2 [ canon aps-c (advanced photo system type-c) ] Advanced Photo System type-C (APS-C) is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the Advanced Photo System 'classic' size negatives.

3 [ canon do (diffractive optics) ] Canon is the first and only company in the world to incorporate a diffractive optical (DO) element into an interchangeable SLR lens. Using DO elements, telephoto lenses can be significantly shorter and lighter than previously possible, while simultaneously improving optical performance by reducing chromatic aberration.

4 [ canon ef ] EF signifies that the lens has an electronic lens mount. EF lenses are inter-changeable lenses that fit Canon's range of EOS single lens reflex (SLR) cameras - from EOS 35mm film cameras to the latest EOS digital cameras.

5 [ canon ef-m ] Interchangeable lenses designed especially for use with the EOS M. Ultra-compact and lightweight they combine easy portability with superb quality optics for exceptional everyday photography.

6 [ canon ef-s ] EF lenses designed to fit Canon's range of digital SLR cameras that have the smaller APS-C sensors, as in the Canon Digital Rebels (300D to 500D) and prosumer 'D' models such as the 10D to 60D, plus the 7D.

7 [ canon is (image stabilizer) ] Image stabilization technology allows the lens to sense movement from 'shake' or vibrations and instantly apply an optical correction by moving a group of lens elements. Today’s IS systems allow photographers to shoot up to 5 stops slower with no increase in blur. Since the image is stabilised within the lens instead of the camera, the IS system can be optimised for each model. What’s more, the auto focus system has a steady image to work with and the photographer gets a steady image through the viewfinder.

8 [ canon l ] Canon's designation for their top-of-the-range, professional lenses incorporating special optical materials such as fluorite, ultra-dispersion (UD) or super UD elements. L-series lenses, which are branded with a red stripe around the barrel, are the best Canon lenses available at any given focal length or zoom range and are priced accordingly.

9 [ canon macro ] Denotes a Canon macro lens, also known as a close-up lens. Macro lenses have the ability to focus an image on the film or sensor that is at least as large as the subject. This is a magnification of 1:1.

10 [ canon mp-e ] Denotes a lens specially designed for macro photography. There is only one MP-E lens in the Canon line-up, the MP-E 65mm f/2.8 1-5x Macro Photo.

11 [ canon stm (smooth transitions for motion) ] Canon's STM technology uses stepping-motor technology for smooth, quiet autofocus when shooting video on compatible Canon DSLRs.

12 [ canon studio solution ] Software to help professional operations with fully automatic workflows to simplify studio operations, integrate appointments, invoicing, image enhancement, printing into one administrative program. Includes automatic color management, image resizing, image re-touching. With electronic input and filing, helps consolidate scheduling, contracting, image capture, ordering, retouching, printing, integrates with Canon EOS cameras, ImagePROGRAF, PIXMA Pro printers.

13 [ canon ts-e ] A specialist tilt/shift lenses that allow correction of perspective distortion and control over the focus range. These lenses are often used for architectural interiors and exteriors.

14 [ canon usm (ultra sonic motor) ] Technology that uses sound waves to position the lens elements when focusing to produce highly responsive, fast and silent focusing with excellent holding torque.


canted angle

1 [ canted angle ] see Dutch Tilt.

2 [ canted angle (dutch angle) ] A canted angle is when the camera is tilted, usually to suggest imbalance, transition, or instability.



1 [ canvas ] Cotton or linen woven cloth used as a surface for painting.

2 [ canvas ] The fabric support used for an oil or acrylic painting, usually made of linen or cotton, stretched tightly and tacked onto a wooden frame. Linen is regarded as superior to heavy cotton in a canvas.

3 [ canvas paper ] Paper-thin material made of fabric, with textured surface.


cap color

1 [ cap color ] Subansamblu al aparatului de marit, prevazut cu trei filtre de interferenta (cian, magenta, galben), folosit pentru corectarea culorilor (fotografia color) sau pentru modificarea contrastului (hartie alb-negru multicontrast).

2 [ cap height ] The distance from the baseline to the capline, which is approximately the height of the capital letters in a typeface.

3 [ cap height ] The height of the uppercase letters within a font.

4 [ cap height ] The height from the baseline to the top of the uppercase letters in a font. This may or may not be the same as the height of ascenders. Cap height is used in some systems to measure the type size.

5 [ cap height ] The height from the baseline to the top of the uppercaseletters (not including diacritics).

6 [ cap height ] The height of the uppercase letters within a font.

7 [ cap height ] The height of the uppercase letters within a font. (See also cap line.)

8 [ cap height: ] The distance between the baseline and the top of a capital letter.

9 [ cap line ] A line marking the height of uppercase letters within a font.

10 [ cap line ] The imaginary horizontal line that runs across the tops of the uppercase letters. (Compare baseline.)

11 [ cap line ] A line marking the height of uppercase letters within a font.

12 [ cap line ] The imaginary line which represents the uppermost part of capital letters and some character's ascenders. A line marking the height of uppercase letters within a font.



The height of a capital letter above the baseline (a letter with a flat top like 'I' as opposed to one with a curved one like 'O'). See also X-height, Ascender, Descender, Overshoot, Baseline

Font Forge Glossary


1 [ capacitor ] Unit for storing and releasing a pulse of electricity. Used in flashguns to hold the charge.

2 [ capacitor ] A device used for accumulating and holding a charge of electricity. (Also called a condensor.)



Electrical component once more commonly known as a condenser. Stores electrical energysupplied by a power source and can discharge it more rapidly than the source itself.Used in flash equipment, providing reliable bulb firing even from weak batteries,and supplying the surge needed for electronic flash tubes.

Mir glossary


When referring to a memory card or a computer drive, capacity is the amount of its storage space, typically measured in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB), but sometimes also indicating the number of images that can be stored.

Photo Tips


The large letters of the alphabet; the original form of ancient Roman characters. The letters are based on a de-sign within a square?no ascenders or descenders; also called uppercase, majuscule, and caps.

ProximaSoftware Glossary

caps and small caps

The typesetting option in which the lowercase letters are set as small capital letters; usually 75% the height of the size of the innercase.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


Metoda de legare în care colile sunt prinse cu capse metalice.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A


1 [ caption ] Text describing an illustration, photo, or other piece of artwork or graphic (see cutline).

2 [ caption ] Descriptive text above, beside or beneath an image.


captioning encoder

Device to translate text into data for captioned video.

canon glossary us


1 [ capture ] A term used in digital imaging meaning to photograph. The term is used to differentiate the method by which the image is made. As the word photograph is closely associated to film photography, capturing is applied to specify a digital sensor is used

2 [ capture ] The process of recording data, such as an image, video sequence, or audio stream.

3 [ capture rate ] Used to describe the number of times per second that a picture is taken or captured in an imaging system. In a progressive system the capture rate is equal to the frame rate. In an interlaced system, the capture rate is double the frame rate because at each capture interval, only one field (a half resolution image) is acquired. It takes two fields to make a complete frame. It is standard practice to refer to the capture rate of an image as well as how it is captured when describing it instead of the frame rate (i.e. 60i (60 captures, 30 frames per second), 30P (30 captures, 30 frames per second) and 60P (60 captures, 60 frames per second) Also see Frame Rate, Interlace Imaging, Progressive Imaging.



Tendency to follow the style of Caravaggio (1571-1610), exhibited by the Caravaggisti (17th-century painters working in Rome), who made particularly dramatic use of chiaroscuro.

Vizual Art Cork

carbon arc lights

1 [ carbon arc lights ] see Arc Lights

2 [ carbon print ] A number of carbon processes were described before Sir Joseph Swan patented a process in 1864. Swan's was introduced the following year and found commercial success by providing the photographer with ready-made materials. His patents were bought out by the Autotype Company. The process produced a print using carbon, which made it permanent and not susceptible to fading. Carbon prints typically have a matt finish from black, grey to sepia and other tones.



1 [ card ] A sealed package containing storage chips or other electronic devices for use in a card slot on a camera, printer, computer, or other device

2 [ card ] Secure Digital, a type of card used in digital cameras to store images. Available in a range of storage capacities, the cards can be erased (when the images have been transferred or are no longer needed) and reused many times.

3 [ card gri 18% ] Card colorat in gri mijlociu si care reflecta 18% din lumina incidenta, utilizat pentru determinarea expunerii.

4 [ card reader ] Used for transferring data from your flash memory card to your PC. A better way of transferring your image files than connecting the camera to your PC. Sometimes the cameras circuitry can become corrupt. Better to fry a memory card than your camera.

5 [ card reader ] A device, which allows your computer to directly, read flash memory cards. See also PCMCIA and PC Card

6 [ card reader ] Dispozitiv care se leaga la un calculator de obicei pe un port de USB si care permite descarcarea informatiei de pe carduri de memorie in calculator. Exista card readere pentru 1, 2 sau mai multe tipuri de memorii.

7 [ card reader ] Dispozitiv care se leaga la un calculator la un port de USB si care permite descarcarea informatiei de pe carduri de memorie in calculator. In prezent, un card poate citi majoritatea formatelor de carduri de memorie.

8 [ card reader ] A digital memory card reader used in transferring data, including downloading of image files from a camera's removable media card, to a computer drive.

9 [ card reader ] A device used by photographers to read the image data on media cards. A card reader connects to computer via USB or FireWire and allows for the fast and easy downloading of image data from the card to the computer. It is more efficient than connecting the camera to the computer via USB to view or download images.

10 [ card reader/writer ] A device that allows you to transfer data directly from a camera s removable memory card to the computer, without being compelled to connect the camera to the computer.

11 [ card slot ] Conector de extensie folosit pentru dispozitive mobile (cititoare de carduri, PCM-CIA, ExpressCard).


cardboarding (stereoscopic)

A 3D shot that looks like a cardboard cutout rather than having a true 3D feel. It s caused by incorrect matching of the recording lenses focal length and the interocular distance between the cameras. Also known as Cutout Planar Effect.

canon glossary us


1 [ caricature ] A rendering, usually a drawing, of a person (artist) or thing with exaggerated or distorted features, meant to satirize the subject.

2 [ caricature ] Painting or drawing, usually a portrait, that exaggerates features for humorous or satirical effect.


carolingian art

European art of the period covered by the reign of Charlemagne (CE 768-814) and his successors until CE 900; usually regarded as the foundation of medieval art.

Vizual Art Cork

carpet page

In manuscript illumination, a page totally filled with decorative design.

Vizual Art Cork


Part of print device holding printhead, may slide on carriage rod (or rods).

canon glossary us


Small handheld photographic cards, first popularized in the 1850s. Inexpensive and mass-produced, these cards depicted individual or celebrity portraits, and were popularly traded or collected in albums.



The study and practice of making maps.



1 [ cartoon ] Full-sized drawing for transferring design to painting, mural, or tapestry. Also: comic drawing; caricature.

2 [ cartoon effect ] Cartoon Effect is a special effect found in select Nikon COOLPIX cameras such as the S32. When chosen, the camera performs tone compensation to make the image appear like a cartoon.



1 [ cartridge ] A lighttight, factory-loaded film container that can be placed in and removed from the camera in daylight.

2 [ cartridge ] A lighttight, factory-loadedfilm container that can be placed in and removed from the camera in daylight. Somenature of film, like the infra red film, MUST not even try to load or unload filmin any possible light existence, absolutely must be in total pitch dark conditionto avoid fogging on film.

3 [ cartridge ] Film container, generally one that is factory-loaded, and light-proof, enabling it to be handled in light without exposing the film. (See 'Cassette.') A metal cartridge for 35 mm film is sometimes known as a 'magazine.'


case sensitive

The position of a number of punctuation marks like hyphens, brackets, slashes etc. is centered on the x-height of the lowercase letters. Fonts with case-sensitive punctuation also have slightly raised alternates of these characters that are centered on the cap height (the height of the capital). When case-sensitive forms are built-in as OpenType features, certain (older) operating systems and applications will not be able to access them.

Font Shop Glosary


Operatiunea de lipire a doua coli, fie hârtie pe carton sau carton pe carton, adezivul aplicându-se pe fata netiparita. Caserarea poate fi simpla sau dubla si poate fi facuta manual sau mecanic.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A


Accesoriu fotografic destinat protectiei impotriva luminii a materialului fotosensibil. Exista casete pentru placi sau planfilme, cu dimensiunile adecvate negativului (6x9, 9x12, 13x18 cm, etc) si pentru filme 135; ultimele mai sunt numite si cartuse sau patroane.



1 [ cassette ] Light-trapped filmcontainer used with 35 mm cameras.Elliptically shaped film cassette designed especially for the Advanced Photo Systemthat serves as the sealed, leaderless container for all System film whether unexposed,exposed or processed.

2 [ cassette ] Better known as a film cassette, and sometimes called a cartridge, this is a light-proof container of metal or plastic into which film manufacturers (and bulk film loaders) roll strips of unexposed 35 mm film. APS film is also loaded by manufacturers into a cassette.



1 [ cast ] A collective term for the actors appearing in a particular movie.

2 [ cast ] An overall bias of the image towards one colour.

3 [ cast ] If the white balance of a scene does not match the lighting under which the scene is being photographed, a color cast can occur. For example, daylight is normally cooler than incandescent lighting, so if you photograph a subject lit by an incandescent light and the white balance of the camera is set for daylight, the image will look warmer because that type of lighting is warmer (orangeish) in color than daylight. If the camera was set for incandescent and you photograph a subject in daylight, the image would look cooler (blueish). When shooting RAW (NEF), you can readjust the white balance in Nikon Capture NX2 in post production.

3 | CAST


Abnormal colouring of an image produced by departure from recommended exposure orprocessing conditions with a transparency film, or when making a colour print. Canalso be caused by reflection within the subject as from a hat on to the face.

Mir glossary


1 [ casting ] The duplication of a model in metal or plaster by means of a mold; the model thus formed is a cast.

2 [ casting ] The process of hiring actors to play the characters in a script, typically done by a casting director, but with some input from a director, producer, or studio. See also CSA.

3 [ casting couch ] During the so-called 'Golden Age' of Hollwood, it was not uncommon for would-be-stars to grant sexual favours to directors and/or producers in return for a role in films. These favours were usually rumoured to be on a couch in the filmmaker's office. The phrase 'Casting Couch' has been popularized, and although the practise has diminished, the term remains in use.

4 [ casting director ] AKA: Extras Casting, Casting Assistant, Casting AssociateThe person who auditions and helps to select all of the speaking role actors in film, television shows or plays. The CD must possess a vast knowledge of the actor pool and be able to match a variety of actors with just the right role. Directors and producers rely on the Casting Director to assist them with assembling the perfect cast for their production. Casting Directors are also responsible for serving as the liason between the director, and the actors and their agents. CDs negotiate the deals with agents once the actors have been cast and are also responsible for the contracts and SAG of each actor.

5 [ casting society of america ] AKA: CSAThe Casting Society of America is a professional organization of Casting Directors working in theatre, film, and television. The C.S.A. is not a union or a guild, therefore every Casting Director working in these mediums is not necessarily a member of this organization.On the web: Official Home Page


catadioptric lens

A lens that uses reflected and refracting surfaces to form an image. More commonly known as a mirror lens.



1 [ catchlight ] The reflection of a light in the subject’s eyes in a portrait.

2 [ catchlight ] The reflection of a light source in a subject's eyes. Intentionally creating a catchlight by providing a small amount of illumination with a flash or reflector can make your subject look more vivid.



Tiny highlights (bright spots) in a subject's eyes, caused by reflections of the light source.

Glossary of Photo Jargon for Travelers


AKA: CateringA person or company who provides the main meals for cast and crew either on set or on location. See also craft service.

imdb Movie Terminology

cathode ray tube (crt)

The tube used to project an electronic image to the computer monitor screen.


catholic art

Usually refers to the style of Catholic Counter-Reformation Art (c.1560-1700) which followed the Protestant Reformation.

Vizual Art Cork


The faith, doctrine, system, and practice of a Catholic church, especially the Roman Catholic Church.



Short for Community Antenna TeleVision, i.e. cable television. Delivering broadcasts by coaxial cable, less susceptible to interference than via antenna. Also: coaxial.

canon glossary us

cc filter

A color compensating filter. It enables you to make fine adjustments of color tone or color density in color photography.

Nikon Grossary


1 [ ccd ] This is an image sensor; CCD stands for 'charge-coupled device'.

2 [ ccd ] – Short for charged coupled device, a CCD is a sensor type that reads data in a way that avoids the stuttering or distorted look of fast motion in video that results on some cameras. CCD sensors were once the most common in digital cameras, but the affordability and higher quality of CMOS image sensors for still photography has allowed them to mostly replace CCD sensors.

3 [ ccd ] (Charge-coupled device) An image sensor that reads the charges from the sensor's photosites one row at a time

4 [ ccd ] A charge-coupled device or image sensor. It consists of an integrated circuit with an array of linked (coupled) capacitors which are sensitive to light. In digital photography, the CCD is used to capture images, which in analogue photography would be captured on film. CCD technology is not only used in digital photography, but also in astronomy and other branches of science.

5 [ ccd ] Charge-Coupled Device: one family of electronic image sensors that output an analog signal. In a digital camera, this analog signal is converted to digital by a separate component.

6 [ ccd ] Electronic sensor usedby all autofocus cameras, capable of detecting subject contrast; also an image-receivingdevice for video camera.

7 [ ccd ] Short for Charge Coupled Device, a type of imaging sensor. Uses a different method from CMOS to convert electric charges to voltage signals.

8 [ ccd ] Charge coupled device, one of the two main types of image sensors used in digital cameras.

9 [ ccd (charge-coupled device) ] A semiconductor device that converts optical images into electronic signals. CCDs contain rows and columns of ultra small, light-sensitive mechanisms (pixels) that generate electronic pulses when electronically charged and exposed to light. These pulses work in conjunction with millions of surrounding pixels to collectively produce a photographic image. CCDs and CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) sensors are the dominant technologies for digital imaging.

10 [ ccd (charge-coupled device): ] The tiny 'chip' that is a digital point-and-shoot's equivalent to film. The CCD uses rows of microscopic sensors to measure and record light energy, which is then stored digitally.

11 [ ccd (charged coupled device) ] A chip with a fixed arrangement of sensors that convert light into electrical current. Each electrical current is in proportion to the amount of light hitting each sensor on the CCD. The electrical current is converted to digital data to create a digital image.

12 [ ccd (charged coupled device) ] This is a light sensitive chip used in your digital camera for image gathering. The CCD Pixels gather the colour from the light and pass it to the shift register for storage. CCD’s are analogue sensors, the digitising occurs when the electrons are passed through the A to D converter. This “Analogue to Digital” converter converts the analogue signal to a digital file or signal.

13 [ ccd - charge coupled device ] A digital camera records an image on its sensor, a light-sensitive receptor that is the digital equivalent of film. A CCD is a type of sensor. CMOS is another type. See CCD versus CMOS sensors.

14 [ ccd - charged coupled device ] Dispozitiv electronic care face conversia imaginii optice in informatie electronica.

15 [ ccd - charged coupled device ] Dispozitiv electronic care face conversia imaginii optice in informatie electronica.

16 [ ccd element ] A single, light-sensitive area on a CCD that records unique image detail. This is also referred to as a photosite.

17 [ ccd pixels ] The total number of pixels on a CCD array. This is not always the best indication of a camera's resolution as some CCD chips have a number of pixels around the that are only used to ensure the pixels that are used produce accurate colours. The true indication of a camera's resolution is the two figures quoted, say 1600x1200, which indicate the CCD's actual output. A ... MP camera is used to describe a model that has a CCD with a certain number times million pixels, which says something about how big the images are that it can create.


ccd, linear

Aka scanner-type CCD, linear CCDs are long, thin sensors that capture an image by recording a vast number of individual exposures while scanning across the picture frame. These are best suited for still subjects and continuous illumination. Linear CCDs are predominantly (if not exclusively) used for technical applications.



For charged couple device the sensor used by most digital cameras, and in flatbed scanners.



Metoda de compresie a fisierelor BMP monocrome pentru transmiterea lor prin fax; format disponibil optional si pentru salvarea fisierelor TIFF.


cctv (closed circuit television)

Short for Closed Circuit Television. All devices linked directly, usually by cables, unlike broadcast. Usually use analog cameras, recorders, precursor to digital network systems.

canon glossary us


Short for Camera Control Unit, a range of equipment and operations for partial or complete remote control of video/TV cameras.

canon glossary us


1 [ cd ] Compact Disc. You should have heard of these by now. Storage media capable of holding around 650MB of data. These come in 2 forms;

2 [ cd ] Short for Compact Disc, an optical device for storing digital data. Standard-sized CDs have a 120mm diameter and can hold up 700 MB of data--about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio.

3 [ cd ] prescurtare pentru candela.

4 [ cd ] Compact Disc.

5 [ cd read ] This is an indication of the speed that a device can find and display data from a CD. Most modern computers now come with high speed CD or DVD drives.

6 [ cd rewrite ] This is the speed that a device can write data using a CD-RW. A CD is about 74 minutes long so a 2x speed would record a CD in a half of that time.

7 [ cd write ] Here is an indication of the speed that a device can write data using a CD-R. A CD is about 74 minutes long so a 4x speed would record a CD in a quarter of that time.



1 [ cd-r ] Short for Compact Disc-Recordable.

2 [ cd-r ] Stands for 'CD-Recordable' - a CD on which you can record data, including pictures.

3 [ cd-r ] CD-Recordable. A compact disc that holds up to 700 megabytes of digital information. A CD-R disc can be written to only once. Ideal for long-time storage of data or photos.

4 [ cd-r (compact disc recordable) ] A CD that can be used only once to write data on using a CD-Writer.



1 [ cd-rom ] Short for Compact Disc-Read Only Memory. Cannot be written to, readable by a computer with CD-ROM drive.

2 [ cd-rom ] Stands for 'CD-Read Only Memory.' This is a CD that cannot be over-written, such as any CD on which software is provided.

3 [ cd-rom (compact disc, read-only memory) ] This looks just like an audio CD and is used to carry up to 740MB of computer data, including images and software.



A compact disc that can store a large amount of information. The CD-ROM drive reads that information. CD-R is a recordable CD for home and studio use. The Photo CD and CD-R are write once, read many times discs a CD-RW is a CD that can be written over, if desired.



1 [ cd-rw ] Stands for 'CD-ReWritable' - a CD on which you can record data more than once.

2 [ cd-rw ] CD-Rewritable. Similar in virtually all respects to a CD-R except a CD-RW disc can be written and erased many times. Not preferred for long-time storage of data or photos.

3 [ cd-rw (compact disc rewriteable) ] A CD that can be re-used to write data on using a CD-Rewriter.



1 [ cdr ] (CompactDisc Recordable) A recordable CD which can be written once, which holds 650~700 MB of digital data

2 [ cdr ] > Compact Disc Recordable. Can only be used once, no matter how little information you write to it. Can be re-read many times.

3 [ cdr ] Tip de fisier vectorial utilizat nativ de programele CorelDraw dar si de versiuni recente Adobe Illustrator.

4 [ cdr ] extensia pentru fisierele de imagine Corel Draw Bitmap (preview).

4 | CDR


> Compact Disc Re-writeable. This can be erased and re-used many times.

All things photography


(CompactDisc ReWriteable) A CD-R that can be erased and re-used many times, which holds about 450 MB of data

RadioShak support


1 [ cds ] Cadmium Sulfide (Cell).A battery powered, current-modulating. light-sensing cell that was quite popularwith lots of cameras exposure metering system and external metering devices. Maybe this extra will help, photo conductive material used in exposure meters as alternativeto selenium-based or silicon blue photocells. Its electrical resistance decreasesas the light falling on it increases. Cds meters use current from an external powersource, such as a battery.

2 [ cds cadmium disulphide. ] Battery-powered light sensor cell that was widely used in old hand held exposure meters.


ce (central european)

(appended to a font or volume name) Language support; includes all necessary accents and characters for Albanian, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, and Sorbian (Lower & Upper). The supported languages may vary a little depending on the foundry.

Font Shop Glosary

cea (consumer electronics association)

Short for Consumer Electronics Association, industry group of about 2,000 electronics manufacturers producing Consumer Electronics Show (CES).

canon glossary us


CEC stands for Consumer Electronics Control. CEC is a standard that allows for a camera that is connected to an HDTV to playback images/video with most HDTV remote controls.

Nikon Grossary


Short for Custom Electronic Design and Installation Association, international industry group of home electronics installation and design related businesses. Certifies members, offers professional designations.

canon glossary us


1 [ cel ] A hand drawn sheet representing a single animation frame, usualy made of a clear material like cellulose or mylar to allow several layers of composition.

2 [ cel animation ] A form of animation where hand drawn pictures are transposed on to plastic sheets, each with a different element such as characters and background, and layered on top of each other to create a complete scene. The composition is then photographed and incorporated in the finished film. It was the predominate of form of animation until the rise of computer generated animation in the mid 1990's.



Chinese porcelain or stoneware with a distinctive gray-green glaze.

Vizual Art Cork


Cellulose nitrate was the original transparent material used as a base for film, which was then coated with light-sensitive emulsion.

Columbia Film School Glossary

cellulose triacetate

Also referred to as acetate. A transparent, flexible material used as a base support for photographic emulsions.

Kodak cine


Sistem de masurare a temperaturii, bazat pe punctele de inghet (0°) si de fierbere (100°) ale apei, propus de savantul suedez Anders Celsius si care, in prezent, este acceptat de Sistemul International de Masuri si Greutati (S.I.). Temperatura solutiilor de prelucrare (developare) a produselor argentice este extrem de importanta in privinta timpului si calitatii materialelor rezultat.


celtic art

Hallstatt and La Tene styles of metalwork, and abstract designs characterized by knots, spirals and interlace patterns.

Vizual Art Cork


Produs obtinut din nitroceluloza si camfor, folosit in secolul XIX ca suport pentru filme; nu se mai foloseste deoarece este foarte inflamabil si a provocat numeroase incendii in salile de proiectie cinematografica.


cement splice

A type of splice used primarily by negative cutters. In a cement splice the two pieces of film overlap each other and are fused together with film cement.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


AKA: Censoring, CensorChanges required of a movie by some person or body other than the studio or the filmmakers, usually a national or regional film classification board. See also certificate.

imdb Movie Terminology

center of interest

1 [ center of interest ] (or center of focus). All good pictures have a center of interest, a point or feature that draws the eye's attention. Visit Center of interest for more information.

2 [ center weighted ] An autoexposure system that uses the center portion of the image to adjust the overall exposure value. See Spot Metering and Matrix Metering



1 [ center-weighted ] Refers to a camera’s exposure meter mode in which reflected light in the center of the view frame is measured so that it has more influence on the exposure reading than light at the edges, generally 60 to 80% more. Some cameras permit the photographer to adjust the size of the central area so that more or less light at the center is measured.

2 [ center-weighted average ] A camera exposure metering mode averaging exposure for entire picture area, but with greater emphasis on center, as shown in viewfinder.

3 [ center-weighted fill-flash ] A fill-flash technique that uses the camera’s center-weighted meter for ambient light exposure measurement, and uses center-weighted flash metering.

4 [ center-weighted metering ] Meter sensitivity is biased toward the center of the viewfinder. Recommended when the subject is in the center of the picture.



In a metering scheme, an exposure system that takes most of its information from the center portion of the frame. Most center-weighted systems also take additional readings from the surround, but weight the reading towards the center.



Text placed at an equal distance from the left and right margins. Headlines are often centered. It is generally not good to mix centered text with flush left or flush right text.

Adobe Glossary of typographic terms

centre -weighted

1 [ centre -weighted ] Term used to describe an automatic exposure system that uses just the centre portion of the image to adjust the overall value. So in effect, the exposure will be weighted to what you see towards the centre of your viewfinder.

2 [ centre column ] A common tripod feature that provides extra height without making the model much larger to carry. As this is a single column it can make the camera support unstable with increased vibration noticeable. Try to avoid using this where possible and always increase the leg length to gain height first before resorting to the centre column. Centre columns that have a crank handle and a geared control or those with pneumatic-dampening make it easier for you to accurately control the height adjustment.

3 [ centre international du film pour l'enfance et la jeunesse ] AKA: C.I.F.E.J., CIFEJ, International Centre of Films for Children and Young PeopleA 40-year-old international non-governmental organization whose goal is to promote quality films, television programmes and videos for children and young people around the world.On the web: http://www.cifej.com


centre-weighted average

1 [ centre-weighted average ] A meter reading pattern that biases the measurement towards the centre of the frame.

2 [ centre-weighted metering ] One of the earliest forms of camera meter that takes a reading from most of the image area, but biases the measurement towards the lower central portion of the image. In landscape photography its a good idea to point the camera down slightly and take a reading without any sky in the view to ensure more accurate results.


centru de interes

1 [ centru de interes ] Termen din fotocompozitie care se refera la o zona sau la un detaliu din cadrul fotografic si care atrage atentia privitorului.

2 [ centru optic ] Punct situat pe axa optica a unui obiectiv si care se caracterizeaza prin aceea ca o raza de lumina ce trece prin centrul optic nu este deviata de la directia sa, indiferent de unghiul de incidenta. Pentru a minimiza difractia si vignetarea, diafragma se aseaza in centrul optic.

3 [ centru optic ] Punct situat pe axa optica a unui obiectiv si care se caracterizeaza prin aceea ca o raza de lumina ce trece prin centrul optic nu este deviata de la directia sa, indiferent de unghiul de incidenta. Pentru a minimiza difractia si vignetarea, diafragma se aseaza in centrul optic.


century stand, c-stand

This studio-standard commonly has a Grip Head with articulating arms to position light control devices such as Flags and Nets.

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ ceramics ] Objects, such as pots and vases, made of clay hardened by heat.

2 [ ceramics ] The general term used since the 19th century for pottery and porcelain, i.e. fired clay.


cerc de difuzie

1 [ cerc de difuzie ] Vezi: pata de difuzie.

2 [ cerc de difuzie ] Vezi: pata de difuzie.



AKA: Certificate, RatingsVarious countries or regions have film classification boards for reviewing movies and rating their content in terms of its suitability for particular audiences. For many countries, movies are required to be advertised as having a particular 'certificate' or 'rating', forewarning audiences of possible 'objectionable content'. The nature of this 'objectionable content' is determined mainly by contemporary national, social, religious, and political standards. The usual criteria which determine a film's certificate are violence and sexuality, with 'mature' (adult) situations and especially blasphemy and political issues often being considered more important outside the Western world. This is by no means a hard and fast rule; see the Hays Production Code for an example. In some cases, a film classification board exhibits censorship by demanding changes be made to a movie in order to receive a certain rating. As many movies are targetted at a particular age group, studios must balance the content of their films against the demands of the classification board. Negotiations are common; studios agree to make certain changes to films in order to receive the required rating. The IMDb uses the term 'Certificate' as opposed to 'Rating' to avoid confusion with 'ratings' meaning the opinions of critics. See also: Banned, NC-17, PG, G, XXX.On the web: MPAA Ratings Explanation, IMDb Certificate Section

imdb Movie Terminology


1 [ cf ] Compact Flash card. Used in your digital camera to record images. Storage space ranges from 16MB up to 12GB. A company in Japan is currently developing a CF card that will store 2TB of information or 2,048 Gigabytes.

2 [ cf ] Short for Compact Flash. Typically used to refer to a flash memory card.

3 [ cf ] See Compact Flash below.

4 [ cf x/c. fn x ] Functie personalizata (Canon, Contax).

5 [ cf x/c. fn x ] Functie personalizata (Canon, Contax).

5 | CF X/C. FN X


Compact Font Format most commonly used within OpenType postscript fonts, but is a valid font format even without a SFNT wrapper. This is the native font format for fonts with PostScript Type2 charstrings.

Font Forge Glossary


Compact fluorescent lamp.

Photo Tips


Short for Character Generator, a device or software producing static or animated text (e.g. crawls, rolls) to be placed into a video stream. Generally now computer-based, able to generate graphics as well as text.

canon glossary us


1 [ cgi ] AKA: Computer Generated ImageryThe use of computer graphics to create or enhance special effects.

2 [ cgi ] Short for Computer-Generated Imagery: using computer to create special effects, usually 3D.

2 | CGI


The common name for calcium carbonate, which is found as a natural deposit all over the world, and is composed of the remains of tiny crustaceans. Traditionally used in painting and drawing.

Vizual Art Cork


Printed image deterioration caused by ink absorbing into paper too fast, or exposed to elements (sun, wind) making them look dusty. Also called crocking.

canon glossary us

champleve enamel

Decorated metal, usually copper, especially popular in Europe from the 11th century to the 14th; a hollowed-out pattern in the metal was filled with coloured glass pastes and the whole object fired, thus fusing glass to metal. (Compare Cloisonne enamel.)

Vizual Art Cork

change bag or changing bag

1 [ change bag or changing bag ] A bag that is light-tight and fitted with arm holes that are elasticized to block light. It is used when it is necessary to work with unprotected film in a lighted area so that it doesn't become exposed to light.

2 [ change pages ] When a script is being edited during production, changes are distributed to actors and the filmmakers on 'change pages', which are usually a different color to the pages of the script.


change-over marks

AKA: Change-Over, Reel Change, Reel Change Marks, Cigarette BurnsMost completed movies consist of more than one reel, and thus for an uninterrupted screening, at least two projectors must be used. Towards the end of a reel, one or more frames may include a small circle in one of the corners. These are signals to the projectionist that the current reel is approaching the end, and he or she should be ready to start the next projector, which should have the next reel prepared for projection. Also, many theaters have switched to a platter systemwhich allows the entire film to be spliced together and put on a large platter.The film is fed through the center of the reel (unwinding from the inside out),then into the projector, and then back onto another platter. This processallows the film to be show back-to-back without having to rewind it.Fictional Movie(s): Fight Club (1999)

imdb Movie Terminology

changing bag

A double chambered black bag with a zipper on one end and two elasticized arm holes on the other side, used for loading film into magazines.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


1 [ channel ] One piece of information stored with an image. For example, a true colour image has 3 channels, red, green and blue.

2 [ channel (for wireless e-ttl) ] When using Speedlites, you can assign all remote flash units to one of four frequencies, when shooting with Wireless E-TTL, remotes are triggered by camera-mounted master unit.



1 [ character ] A character is a Platonic ideal reified into at least one glyph. For example the letter 's' is a character which is reified into several different glyphs: 'S', 's', 's', long-s, etc. Note that these glyphs can look fairly different from each other, however although the glyph for an integral sign might be the same as the long-s glyph, these are in fact different characters.

2 [ character ] A symbol in writing. A letter, punctuation mark or figure.

3 [ character ] Any letter, numeral, punctuation mark, and other sign included in a font. Some characters can be represented by more than one glyph.

4 [ character ] Any kind of typeset mark made on a page, including letters, numbers, punctuation marks, accents, dingbats (e.g. bullets). Technically, the term character is used to designate the mark generically, and is given an index number in electronic typesetting that points to the actual image, or glyph, stored in memory. However, in common usage character and glyph are often used interchangeably.

5 [ character actor ] An actor who specializes in playing a particular style of character, often stereotypical, offbeat, or humorous.On the web: Search IMDb for Character Actors.

6 [ character count ] An estimation of the number of characters in a selection of type.

7 [ character encoding ] Character encoding is a table in a font or a computer operating system that maps character codes to glyphs in a font. Most operating systems today represent character codes with an 8-bit unit of data known as a byte. Thus, character encoding tables today are restricted to at most 256 character codes. Not all operating system manufacturers use the same character encoding. For example, the Macintosh platform uses the standard Macintosh character set as defined by Apple Computer, Inc., while the Windows operating system uses another encoding entirely, as defined by Microsoft. Fortunately, OpenType fonts (and standard Type 1 fonts) contain all the glyphs needed for both these encodings, so they work correctly not only with these two systems, but others as well. Not all operating system manufacturers use the same character encoding. For example, the Macintosh platform uses the standard Macintosh character set as defined by Apple Computer, Inc., while the Windows operating system uses another encoding entirely, as defined by Microsoft. Fortunately, standard Type 1 fonts contain all the glyphs needed for both these encodings, so they work correctly not only with these two systems, but others as well. Also see character, glyph, keyboard layout.

8 [ character mapping ] See character encoding.

9 [ character set ] A character set is an unordered set of characters

10 [ character set ] A single font's characters, symbols, and numbers.


character, character code

The word character is used differently in different contexts. In the context of modern computer operating systems, it is often defined as a code with a meaning attached to it. For example, the decimal character code 97 represents the letter a. In most operating systems today, character codes are represented by an 8-bit unit of data known as a byte. Also see character encoding, glyph, keyboard layout.

Adobe Glossary of typographic terms

characteristic curve

1 [ characteristic curve ] Shows the relationship between the exposure of a photographic material and the image density produced after processing.

2 [ characteristic curve ] A graph used to show a film emulsion or developer's limits of tonal reproduction, relative speed and fog level.



Form of carbon used for drawing.

Vizual Art Cork

charge-coupled device

1 [ charge-coupled device ] Also known as a CCD, it is the light-sensitive device in many digital cameras (and scanners) that captures the image - i.e. It converts light entering the camera into digital data that can be recorded as a picture.

2 [ charge-coupled device (ccd) ] A grid of electronic light sensors that convert an image into a digital picture.



When the camera is set up for a second shot at a different angle it is possible to move things around a little to improve the new composition, the difference in perspective and angle of the two shots hiding the fact that things are not exactly in the same place. Both actors and furniture on the set can be cheated. The term is often used as cheating something 'into' a shot or 'out of' a shot, as in telling an actor 'We’re going to cheat you in a little,' and having them stand a little to one side so more of them is in the shot.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


If lights cast subject or microphone shadows on the background and your Back Light is only Top Light, it's time to pull people and furniture away from the walls, cyc, or seamless paper. Thanks to the two-dimensional nature of our business, there are many other such ways to cheat, if you have a Cinematic License.

Tiffan edu Glossary

check print

1 [ check print ] Used to check the quality of the bulk release work, these are made from the duplicate negative.

2 [ check print ] This is a print made from an internegative or an optical to verify the quality and success of an effect.



A monogram (the Sacred Monogram) formed by the first two letters - X and P (chi and rho) - of the Greek word for Christ. In religious art it may refer to the Resurrection of Christ.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ chiaroscuro ] Chiaroscuro refers to strong contrasts between light and dark.

2 [ chiaroscuro ] The arrangement of light and dark areas in a Composition. A term infrequently invoked on the job.

3 [ chiaroscuro ] The contrasting use of light and shadow. artists who are famed for the use of chiaroscuro include Leonardo da Vinci, Caravaggio and Rembrandt. Leonardo used chiaroscuro to enhance the three-dimensionality of his figures, Caravaggio used it for drama, and Rembrandt for both reasons.


chicken coop

A six-lamp fixture, with or without Diffusion, hung over a set for broad, down illumination.

Tiffan edu Glossary

child scene mode

A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. The Child scene mode is used for photographing snapshots of children; skin tones will appear natural and soft while clothing and backgrounds will be vivid.

Nikon Grossary

children's film foundation

Training scheme in the UK to give schoolchildren experience of all aspects of film making. Now replaced by the Children's Film and Television Foundation

imdb Movie Terminology


slang term meaning looking at the back of the camera after every image. Spending too much time reviewing images on camera, not enough time shooting.

Digital Photography School Speeking photography

chine collé

A printmaking technique that transfers an image to a lightweight paper that is bonded to a heavier surface.


chinese art

One of the most ancient artistic traditions, noted for its calligraphic, ink-and-wash, ceramic and bronze artworks. See: Chinese Pottery

Vizual Art Cork


Term for a European style of art applied to furniture, ceramics, interior design, based on imaginary pseudo-Chinese motifs.

Vizual Art Cork

chip carving

1 [ chip carving ] Early primitive carved decoration of Northern European oak furniture, executed with a chisel and gouge, until about the 16th century.

2 [ chip chart (video) ] A chart of gray tones ranging from black to white used to set up electronic cameras.



Common name for sensor, actually a silicon wafer with circuit paths etched or printed in layers.


chlorobromide paper

A warm-tone printing paper that has silver chloride and silver bromide emulsion.



A person who plans and directs dance sequences within a movie.

imdb Movie Terminology

christian art

Church architecture, painting, sculpture or decorative art associated with a Christian message.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ chroma ] The colour of an image element or pixel. A chroma is made up of saturation plus the hue values, but is separate from the luminance value.

2 [ chroma ] See Chrominance.

3 [ chroma gain ] Camera control that boosts the amounts of color (saturation, intensity) in the picture.

4 [ chroma key ] Often referred to as greenscreen, bluescreen or color keying, it is a technique for mixing two images or frames together, a color or color range from one image is made transparent or removed, showing another image behind it.

5 [ chroma key ] see Blue Process



An electronic/computerized technique that allows for specific color elements (chroma) to be replaced with different picture elements. See also bluescreen and greenscreen.

imdb Movie Terminology

chromatic aberration

1 [ chromatic aberration ] Also known as purple fringing. It is fairly common in 2MP digital cameras and above, especially if they have long telephoto lenses. You can see it when a dark area is surrounded by a highlight. In between the dark and light, you may see a band of purple pixels that shouldn’t be there. There are ways of removing this which I have covered in the Photoshop section.

2 [ chromatic aberration ] in terms of lens optics it is the failure of the lens to focus all colours (RGB) at the same point. It shows up as colour fringes in areas of the image where dark meet light (think edge of a building against the sky). It is more common in wide angle lenses, and those of inferior optics (kit lenses). It is correctable, to some degree, using Photoshop, Lightroom or software of your choice.

3 [ chromatic aberration ] – Also known as 'color fringing,' this distortion appears when the camera lens fails to focus on all the colors where two points of high contrast meet (such as where the dark roof of a building meets the sky). Chromatic aberration appears as green or purple fringing at the point of contrast.

4 [ chromatic aberration ] A fringing effect around the edges, which is caused by lens not focusing correctly

5 [ chromatic aberration ] A lens aberration producingan overall blurred image; the inability of a lens to bring all wavelengths of light(especially red and blue) into the same plane of focus; usually present in regularlarge-aperture telephoto and super-telephoto lenses; does not improve by stoppingdown the lens; correctable through the use of Iow Dispersion (ED, LD SD) glass. Basically, this aberration is causedby light rays of different wavelengths coming to focus at different distances fromthe lense. Blue will focus at the shortest distance and red at the greatest distance.Since the natural rays of light are a mixture of colors, each aberration will givea different value corresponding to each color thus producing blurred images.

6 [ chromatic aberration ] Also known as color fringing, chromatic aberration occurs when the collective color wavelengths of an image fail to focus on a common plane. The results of chromatic aberration are most noticeable around the edges of high-contrast images, especially toward the edges of the frame. Chromatic aberration is most common on less expensive lenses, although even the best optics can occasionally display lower levels of chromatic aberration, under certain conditions.Another form of chromatic aberration is called purple fringing, which comprises the purple streaks or halos that often appear within images produced by digital cameras. Purple fringing originates in the light refracted from the light-gathering micro lenses that cap the sensor s pixels. In backlit scenes, this form of purple fringing is commonly called blooming. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/optical-anomalies-and-lens-corrections-explained Optical Anomalies and Lens Corrections Explained.

7 [ chromatic aberration ] Chromatic aberration, also called colour fringing or purple fringing, is caused by a lens not focusing different wavelengths of light onto the precise same focal plane and/or by a lens rendering a different magnification each of different wavelengths. These two different types of chromatic aberration can both occur in one and the same image. Chromatic aberration can be seen as colour fringing around the boundaries that separate dark and bright parts of the image. It most frequently occurs around the edges of the image, especially in wide angle shots. Despite begin called colour fringing or purple fringing, chromatic aberration can also affect black and white photography. Although a black and white image obviously has no colours in it, chromatic aberration can blur the image.

8 [ chromatic aberration ] Common lens problem where different colors/wavelengths of light focus at different locations, appears as color fringes or halos in image.

9 [ chromatic aberration ] When white light (light containing many colors uniformly mixed so that the eye does not sense any particular color and thus perceives the light as white) such as sunlight is passed through a prism, a rainbow spectrum can be observed. This phenomenon occurs because the prism's index of refraction (and rate of dispersion) varies depending on the wavelength (short wavelengths are more strongly refracted than long wavelengths). While most visible in a prism, this phenomenon also occurs in photographic lenses, and since it occurs at different wavelengths is called chromatic aberration.There are two types of chromatic aberration: axial chromatic aberration, where the focal point position on the optical axis varies according to the wavelength, and chromatic difference of magnification, where the image magnification in peripheral areas varies according to the wavelength. In actual photographs, axial chromatic aberration appears as color blur or flare, and chromatic difference of magnification appears as color fringing (where edges show color along their borders). Chromatic aberration in a photographic lens is corrected by combining different types of optical glass having different refraction and dispersion characteristics. Since the effect of chromatic aberration increases at longer focal lengths, precise chromatic aberration correction is particularly important in super-telephoto lenses for good image sharpness. Although there is a limit to the degree of correction possible with optical glass, significant performance improvements can be achieved using man-made crystal such as fluorite or UD glass. Axial chromatic aberration is also sometimes referred to as longitudinal chromatic aberration (since it occurs longitudinally with respect to the optical axis), and chromatic difference of magnification can be referred to as lateral chromatic aberration (since it occurs laterally with respect to the optical axis). Note: While chromatic aberration is most noticeable when using color film, it affects black-and-white images as well, appearing as a reduction in sharpness.

10 [ chromatic aberration ] Color fringing that occurs when a lens does not focus different wavelengths (colors) of light equally.

11 [ chromatic aberration ] A phenomenon in which light rays passing through a lens focus at different points, depending on their wavelength. Axial chromatic aberration is a variation in focal length; lateral chromatic aberration, a variation in magnification. Lateral chromatic aberration: Light wavelengths differ depending upon color. Differences in the length of the wavelengths result in changes in image magnification and become visible at image peripheries. Lateral Chromatic Aberration is the cause of color fringing. Lateral chromatic aberration is reduced to some degree by combining different lens elements with different refractive indexes, but optically speaking, it cannot be completely eliminated. In addition to red and its complimentary color, cyan, and blue and its complimentary color, yellow, some lenses may exhibit complex color fringing that combines these two primary types. It is greatly reduced by low-dispersion ED glass.

12 [ chromatic aberration: ] A type of distortion that manifests itself as “fringing” of colors along high-contrast boundaries. Because substances have slightly different refractive indexes for different wavelengths of light, colors end up being focused on different points on the images.

13 [ chromatic adaptation ] The eye's ability to compensate, after a few minutes, for variations - sometimes drastic ones - in the color of light sources so that everything appears normal. Tip: Since the film doesn't compensate, you may want to use a Color-Temperature Meter.



1 [ chrome ] Color s strength compared to neutral gray. Also: depth, intensity, purity, saturation.

2 [ chrome ] Termen fotografic ce intra in alcatuirea numelui la diapozitivele color (de ex. Kodachrome).



The color information-hue and saturation-in a TV picture. Also known as chroma.

canon glossary us

chrominance-to-luminance delay

Showing as color smears or bleeding at object edges, caused by color signal lagging behind brightness signal.

canon glossary us


1 [ chromogenic ] From the Greek, meaning 'as color.' Refers to black and white film that can be processed and printed as color film.

2 [ chromogenic color print ] Photographs made from a positive color transparency or a negative. The color is achieved in the print by the layering of silver salts sensitized to the three primary colors: red, yellow, and blue. After each emulsified layer has been exposed, colors emerge in a chemical development process.

3 [ chromogenic print ] A print made by the chromogenic development process and also known as a dye-coupler print. The process was developed in the mid 1930s and is the basis of the majority of modern colour silver-based photographic materials, such as Kodachrome , Ektachrome , Kodacolor and Agfacolor producing both negatives and direct positives. The prints are often incorrectly referred to as C-[Type] prints, which refers, precisely, to a negative-positive chromogenic paper called Kodak Color Print Material Type C available from 1955 to 1959.



A method of analysing movement by taking a series of still pictures at regular intervals. It was pioneered separately by Etienne-Jules Marey and Eadweard Muybridge among others from the early 1870s. In 1877 Muybridge was able to confirm by chronophotography Marey's assertion that a horse lifted all four hooves off the ground at once when trotting.

Visual art cork

chute cowboys

Slang term for experienced parachutists that either perform or assist with stunts involving parachutes.

imdb Movie Terminology


Text graphics which appear at the bottom of a screen used to describe time, place, or name of person on screen; can also describe the technology used to add the text to the bottom of the screen.

imdb Movie Terminology


Contrast Index (soundslike composite index for stock market, ha!) Numeric rating indicating the optimumdevelopment contrast for negative materials.

Mir glossary


1 [ cibachrome ] Ilfochrome, (formerly known as Cibachrome) is a dye destruction positive-to-positive photographic process used for the reproduction of slides on photographic paper . The prints are made on a dimensionally stable tri-acetate polyester base, essentially a plastic base opposed to traditional paper base. Since it uses azo dyes on a polyester base, the print will not fade, discolor, or deteriorate for a long time. Characteristics of Ilfochrome prints are image clarity, color purity, more environmentally safe, as well as being an archival process able to produce critical accuracy to the original slide.

2 [ cibachrome ] Proces fotochimic prin care se obtin copii pozitive din diapozitive.

3 [ cibachrome ] Processing materials made by Ilford that are used to make prints from colour slides. Although still widely used the Cibachrome name was changed to Ilfochrome over a decade ago.

4 [ cibachrome ] A process used to make color prints directly from transparencies.



1 [ cid ] Character Identifier, a number. In some CJK PostScript fonts the glyphs are not named but are refered to by a CID number.

2 [ cid ] see Discharge Lamp

2 | CID

cid-keyed font

A PostScript font in which the glyphs are index by CID and not by name.

Font Forge Glossary


1 [ cie ] (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) - comisia internationala care se ocupa de definirea culorii si de masurarea amplitudinii sale.

2 [ cie ] Short for Commission Internationale de l Eclairage, or International Commission on Illumination. An organization for cooperation and exchange of information on both the science and art of lighting and color.

3 [ cie (commission internationale de i'eclairage) ] An organisation that created a universal colour mode that describes colour in a 3D axis which they called Lab mode. This mode allows all visible colour to be specified and has a luminance (L) channel and an A and B channel that represent colour values.


cif (common intermediate format)

Short for Common Internediate Format, analog video resolution 352 x 240 pixels (NTSC), 352 x 288 pixels (PAL).

canon glossary us


1 [ ciff ] Camera Image File Format. This is an agreed type of image storage used by many camera makers.

2 [ ciff ] (Camera Image File Format) A method of digital camera image storage used by many camera makers

3 [ ciff ] (Camera Image File Format) format de fisier de imagine.

3 | CIFF

cinch marks

1 [ cinch marks ] Short scratches on the surface of a motion picture film which run parallel to its length. These are caused by dust or other abrasive particles between film coils or improperly winding the roll, which allows one coil of film to slide against another.

2 [ cinch marks ] AKA: ScratchesScratches on a print running parallel to the edge of the strip of film. Typically caused by improper reel winding which allows one coil of the print to slide against another.

3 [ cinch marks ] Not to be confused with sync marks. Cinch marks are small vertical scratches on a roll of film that are caused when the end of the film is pulled to tighten the roll, causing any dust on the film to make a small scratch. Too much drag on the supply while rewinding is one common way that cinching can occur.



Practice of pulling the end of a film roll to tighten it. It's not recommended.

Kodak cine


1 [ cinema ] A place where screenings occur. Cinemas can be hardtops or ozoners.

2 [ cinema audio society ] AKA: CASA philanthropic, non-profit organization formed in 1964 for the purpose of sharing information with sound professionals in the motion picture and television industry. Use of the abbreviation after a name indicates that the person is a member of the CAS.On the web: Official Home Page

3 [ cinema verite ] A candid-camera style of filmmaking using hand-held cameras, natural sound, grainy high-contrast black-and-white film, and the appearance of no rehearsal and only basic editing.

4 [ cinema verité ] Cinema verité is a French term that means 'true cinema' or 'cinema truth.'

5 [ cinema verité ] Literally: Cinema Truth. A documentary style in which no directorial control is exerted. The term is frequently misused to describe new-wave 'handheld' camera techniques.



Trademark name of a system of anamorphic wide-screen presentation, the first commercially successful anamorphic system for the presentation of wide-screen pictures combined with stereophonic sound. The 35 mm negative camera image is compressed horizontally by 50 percent using a special anamorphic camera lens. Upon projection, the 35 mm print image is expanded horizontally by the same amount using a similar anamorphic projection lens. Depending on the type of sound used in the print, the screen image has an aspect ratio of 2:35:1 (optical sound), or 2:55:1 (4-track magnetic sound).

Kodak cine

cinematic license

Allows holder to use unmotivated Back Light, elevate short actors, and transform day into night.

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ cinematographer ] AKA: Cinematography, CinA person with expertise in the art of capturing images either electronically or on film stock through the application of visual recording devices and the selection and arrangement of lighting. The chief cinematographer for a movie is called the director of photography.Factual Movie(s): Visions of Light (1992)Fictional Movie(s): Living in Oblivion (1995)

2 [ cinematographer ] A person (artist) who uses a motion picture camera to record the actual film footage shot during the making of a motion picture. Director of Photography is an equivalent title. On large budget Hollywood productions, cinematographers or director's of photography are responsible for the artistic and technical decisions related to capture of the film (or digital video, as many of today's motion pictures are being recorded using digital capture devices.)

3 [ cinematographer (camera man or director of photography) ] The person who supervises all aspects of photography from the operation of cameras to lighting.



1 [ cinematography ] Derived from the French word cinématographe, cinematography literally means 'writing in movement' and is generally understood as the art and process of capturing visual images with a camera for cinema.

2 [ cinematography ] The art and science of photographing a motion picture. The cinematographer is responsible for capturing the actual film footage using a motion picture camera which can be film or digital based.



Cinerama is a process of simultaneous filming by three cameras. The cameras are pointed at different angles and are then projected by three synchronized projectors and shown on a curved screen.

Columbia Film School Glossary


Italian for the 16th century. Traditionally refers to Italian fine art (1500-1600).

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ cipa ] CIPA test camera batteries to make it easy to compare their expected life. There is a standard measuring procedure for high power-consuming functions such as colour image display activation, use of flash, zoom and retractable lens movement. It doesn't include audio and movie recording functions.

2 [ cipa standard ] The Camera & Imaging Product Association (CIPA) is an organization that conducts performance testing on photographic equipment and provides standard measurement results. Nikon Inc. uses the CIPA Standard when providing information on the shots per charge battery information for its cameras.e: A Nikon D3S equipped with an AF-S NIKKOR 24-70mm f/2.8G ED lens, captured 4,200 images when measured at 23 degrees C/73.4 degrees F (plus or minus 2 degrees C/3.6 degrees F) under the following test conditions: lens cycled from infinity to minimum range and one photograph taken at default settings once every 30 seconds. Live view not used. results will vary depending on factors such as temperature, use conditions and the number of times the battery is recharged.


circle of confusion

1 [ circle of confusion ] Since all lenses contain a certain amount of spherical aberration and astigmatism, they cannot perfectly converge rays from a subject point to form a true image point (i.e., an infinitely small dot with zero area). In other words, images are formed from a composite of dots (not points) having a certain area, or size. Since the image becomes less sharp as the size of these dots increases, the dots are called circles of confusion. Thus, one way of indicating the quality of a lens is by the smallest dot it can form, or its minimum circle of confusion. The maximum allowable dot size in an image is called the permissible circle of confusion.

2 [ circle of confusion ] Tiny disc of light. Images formed by a lens are made up of these discs. The smaller these are, the sharper the image.

3 [ circle of confusion ] In photography, the circle of confusion (CoC) is used to determine the depth of field, the part of an image that is acceptably sharp. A standard value of CoC is often associated with each image format, but the most apprpriate value depends on visual acuity, viewing conditions and the amount of enlargement. Properly, this is the maximum permissible circle of confusion diameter limit, or the circle of confusion criterion, but is simply called circle of confusion.Real lenses do not focus all rays perfectly, and so, even at best focus, a point is imaged as a spot rather than a point. The smallest such spot that a lens can produce is often referred to as the circle of least confusion.

4 [ circle of confusion (coc) ] The Circle of Confusion characterizes the degree of acceptable focus. The smaller the circle of confusion is, the higher the resulting image sharpness and narrower the depth of field. Traditionally, CoC's of 0.001 for 35mm formats and 0.0005 for 16mm formats are used. With modern, higher contrast, sharper lenses and finer film grains, smaller CoC's may be desired since a smaller resulting spot on the film is reproducible.


circles of confusion

1 [ circles of confusion ] closely related to the above bokeh, the textbook definition is: the largest blur spot that is indistinguishable from the point source that is being rendered. Objects outside the depth of field of an image that the human eye can determine as “out of focus”.

2 [ circles of confusion ] Discs of light formed by the lens from points of light in a scene being photographed. The smaller the discs ('circles of confusion') are, the sharper the image appears. When the circles of confusion can be seen as discs rather than points of light, that portion of the image is considered to be unsharp.


circular aperture

1 [ circular aperture ] Certain Canon lenses feature a new Circular Aperture diaphragm unit, which uses curved aperture blades to provide for a more rounded opening as the lens is stopped down. It's especially effective at rendering out of focus background highlights as natural rounded shapes. In lenses such as the EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS lens, the lens opening is virtually circular from f/2.8 to f/5.6. These lenses retain all the benefits previously available with Canon's Electromagnetic Diaphragm smooth and consistent stop-down operation (even at up to 10fps with the EOS-1v), near-silent aperture control, and total absence of mechanical levers or switches in the lens mount.

2 [ circular pan ] A circular pan is a shot in which the camera rotates 360 degrees around a fixed axis.

3 [ circular polarizer ] A polarizing filter reduces reflections from non-metallic surfaces and darkens the sky. SLR cameras require circular (rather than linear) polarizers to prevent focusing and metering problems associated with the camera s beam-splitter.

4 [ circular polarizing filter ] A circular polarizing filter is functionally the same as a linear polarizing filter as it only passes light vibrating in a certain direction. However, the light passing through a circular polarizing filter differs from light passing through a linear polarizing filter in that the vibrational locus rotates in a spiral pattern as it propagates. Thus, the effect of the filter does not interfere with the effect of half-mirrors: allowing normal operation of TTL-AE and AF functions. When using a polarizing filter with an EOS camera, be sure to always use a circular polarizing filter. The effectiveness of a circular polarizing filter in eliminating reflected light is the same as that of a linear polarizing filter.

5 [ circular polarizing filter ] Converts linear polarized light waves to circular polarized light waves. Required whenever polarizing is desired using autofocus cameras and cameras that have semi-silvered reflex mirrors.


cire perdue

(Fr.'lost wax') Casting process used in bronze sculpture.

Vizual Art Cork

citric (acid)

Acid organic folosit pentru prepararea baii de stop.


city planner

An individual who helps guide and shape the future development of a community. A city planner considers environmental and social issues, and what kinds of resources are needed to improve the quality of life for the community residents, particularly in terms of what types of new building projects may be necessary.



1 [ cityscape ] An image with urban scenery as its primary focus; an urban environment.

2 [ cityscape ] Painting or drawing of city scenery.


civil rights movement

A mass movement in America, lasting from the early 1950s to the late 1960s, through which African Americans used nonviolent protest and legal action to secure social equality and educational and voting rights.



Chinese, Japanese, Korean. These three languages require fonts with a huge number of glyphs. All three share a writing system based on Chinese ideographs (though they have undergone separate evolution in each country, indeed mainland Chinese fonts are different from those used in Taiwan and Hong Kong).Japanese and Korean also have phonetic syllabaries. The Japanese have two syllabaries, Hiragana and katakana which have about 60 syllables. The Koreans have one syllabary, hangul with tens of thousands of syllables.

Font Forge Glossary


Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese. These four languages require fonts with a huge number of glyphs.

Font Forge Glossary


1 [ cl ] Simbol care semnifica supraexpunerea (engl. CLose aperture!), folosit la modele mai vechi de Canon.

2 [ cl ] Simbol care semnifica supraexpunerea (engl. CLose aperture!), folosit la modele mai vechi de Canon.

2 | CL


A metal covering that sheathes a metal structure.


clamp light

A type of lighting fixture designed to hold a screw-in light bulb, with a not-so-dependable spring clamp for mounting on the side of an open door, etc. Often includes an aluminum reflector dish as well.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms

clandestine photography

Commonly referred to as surveillance photography, clandestine photography is the photographing in secrecy of a person, object, activity or location.

Photo Tips

clap board

see The Slate.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


1 [ clapboard ] AKA: Clapper, SlateA small board which holds information identifying a shot. It typically contains the working title of the movie, the names of the director and director of photography, the scene and take numbers, the date, and the time. It is filmed at the beginning of a take. On the top of the clapboard is a hinged stick which is often 'clapped' to provide audio/visual synchronization. See also clapper-loader, continuity report.Fictional Movie(s): Postcards from the Edge (1990)

2 [ clapboard (slateboard) ] Before each take, a clapboard appears in front of the camera, with the number of the take written on it.


clapper or clapstick

The Slate, or just the two sticks that are struck together to mark a sync sound take.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


See camera loader.

imdb Movie Terminology

claritate de contur

Criteriu obiectiv de apreciere a claritatii imaginii caracterizat prin curba de margine (inregistrata de un fotometru). Cu cat panta curbei de margine este mai abrupta iar zona de tranzitie este mai ingusta, cu atat imaginea este mai clara.



Tehnica de iluminare a subiectului prin care unele parti sunt puse in evidenta prin iluminare, iar altor parti le este redusa importanta prin umbrire. In general clarobscurul foloseste contraste puternice de iluminare.


clasificarea obiectivelor

Obiectivele se clasifica dupa doua criterii: distanta focala si luminozitate.In functie de distanta focala, obiectivele pot fi clasificate in a. superangulare (cu distanta focala sub 35 mm / 135), b. normale (cu distanta focala 40 - 75 mm / 135) si c. teleobiective (cu distanta focala peste 75 mm / 135).In functie de luminozitate, fiecare producator utilizeaza terminologii specifice, precum 'ultraluminos' sau 'Nocton'.



A group of people considered as a unit according to economic, occupational, or social status, esp., a social rank or caste: “the working class,” “the middle class.”



Like the ones in your grandparents or parents' wedding album, these are the images that stand the test of time—striking, gorgeous and a bit formal. Classic photos reflect reality (similar to documentary, below), but they're infused with the shooter's artistic license.

TheKnot wedding photograhy


Relating to ancient Greece and Rome, especially in the context of art, architecture, and literature.



1 [ classicism ] The principles embodied in the styles, theories, or philosophies of the art of ancient Greece and Rome.

2 [ classicism ] The quality of classic or classical art. The term is applied in particular to the type of art that was the antithesis of Romanticism during the 18th and 19th centuries, when it was held to represent the virtues of restraint and harmony, in contrast to dramatic individual expression.


classification and ratings administration

AKA: CARAThe division of the MPAA which is responsible for administering certificates.On the web: CARA Home Page

imdb Movie Terminology


Animation of models constructed from clay or plasticine.

imdb Movie Terminology

clean speech

A take in which all dialogue was performed without error.

imdb Movie Terminology

clear color display

1 [ clear color display ] This innovative technology improves screen visibility for a more vivid, clear image when taking and sharing pictures. Reflections are minimized while contrast and power savings are improved. (In select COOLPIX models).

2 [ clear pixel ] Un senzor obisnuit filtreaza informatiile de culoare prin trei filtre color (R - red, G - green, B - Blue). Sony si alti producatori au introdus un al patrulea 'filtru', necolorat (White), realizind montajul RGBW. Acest montaj permite cresterea sensibilitatii globale fara a creste zgomotul din imagine, cresterea intervalului dinamic si are alte avantaje.

3 [ clear view ii ] Canon LCD screen with approximately 920,000 dots, 160-degree viewing angle, high brightness, low power consumption, improved scratch resistance, anti-reflective and smudge-resistant coating, producing less glare, enhanced clarity, better color.


clearing agent

1 [ clearing agent ] A chemical that neutralizes hypo in film or paper, reducing wash time and helping to provide a more stable image.

2 [ clearing agent ] A chemical that neutraliseshypo in film or paper, reducing wash time and helping to provide a more stable image.

3 [ clearing agent ] Chemical that neutralizes hypo in film or photographic paper. Its effect is to cut down wash time and assist in giving a more stable image.

4 [ clearing time ] The time taken for a film emulsion to lose its milky appearance at the fixing stage of film processing.


click stop.

Ball bearing and recess or similar construction used to enable shutter speeds, aperturevalues, etc. to be set by touch.

Mir glossary


A moment of high drama, frequently used at the end of serials. Named for the (now clichéd) practice of leaving a hero or heroine hanging onto the edge of a cliff.On the web: List of cliffhanger titles at the IMDb.

imdb Movie Terminology


1 [ clip ] Short sequence or segment of video. Has been used to refer to any video shorter than a regular TV program.

2 [ clip ] A brief segment excerpted from a film.

3 [ clip art ] Pre-made images for import into presentations, originally paper-based (clip, with scissors/knife), now electronic.

4 [ clip bin ] A section of the editing screen window showing all the video sequences imported into the editing program.

5 [ clip test ] Clip testing involves the cutting off of a short section of exposed but as yet undeveloped film (done in total darkness, of course) and developing it to test whether the film has been exposed as expected, or to determine if development changes should be made to improve the quality of the resultant negatives. The number of frames clipped is usually about three, from the start of the roll.



similar to blown out being off the histogram, but it can also apply to shadow or blacks areas of the image.

Digital Photography School Speeking photography


1 [ clipping ] When a signal is stronger than the circuits can handle, the excess is cut off, creating distorted audio and/or chalky video.

2 [ clipping ] Occurs where the intensity of light in an area of a digital image falls outside the minimum and maximum intensities that can be captured or displayed. The area may be too bright due to blown-out or flared highlights. The clipped area is usually completely white (overexposed), but when only one color channel has been clipped, the area may appear as having an altered color, such as a sky that appears greener or yellower than it actually is. A small amount of clipping is not at all unusual, especially when it appears apart from the subject, such as a small specular highlight or reflection off a shiny surface. Note that there may be a noticeable border where a clipped area adjoins a non-clipped area.

3 [ clipping path ] A shape created with image-editing software that is used to crop part of an image. Anything inside the shape (the clipping path) is retained; anything outside the path is removed.


cloisonne enamel

Decorated metal in which a design of metal strips is applied and the compartments (cloisons) formed are filled with coloured glass pastes. (Compare Champleve enamel.)

Vizual Art Cork

cloistered initial:

Most commonly appear as a single capital letter contained in an ornamental box, but multiple letters can be used. Cloistered initials are also called drop caps and are commonly used as the first letter in a block of text.

Font tympanus (codedrops)

clone brush

This is a tool used by graphics programs to retouch images.

Visual art cork


1 [ cloning ] A feature available on many image editing programs that lets you replace one area of the image using a sample from another. Use this to remove scratches or flaws, duplicate items or add bits from one picture to another.

2 [ cloning ] A digital image-editing technique in which pixels from one part of an image are copied and pasted ('cloned') onto another part of the image or onto another, completely-separate image.


close captioned

1 [ close captioned ] AKA: Close-Captioned, CCA system which displays the current dialog on screen for deaf or hard-of-hearing viewers. Contrast with subtitles, intertitles.On the web: National Captioning Institute

2 [ close down: ] Jargon that refers to making a photograph with less exposure than previously used. With apertures, using a narrower apertures with shutter speed, using a faster shutter speed. For example, going from f/8 to f/11 means closing down the lens by one stop.

3 [ close focusing ] The ability of the cameras lens to focus close to the subject. Most designs allow a close focus of around 20cm. Ones that go closer are often described as having a macro mode.

4 [ close up or macro mode ] On compact cameras, this mode allows the camera to focus closer than normal. On SLR cameras this mode will select a large aperture to blur the background to help isolate your subject.

5 [ close up scene mode ] Close up is a scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras used to photograph small objects and subjects at close range.



1 [ close-up ] A picture taken with the subject close to the camera— usually less than two or three feet away, but it can be as close as a few inches.

2 [ close-up ] A close-up is a shot in which a person’s face fills most of the screen, although the term can also refer to any shot that appears to have been taken at close range (or through a telephoto lens), and in which an object appears relatively large and in detail.

3 [ close-up ] A picture taken withthe subject close to the camera-usually less than two or three feet away, but itcan be as close as a few inches.

4 [ close-up ] AKA: CUA shot in which the subject is larger than the frame, revealing much detail. The abbreviation is often used in a slug line.

5 [ close-up ] Photographing an object at very close range.

6 [ close-up ] The general term for pictures taken at relatively close distances, from 1/10 life-size (1:10) to life-size (1:1).

7 [ close-up ] a framing depicting the human head or an object no larger than the human head.

8 [ close-up ] Generally, a picture of a subject that fills the frame, usually with the subject looking particularly close to the camera.

9 [ close-up ] The general term for pictures taken at relatively close distances to achieve from 1/10 life-size (1:10) to life-size (1:1) images.

10 [ close-up (stills) ] A shot requiring a supplementary lens, bellows, extension tubes, or macro lens to bring the subject into focus.

11 [ close-up attachment lens ] These lenses provide an easy way to increase magnification. Even when attached, you can use automatic exposure control and TTL metering. All lenses are treated with Nikon Integrated Coating to improve contrast and reduce flare. The higher the close-up lens number, the closer you can focus.

12 [ close-up lens ] A lens attachment placed in front of a camera lens to permit taking pictures at a closer distance than the camera lens alone will allow.

13 [ close-up lens ] A supplementary lens fitted to a camera lens that changes the focal length. For close-up work, a positive lens effectively shortens the focal length so that with a given lens-to-subject distance the near focusing limit is reduced.

14 [ close-up lens ] A lens attachment placedin front of a camera lens to permit taking pictures at a closer distance than thecamera lens alone will allow.

15 [ close-up lens ] Sold by filter manufacturers such as Hoya and Cokin to improve the close focusing capability of a lens.

16 [ close-up lens ] (1) An attachment lens that fits on the front of a camera lens, allowing photography at closer distances than than normal for that lens. (2) Also refers to a 'Macro lens' - a camera lens that permits macrophotography.


close-up, cu (film & video)

A composition in which a subject's head more or less fills the frame. In an extreme or very close shot (ECU, VCU) only part of the subject is included, frequently just eyes, nose, and mouth.

Tiffan edu Glossary

close-up/extreme close-up (cu/ecu)

The subject framed by the camera fills the screen. Connotation can be of intimacy, of having access to the mind or thought processes (including the subconscious) of the character. These shots can be used to stress the importance of a particular character at a particular moment in a film or place her or him as central to the narrative by singling out the character in CU at the beginning of the film. It can signify the star exclusively (as in many Hollywood productions of the 1930s and 1940s). CUs can also be used on objects and parts of the body other than the face. In this instance they can designate imminent action (a hand picking up a knife, for example), and thereby create suspense. Or they can signify that an object will have an important role to play in the development of the narrative. Often these shots have a symbolic value, usually due to their recurrence during the film. How and where they recur is revealing not only of their importance but also of the direction or meaning of the narrative.

Spring Hurst Cine


Any photograph made from a distance that is generally closer than our normal viewing distance. Close-up pictures are often startling in the detail they reveal.


clothes light

Any off-the-face fixture used to lighten dark clothing or emphasize its texture. Angle: often from the side or 3/4 back.

Tiffan edu Glossary

cloud computing

Cloud computing ofera posibilitatea de a face backup la informatiile pretioase (documente, fotografii videoclipuri, etc), de a le sincroniza, de a stoca date pe un server, la care ulterior puteti avea acces fie prin termediul PC-ului de acasa sau de la servici, a tabletei sau a smartphone-ului, de oriunde de pe glob. Datele pot fi vazute si modificate de un cerc de prieteni sau colegi intr-un proiect comun, in fiecare moment ele fiind actualizate si sincronizate.



The sun's not-always-cooperative Reflector and Diffuser.

Tiffan edu Glossary

cloudy white balance setting

Cloudy is a white balance setting. When manually setting the white balance on your digital camera, and shooting under cloudy lighting conditions you use the cloudy setting to balance the available light so it is captured correctly by the camera.

Nikon Grossary


extensia pentru imaginile Windows copiate in clipboard.



Creative Lighting System - sistem realizat de Nikon si implementat pe bliturile SB-600, SB-800 si SB-900 care permite unei unitati principale sa comande pana la trei grupe de unitati secundare (slave). Comenzile sunt trimise prin descarcari luminoase ce apar imediat inainte de descarcarea propriu-zisa.



1 [ cmos ] Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (now you can see why it is abbreviated) Another imaging system used by digital cameras. These produce lower amounts of power consumption, but are not as popular as the CCD sensors used in most digital SLR’s

2 [ cmos ] – Short for complementary metal oxide semiconductor, CMOS is now the most popular type of image sensor and can be found in everything from cellphones to pro DSLRs. Its low-light sensitivity and ability to provide live preview and video capture to DSLRs have made it extremely popular.

3 [ cmos ] (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) An imaging system used by digital cameras

4 [ cmos ] Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor: one family of electronic image sensors that output a digital signal

5 [ cmos ] Dispozitiv electronic de captura a imaginii si conversie din semnal luminos in semnal electronic.

6 [ cmos ] Dispozitiv electronic de captura a imaginii si conversie din semnal luminos in semnal electronic.

7 [ cmos ] Short for Complementary Metal On Semiconductor, a type of imaging sensor. Uses different method than a CCD to convert an electrical charge into voltage signals.

8 [ cmos ] Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor, one of the two main types of image sensors used in digital cameras. The Nikon COOLPIX CMOS image sensor with a backside illumination structure increases the amount of light that each pixel receives. The resulting improvement in noise and sensitivity reduction makes the select COOLPIX cameras more capable when shooting night scenes or in dark indoor situations. CMOS Technology provides Full HD 1080p movie recordings.

9 [ cmos (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) ] A type of imaging sensor, CMOS chips are less energy consuming than CCD-type sensors and are the dominant imaging technology used in DSLRs. Although once considered an inferior technology compared to CCD sensors, CMOS sensors have vastly improved and now represent the more common sensor technology.

10 [ cmos - complementary metal oxide semiconductor ] CMOS is a type of sensor, the light-sensitive device in many digital cameras and scanners that captures the image. It functions like a CCD (see above) while using less power and creating less heat. See CCD versus CMOS sensors.

11 [ cmos sensor (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) ] An alternative capture device to the CCD. Its currently as stable as a CCD but has the advantages of higher pixel count, less battery consumption and lower cost.



1 [ cms ] Colour management system. A software program designed to ensure colour matching and calibration between video and/or computer monitors and any form of hard copy output.

2 [ cms (color management system) ] Program care citeste profilul de culoare al unei imagini color, pe care il recalculeaza in concordanta cu profilul de culoare al destinatiei; de exemplu se citeste profilul de culoare al unei imagini furnizate de o camera foto digitala si este recalculat pentru afisare pe un monitor.



1 [ cmy ] Spatiu de culori substractive ce foloseste culorile primare cyan, magenta si galben (Yellow).

2 [ cmy color (cyan, magenta and yellow) ] These three secondary colors can be combined to recreate all other colors. Like CMYK, CMY is used in printing to create the colors seen in a print, although with less density in the blacks than CMYK color. CMY color is used in some of the least expensive desktop printers.



1 [ cmyk ] Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and BlacK. Colours used by most printers to produce your prints. Colour shifts can be caused when the colour management system tries to convert your PC’s RGB files to CMYK. Before printing, try converting your images to CMYK and see what the difference is.

2 [ cmyk ] Mod cromatic de tip substractiv, prin care sunt transpuse culorile de baza (RGB) de catre imprimanta (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow. blacK).

3 [ cmyk ] Short for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Key (black), four colors used in printing. Called process colors. Basic colors of dyes, pigments, toners.

4 [ cmyk ] An acronym for the ink colors used in four-color process printing -

5 [ cmyk ] Cyan, magenta, yellow and black, the primary colors used in commercial color printing from which all other printing colors are derived.

6 [ cmyk (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) ] Three subtractive colours used in inkjet printers to form a colour photo. All three are combined to produce black but the result is quite muddy so a separate black ink is included to improve density.

7 [ cmyk - abreviere pentru cyan, magenta, yellow, black ] cele patru culori de baza în policromie.

8 [ cmyk color (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) ] CMYK is the color space used for commercial offset printing. CMYK is also a common working color space for inkjet, laser, dye-sublimation, and wax thermal printers.

9 [ cmyk image mode ] Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (called K to prevent confusion with Blue) is an image mode used for litho reproduction. All magazines are printed with CMYK inks.


co-axial magazine

A type of magazine with two chambers side by side, with the supply and take up rolls rather like wheels mounted on either end of the same axle.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


A producer who performs a substantial portion of a creative producing function, or who is primarily responsible for one or more managerial producing functions. A co-producer has less responsibility than a producer for the completion of a project. Note that if a project has more than one producer, it doesn't mean that these individuals are 'co-producers' in the technical sense of that term. See also executive producer, associate producer, line producer.

imdb Movie Terminology

coala de tipar

Termen folosit pentru a desemna exemplarul tiparit delimitat de lungimea si latimea colii în cazul cartonului sau al tiparului în coala si respectiv de latimea rolei de hârtie si de cut-off-ul faltului în cazul tiparului pe rotative. O coala de tipar are: 32 pagini A5, 16 pagini A4, 8 pagini A3 (tabloid), 4 pagini A2 (broadsheet).

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A

coated lens

1 [ coated lens ] A lens covered with a very thin layer of transparent material that reduces the amount of light reflected by the surface of the lens. A coated lens is faster (transmitsmore light) than an uncoated lens.

2 [ coated lens ] A lens covered witha very thin layer of transparent material that reduces the amount of light reflectedby the surface of the lens. A coated lens is faster (transmits more light) than anuncoated lens.

3 [ coated lens ] A lens that has a thin layer of transparent substance applied to its surface to reduce light reflection.

4 [ coated optics ] Lenses whose surfaces are thinly covered with specific optical-quality materials. With projectors, such coatings minimize light reflection back to lamp, amount of ambient light mingling with focused light leaving lens. Can add to lens brightness. Other coatings filter colors, protect actual glass surface from scratches.

5 [ coated paper ] Paper with surface layer designed to improve reflectivity, ink holdout. Available in four major surface categories: cast, gloss, dull, matte.



1 [ coating ] A layer or multiple layers of thin anti-reflective materials applied to the surface of lens elements to reduce light reflection (flare) and increase the amount of transmitted light.

2 [ coating ] When light enters and exits a lens, approximately 5% of the light is reflected back at each lens-air boundary due to the difference in index of refraction. This not only reduces the amount of light passing through the lens but can also lead to repeating reflections which can cause unwanted flare or ghost images. To prevent this reflection, lenses are processed with a special coating. Basically this is carried out using vacuum vapor deposition to coat the lens with a thin film having a thickness l/4 the wavelength of the light to be affected, with the film made of a substance (such as magnesium fluoride) which has an index of refraction of n, where n is the index of refraction of the lens glass. Instead of a single coating affecting only a single wavelength, however, EF lenses feature a superior multi layer coating (multiple layers of vapor deposited film reducing the reflection rate to 0.2-0.3%) which effectively prevents reflections of all wavelengths in the visible light range. Lens coating is carried out not only to prevent reflections, however. By coating the various lens elements with appropriate substances having different properties, coating plays an important role in providing the overall lens system with optimum color balance characteristics.


coax, or coaxial cable

A circular cable with single wire centered inside a shield, with insulating material and insulating jacket. Sometimes referred to professional model number: RG/59U.

canon glossary us

cobra (blitz)

Tip de blitz extern, articulat, inventat de Kodak, care interpune intre patina port-blit si lampa propriuzisa, suportul bateriilor si electronica de comanda, iar capul blitzului se roteste spre inainte sau spre tavan. In acest fel creste distanta dintre obiectiv si lampa blitzului si reduce efectul de ochi rosii.



See Circle of confusion.


code numbers

Inked-on edge numbers, usually added to a workprint and mag track after syncing, so that corresponding sound and picture can always be properly aligned during editing. They are also used for the general organization of the footage. Sometimes the term edge numbers are used, and although this is not incorrect, care should be taken that it is understood that you are talking about the inked-on numbers and not the Latent Edge Numbers.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


1 [ codec ] A Codec compresses information to enable it to be sent across a network much faster. It will also decompress information received via the network.

2 [ codec ] (Compression and Decompression) Compresses information so that it can be sent across a network faster, and decompresses information received via the network

3 [ codec ] A codec is file format for recording video files. Popular codecs include H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 and AVCHD.

4 [ codec ] Short for compression/decompression or coder/decoder. Software or a hardware device that transforms one type of signals into another and vice versa.

5 [ codec ] Derived from compression decompression. An algorithm for compressing and decompressing files, employed for example with .jpeg image files.

6 [ codec ] A term related to digital video, a codec is a device or computer program that is capable of encoding and/or decoding a digital data stream or signal.



a book of paper or parchment leaves bound with boards; distinct from the ancient volume in scroll form.

ProximaSoftware Glossary

codul pantone

Sistem de culori cu peste 1200 de nuante creat de firma Pantone Inc.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A


Numar cu care trebuie modificat un factor cunoscut ca urmare a introducerii unor noi elemente. De exemplu, aplicarea unui filtru gri pe obiectiv, duce la cresterea cu un coeficient inscriptionat pe montura filtrului.


coerenta (lumina ~)

Lumina cu radiatii de aceeasi lungime de unda si cu aceeasi faza, asa cum sunt cele emise de LASER-e.


coffin light

A rectangular Soft Light, often with an adjustable black skirt used to control Spill. Like the Chicken Coop and Space Light, it is hung over the set.

Tiffan edu Glossary


Metoda de obtinere a fotografiilor prin decuparea si liprea de parti din mai multe fotografii.


cold colors

1 [ cold colors ] Blues and cyans, as opposed to 'warm colors' such as reds. (See Cool colors below.)

2 [ cold open ] A cold open, or teaser, is a short segment of a TV show's action, shown before the program's opening credits are shown. It serves to heighten a viewer's interest and to build dramatic tension before the show begins.

3 [ cold shoe ] Mounting point for electronic flash with no connection to camera s internal flash triggering system. Flash must be connected wirelessly or by cable to camera s external flash connection.

4 [ cold type ] The general term for type which is created by photocomposition, in which no heat is required.

5 [ cold war ] The period of protracted conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies that lasted from the late 1940s through the 1980s.


cold-light enlarger

An enlarger that has a fluorescent tube light source to produce highly diffused illumination.


colimat (sistem)

Sistem optic format din mai multe lentile, aliniate in asa fel incat toate axele optice sa coincida, pentru a obtine cele mai reduse aberatii optice.De exemplu, colimarea unei lentile convergente (proxar) cu obiectivul la care se ataseaza este deseori defectuoasa si produce imagini de proasta calitate.



1 [ collage ] The technique and resulting work of art in which fragments of paper and other materials are arranged and glued to a supporting surface.

2 [ collage art ] ('pasting') Technique originating with Cubism in which paper, photographs, and other everyday materials were pasted on to a support, and sometimes also painted.



To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.

canon glossary us


Assembling multiple copies of a document so all pages are printed and put together in proper order.

canon glossary us


(appended to a font volume name) A discounted font volume.

Font Shop Glosary

collimated light source

Light source or beam whose rays are parallel. A point-wise light source positioned at a lens focal distance provides a collimated beam. A very far point-wise light source, such as a star other than the sun, can also be considered as a collimated beam.

DXO Glossary

collodion process

A dry - or more commonly - a wet process using collodion as a medium to support a light sensitive emulsion. The wet-collodion process was described by Frederick Scott Archer in 1851 and, after refinement, was used by numerous 19th-century photographers from c.1854 onwards. It remained dominant until the mid 1870s. Collodion was also used to produce direct positives on glass (ambrotypes) and tin (tintypes).

Visual art cork


A screenless printing process invented by Alphonse Poitevin in 1856 and commercially popular from the 1870s to 1920s.

Visual art cork

colonial art of america

17th/18th century portraiture, miniatures, architecture, furniture-making and crafts in America. For a comparison, see: Australian Colonial Painting (c.1780-1880).

Vizual Art Cork


An inscription at the end of a manuscript or book that contains facts about its production; identifies artists, designers, or printers, and specifies the typefaces and pa-pers used.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


1 [ color ] Components of visible light specturm as defined by mixture of red, green, blue. See also color space.

2 [ color ] See typographic color.

3 [ color ] The perceived hue of an object, produced by the manner in which it reflects or emits light into the eye. Also, a substance, such as a dye, pigment, or paint, that imparts a hue.

4 [ color (moods and emotions) ] Color plays a role in affecting viewer's moods and appetites. Tip: use a Light Hand.

5 [ color analyzer ] A device for determining the correct printing light ratios for printing color negatives.

6 [ color background generator ] Device to electronically create a color onscreen without using a camera, behind character-generated text, for example.

7 [ color balance ] How a color film reproduces the colors of a scene. Color films are made to be exposed by light of a certain color quality such as daylight or tungsten. Color balance also refers to the reproduction of colors in color prints, which can be altered during the printing process.

8 [ color balance ] The perceptual appearance of a color image of film as a function of the ratio of exposures of each of the primary color records on the film.

9 [ color balance ] How a color film reproducesthe colors of a scene. Color films are made to be exposed by light of a certain colorquality such as daylight or tungsten. Color balance also refers to the reproductionof colors in color prints, which can be altered during the printing process.

10 [ color balance ] Overall color cast of an image. Unbalanced means grays do not appear neutral. Also: amounts of process colors to simulate original scene s or photograph s colors.

11 [ color balance ] The accuracy with which the colors in the image match those in the original scene

12 [ color balance ] (1) The manner in which color film reproduces a scene's colors under different types of lighting (daylight or tungsten). (2) The adjustment of colors in making color prints.

13 [ color balance: ] The color balance of a film refers to the kind of light under which it will faithfully render color without the need for filters. Most films are daylight-balanced, which means that in daylight, or with a daylight balanced flash, colors will be true. A tungsten-balanced film can be used under certain types of artificial light to give true colors without filters or special printing techniques.

14 [ color bar generator ] An electronic device creating standard color bars as a test signal.

15 [ color bars ] A standardized pattern of colors used to test cameras and other video equipment so they will reproduce chrominance and luminance information correctly.

16 [ color break ] The edge where two areas of color in an image meet.

17 [ color breakup ] Image projection anomaly. Also called rainbow effect because looks like rainbow at edge of bright objects on screen. In sequential color systems -- single chip DLP projectors, some LCoS RPTVs -- results from updating color information at different locations on screen, caused by rapid object movement or rapid viewer eye movement. Example: red component of white object shows at different location on screen than blue as object moves rapidly, because color is displayed sequentially. Most noticeable with bright objects.

18 [ color calibration ] A process by which the image source (digital camera or scanner), monitor and output (printer) are calibrated to use the same or similar color standard, i.e., Adobe RGB, sRGB, etc). This ensures that the image viewed on the monitor has the same range of colors as the image that is printed, and any adjustments made to the color of the image in the computer are accurately represented when the image is printed.

19 [ color cast ] Unwanted color affecting entire image or portion of it.

20 [ color cast ] An overall color that uniformly affects an entire image. An unwanted color cast can often be avoided by correctly setting a camera's white balance. A photograph with a color cast can sometimes be corrected using image-editing software.

21 [ color channel ] An RGB image is comprised of three different color channels: red, green, and blue. Each channel acts as a layer that stores tonal information. All three channels combined create the colors in the digital image.

22 [ color consultant ] A technical advisor with expertise in film stock and film developing, who provides advice for cinematographers and color timers.

23 [ color conversion filter ] A filter that alters the color temperature of light to make it suitable for the film in use. It enables you to use daylight-type film indoors or tungsten-type film outdoors.

24 [ color conversion, color correction ] Matching the daylight or Tungsten balance of the film and lights through filtration or, with video, White Balance. Color can also be corrected during printing. Tip: Neutralizing off-color sources, such as dusk, is a technical and aesthetic call - not necessarily appropriate. See: Style and Consistency of Lighting.

25 [ color correct ] To achieve desirable colors, adjust relationship among the process colors.

26 [ color correction ] The altering of the color balance by modifying the ratio of the printing light values.

27 [ color correction ] The process of correcting or enhancing the color of an image

28 [ color correction ] To correct or enhance the colors within an image.

29 [ color correction ] The adjustment of colors to obtain a desired image.

30 [ color correction (digital color grading) ] Process of adjusting the color and look of images in digital post-production. Digital color correction allows far more control than tradition color timing.

31 [ color coupler: ] A colorless substance contained in color film emulsions that, when exposed to chemical developing baths forms the color dyes that make up part of the layers of processed color films.

32 [ color cube ] A three-dimensional diagram representing color space. There are different color cubes for different color spaces and color interpretations.

33 [ color decision list (cdl) ] The American Society of Cinematographers has proposed a Color Decision List (ASC-CDL), a metadata interchange format. It is designed to make image colors appear the same regardless of where they are displayed, creating a consistency of look throughout the production process.

34 [ color decoder ] Display device circuit separating color part of signal from luminance. If manufacturer sets to compensate for higher color temperature of overdriven displays, can effect picture quality.

35 [ color depth ] The number of bits assigned to each pixel in the image and the number of colors that can be created from those bits. True Color uses 24 bits per pixel to render 16 million colors

36 [ color depth ] The number of colors that can be coded as digital values. A color channel coded on 8 bits can represent 256 different values.

37 [ color depth ] The number of distinct colors that can be represented by a piece of hardware or software. Color depth is sometimes referred to as bit depth because it is directly related to the number of bits used for each pixel. A 24-bit digital camera, for example, has a color depth of 2 (2 bits of color) to the 24th power, resulting in a dynamic range of 16,777,216 colors. Similarly, an inexpensive 8-bit color monitor can only reproduce a total of 256 colors, which is far less than the expansive range of color contained in the digital image files captured by almost all consumer digital cameras.

38 [ color difference signals ] Component video signals representing parts of a picture. For example, R-Y and B-Y are color difference signals.

39 [ color distortion, coloring light ] Gels not only correct the color of light sources relative to one another or the film, they can also be used to distort light for dramatic or artistic purposes. Thus far, no permit is required. Video tip, see: White Balance.

40 [ color dynamics ] Implies rich color, excellent definition, high contrast. Resulting from dynamic range/contrast ratios.

41 [ color field paintings ] Paintings of large areas of color, typically with no strong contrasts of tone or obvious focus of attention.

42 [ color film ] Carries one or more emulsions, sensitive to different colors, and forming corresponding dye colors during processing.

43 [ color film ] Color film has been a possibility since the beginning of cinema. Technical problems and economic circumstances early on meant that it was not until the 1950s that color was viable in the film industry.

44 [ color filter array ] A two-dimensional array of colored filters placed on top of a sensor that allow the color of the input light to be recorded. Each photosite outputs a value that depicts the light in a subset of the visible spectrum. The most-used color filter array is the Bayer array.

45 [ color gamut ] (1) the definitive, complete range of colors in photography and image-editing that can be accurately represented in a particular situation, such as within a certain color space, or (2) the complete range of colors in an image.

46 [ color gradated filter ] A filter that gradually changes color density across the filter’s field.

47 [ color internegative ] Negative-image color duplicate made from a positive color original. Typically used for making release prints.

48 [ color management ] Use of appropriate hardware, software, and procedures to achieve consistent color throughout the entire digital post-production pipeline.

49 [ color management ] A system of coordinating and calibrating the color spaces of digital cameras, scanners, monitors and printers to ensure that the color and tonal values of the image you see on the screen match those in the final print image.

50 [ color management (print) ] Techniques to maintain consistent color across various devices (e.g. camera, display, printer), making output of one as close as possible to others despite different color spaces (colors). Software designed to increase accuracy and consistency of color between devices.

51 [ color management (video) ] Given a target medium for display, somewhere in the production process colors should appear the same as they will on the target. Color must be controlled using a defined process. For example, on production monitors colors can be measured and matched.

52 [ color matching system ] System of software, displays, color wheels, color filters to help ensure printed colors are same as those on monitor.

53 [ color media ] see Gel

54 [ color model ] Color description or language as defined by such systems as CMYK and RGB.

55 [ color negative ] A negative (opposite) record of the original scene. Colors are complementary to the colors in the scene; light areas are dark, and dark areas are light.

56 [ color negative ] When shooting in color film, the negative will show exact opposites of the original color. When printed to photographic paper, the negative becomes a positive and shows in full color on the print.

57 [ color negative ] (Sometimes called 'Print film.') Refers to film designed to produce a negative or reverse-color image that requires subsequent printing onto photo-sensitive material (generally paper used in making photographic prints) in order to view the true colors as a positive image.

58 [ color negative film ] Film that after processing has a color negative image. The most common film used.

59 [ color negative film: ] A film that forms a photographic image in which light tones are rendered dark (and vice versa) and colors are reproduced as their complements (such as blue being recorded as yellow) all of reversed tones and colors are then reversed again in printing to form a positive record. Color negatives have an orange mask (an aid to printing), so may be difficult to read. Color negative films come in a range of speeds (ISO), or sensitivities to light. Each speed of film has its uses and characteristics that can be matched to particular shooting needs.

60 [ color neutrality ] Characteristic of a reflection or transmission material that does not change the spectrum (though the color) of the illuminant.

61 [ color palette ] A palette is the set of available colors. For a given application, the palette may be only a subset of all the colors that can be physically displayed. For example, many computer systems can display 16 million unique colors, but a given program would use only 256 of them at a time if the display were in 256-color mode. The computer system s palette, therefore, would consist of the 16 million colors, but the program s palette would only contain the 256-color subset.

62 [ color positive ] A positive record of the original scene.

63 [ color print film ] Film designed for making positive prints from color originals and color duplicates.

64 [ color print film: ] Film designed to produce a color negative from which any number of color prints may be made.

65 [ color reference ] The eye/brain shifts an abnormal color scene (say blue light) toward normal (White Light). To minimize the shift, include a source of contrasting color (amber or red) so the eye has a color reference. See: Chromatic Adaptation.

66 [ color rendering ] Process that transforms the color values of the captured scene into digital RGB values displayed on an output device (screen, printer). By extension, also designates the process that transforms raw sensor values into displayed RGB values.

67 [ color rendering index (cri) ] A numeric evaluation of the accuracy (in relation to daylight at 100) of various types of light sources. Example: HMI is about 90.

68 [ color reproduction ] Refers to the hue quality of rendered colors. This can include color accuracy (in memory colors or in various flesh tones), color preference, flesh-to-neutral reproduction, and tone-scale neutrality.

69 [ color resolution ] Expressed in bits per pixel, total number of colors available.

70 [ color reversal ] Color film that shows the actual color on film. This film cannot be printed through common darkroom techniques as it requires a negative to positive, but can be shown through a slide projector.

71 [ color reversal ] Refers to film designed to make a positive image when exposed in the camera (slide film or transparency film). Light must be transmitted through such film in order to view it, whether it is lit from behind when viewing or the light is projected through the film’s image onto a viewing screen.

72 [ color reversal film ] Film that after processing has a color positive image. Can be an original camera film or a film in which other positive films are printed.

73 [ color saturation ] A term used to describe the brilliance or purity of a color. When colors present in a film image are projected at the proper screen brightness and without interference from stray light, the colors that appear bright, deep, rich, and undiluted are saturated.

74 [ color saturation ] Color purity, with highly saturated colors delivering very narrow band of light wavelengths, mixed colors produce broader spectrum of frequencies. Good saturation will produce vibrant display.

75 [ color saturation: ] The relative brilliance with which a film (or print) reproduces the subject's colors. Films that deliver more intense colors are said to have high saturation.

76 [ color sensitivity ] Portion of the spectrum to which a film is sensitive. The ability of the eye or photographic stock to respond to various wavelengths of light.

77 [ color sensitivity ] Numerical values defined by DxO Labs researchers that represent the numbers of colors that a sensor can distinguish, up to noise. Read more

78 [ color sensitivity ] Measurement of a film's response to different wavelengths of light, usually in reference to black and white film.

79 [ color separation ] Technique of using hardware (camera, scanner, computer) to divide continuous-tone color images, graphics, text into four halftone negatives -- representing cyan, magenta, yellow, black -- in preparation for printing in separate layers. Also: the product of color separating and four-color process printing. Also: separation.

80 [ color separation negative ] Black-and-white negative made from red, green, or blue light from an original subject or from positive color film.

81 [ color shading ] Non-uniformity of color rendering in the field: an object may not have the same color all across the image field (see Vignetting).

82 [ color shift ] Change in image color caused by register changes, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.

83 [ color shift ] Color distortion or inaccuracy caused by problems with film or processing, White Balance or transfer, light sources, Reciprocity Failure, projection, or viewing sources, and, painfully, much more.

84 [ color sketch effect ] A Special Effect available on certain Nikon D-SLR cameras. The camera detects and colors the outlines of subjects in the scene for a color sketch effect. When shooting D-movies in this mode, the video playback looks like a slide show made up of a series of still photos.

85 [ color space ] The range of colors a system is able to reproduce. Digital intermediate work is typically done in the RGB color space.

86 [ color space ] A mathematical model to specify, create and visualize color. Colors can be defined in different ways using different models. With video and computers, color is defined in terms of the excitations of red, green and blue phosphors on a screen or camera imager. Values may be converted from one color space to another, and may require a Look Up Table (LUT) for the translation. These LUTs are based on specific standards, such as SMPTE-C, SMPTE-240M, Rec-601-1, Rec-709, and Cineon.

87 [ color space ] Coordinate system representing the visible colors, under a given illuminant. The L* coordinate represents the luminance, while a* and b* represent color (respectively the green-magenta axis and the blue-yellow axis). The Lab color space was designed to be perceptually uniform, meaning that a same distance between two colors should be perceived as the same difference whatever those colors are.

88 [ color space ] The range of colors that can be reproduced on a computer monitor or in print. The most commonly used color spaces for digital imaging are the baseline sRGB and wider-gamut Adobe RGB (1998).

89 [ color temperature ] The color quality expressed in degrees Kelvin (K)-of the light source. The higher the color temperature, the bluer the light; the lower the temperature, the redder the light.

90 [ color temperature ] A linear scale for measuring the color of ambient light with warm (yellow) light measured in lower numbers and cool (blue) light measured in higher numbers. Measured in terms of degrees Kelvin*, daylight (midday) is approximately 5600K, a candle is approximately 800K, an incandescent lamp is approximately 2800K, a photoflood lamp is 3200 to 3400K, and a midday blue sky is approximately 10,000K. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/understanding-white-balance-and-color-temperature-digital-images Understanding White Balance and Color Temperature in Digital Images.*Named for engineer and physicist Lord Kelvin (William Thomson), who conceived of the thermodynamic temperature scale, in 1848.

91 [ color temperature ] Description of a light source measured in degrees Kelvin. Lights have different color temperatures: tungsten light is 3200 degrees K, daylight is about 5500 degrees K. Tungsten delivers a redder light, daylight is blue.

92 [ color temperature ] It is a measurement of the color of light, and important in that film is much more sensitive to color temperature than our eyes are. Is measured on scale that takes its name from the scientist Lord Kelvin

93 [ color temperature ] Numerical value characterizing the radiation spectrum of a perfect black body. High color temperature leads to a bluish light, low color temperature leads to a reddish light.

94 [ color temperature ] Term that describes the color of light sources; literally, the temperature at which a blackbody emits enough radiant energy to evoke a color equivalent to that coming from a given light source. A high color temperature corresponds to bluer light, a low color temperature to yellow light. The color temperature of daylight is around 5500K.

95 [ color temperature ] The light spectrum is scientifically described in terms of color temperature, and is measured in degrees Kelvin (°K). Photographers use three standard light color temperatures. The first is called 'daylight' for natural outdoors light (5500 degrees K), while the other two are incandescent (artificial light) color temperature standards: 3200 °K (tungsten studio lamps) and 3400 °K (photo lamps or photofloods).

96 [ color temperature ] A scale used for rating the color quality of light. Measured in degrees Kelvin (K). The temperature of daylight on a sunny day is expressed as 5500K; light from a tungsten lamp, 3200K to 3400K.

97 [ color temperature, kelvin scale, k ] Briefly: how red, blue and green the white light is. Films are white balanced by choosing the correct color-temperature source (daylight, about 5,600K; tungsten, usually 3,200K) or by filtering. Tip: Exotic, kinky-spectrum light sources are difficult to read accurately with portable color meters. Options once you determine the problem: use camera filters, Gel lights and/or windows; White Balance and/or filter a video camera, re-light with photographic sources, or opt for off-color scenes.

98 [ color temperature: ] A number, in degrees Kelvin, that tries to represent the approximate color of the light. Higher numbers are cooler, more blue. Lower numbers are warmer, more yellow or red. Also see white balance.

99 [ color temperature: ] The Kelvin scale, which is defined in degrees. It is used as a standard for balancing daylight films (approximately 5500 degrees K) and tungsten-balanced film (approximately 3200 degrees K.) Color conditions that vary from the standards will create a color cast in photographs made with these films, e.g., a daylight film used with artificial light will record with an amber cast a tungsten film used outdoors will record with a blue cast.

100 [ color timing ] A laboratory printing process whereby the negative is graded for color and density. A color timer uses a color analyzer to look at and adjust the colors of every scene in the movie. The analyzer has controls for each of the three primary colors: red, green and blue, and overall density.

101 [ color timing ] AKA: Color Correction, Color Timer, Color CorrectedA process which adjusts the final print so that colors match from shot to shot, regardless of the film stock and camera used to shoot the scene. So named because one aspect is adjusting the exposure time of each shot. Performed by a color timer. See also color consultant.

102 [ color timing (a.k.a. grading) ] To create a specific color balance, film in a lab is exposed for specific times by red, blue and green lights, altering the contrast of R, G and B. In the digital film process, gamma, hue, luminance, saturation as well as secondary color correction also can be applied.

103 [ color tone ] Menu setting defining preferred picture hue in captured images.

104 [ color wheel ] Series of cardboard or plastic cards held together (wire or bolt), with each card carrying different color and its identifier in particular color matching system. Useful for comparing color matching system color to color displayed on monitor or physical layout. Projector definition: Found on single imager light valve-based projection devices, rotating wheel with 3 or more translucent color filters displaying sequential color. Imager reflects/transmits color component of image when corresponding color filter of wheel affects light passing to lens. Cycle of 1X wheel through all colors is 1/60th sec.



Some films, copiers, and human eyes are not sensitive to portions of the visible Spectrum.

Tiffan edu Glossary

color-correction filter

1 [ color-correction filter ] A filter attached to a lens to either warm or to cool the image.

2 [ color-correction filters, cc filters ] A series of camera and printer filters available in gradual steps which can be used to correct color balance or to distort it for special effects. Range 1: red to blue; Range 2: magenta to green. Consult Kodak.


color-filter array

The filter dyes placed directly over each pixel on the chip surface (CCD, CMOS)

RadioShak support

color-temperature meter

A device used to measure the color of a source and provide recommendations for correction. Sometimes you should just say no. See: Color Temperature.

Tiffan edu Glossary


A hardware device designed to analyze the color characteristics of a swatch of color.



Dispozitiv folosit pentru masurarea unor culori sau pentru compararea a doua culori. Este folosit de exemplu pentru calibrarea monitoarelor.



1 [ colorist ] Colorists are artists who work closely with the filmmaker to color correct the film. They help the filmmaker achieve the overall look they desire. Using their knowledge of color, they establish continuity between shots and make color decisions that support the story.

2 [ colorist ] An image artist who, during post-production of a movie or television show, utilizes computer-based alteration/correction programs to go through the movie/show frame by frame to insure color and light continuity. The colorist may also tweak colors to stylistically heighten them (think Sin City or Kill Bill I).

3 [ colorist ] The Timer of a video transfer.



Renaissance term for colouring - mastery of colour in painting.

Vizual Art Cork


AKA: ColorizedA film alteration process where an operator digitally alters a black and white image to include color. It is a controversial practice because many filmmakers and viewers believe it fundamentally alters an artistic creation. Early attempts at colorization in the 1980's were relatively crude in their shading range. Examples of this kind of alteration are versions of Casablanca and It's a Wonderful Life. Citizen Kane is notable in that Orson Welles was able to legally prevent its alteration.

imdb Movie Terminology


1 [ colorize ] Electronically adding color. For example, converting B W media to color in digital post production.

2 [ colorize ] To add color to a black and white (grayscale) image. COLOR MODE also known as Image Mode - Similar colors in an image are represented differently in different color modes. RGB - Red, Green Blue - (millions of colors for use on the internet including in emails to reduce file size while maintaining color integrity), CMYK - Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black - (four colors required for printing in full color), Greyscale essentially 256 grays between black and white), and Bitmap two colors) are the four most common ways in which an image represents the colors it contains. Color modes determine how an image will be represented on a computer monitor or when being printed. An image’s color mode determines how colors combine. Different color modes result in different levels of color detail and file size.



Sistem de management al culorilor implementat in computerele Macintosh.



1 [ colour ] For a general guide, see: Colour in Painting

2 [ colour balance ] The accuracy with which the colours captured in the image, match the original scene.

3 [ colour cast ] This is a very unwanted tint of one colour in an image caused by the wrong amount of Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. It can be corrected using your editing software.

4 [ colour correction ] To correct or enhance the colours within an image.

5 [ colour depth ] Digital Images can approximate colour realism but the process is referred to as colour depth, bit depth or pixel depth. Most modern computer displays use 24 bit true colour. It displays the same number of colours that the human eye can discern, about 16 million.

6 [ colour depth ] The number of colours in an image factor. This governs the quality of your images.

7 [ colour depth ] The amount of colours that can be captured by the scanner : 24-bit is 8-bit red, 8-bit green and 8-bit blue, giving a total of over 16 million colours. Most of the latest scanners have 30-bit or 36-bit, to capture billions of colours. In practice it's very difficult to see any difference once you go beyond 24-bit.

8 [ colour fringing ] A problem with a CCD that makes random colour pixels appear around edges.

9 [ colour head ] A type of head of an enlarger that has a set of three colour filters (cyan/magenta/yellow) that can be adjusted to make a colour print from a negative or transparency. It can also be used to produce different paper grades using special variable contrast paper.

10 [ colour management system ] A calibration program that's used to ensure uniform colour appearance of digital images from input to output devices. Helps ensure that what you see on the monitor matches what you print out.

11 [ colour negative. ] Film designed to produce colour image with both tones and colours reversed for subsequentprinting to a positive image, usually on paper.

12 [ colour reversal. ] Film designed to produce a normal colour positive image on the film exposed in thecamera for subsequent viewing by transmitted light or projection on to a screen.

13 [ colour separation process ] A printing process that separates a color image into cyan, magenta, yellow and black layers. Film is made for each colour which is then used to make printing plates for each colour ready for the printing press.

14 [ colour space ] Digital cameras use known colour profiles to generate their images. The most common is sRGB or Adobe RGB. This along with all of the other camera data is stored in the Exif header of the Jpeg file. The colour space information ensures that graphic programs and printers have a reference to the colour profile that the camera used at the time of taking the exposure.

15 [ colour temperature ] A scale for measuring the quality of light in values of kelvin.

16 [ colour temperature ] The colour of the light source measured in Kelvin (K). Most colour films are balanced for 5500K which is the colour temperature for average daylight conditions. Lower values produce a yellow/orange cast, higher colour temperatures produce a blue cast.

17 [ colour temperature. ] Description of the colour of a light-source by comparing it with the colour of lightemitted by a (theoretical) perfect radiator at a particular temperature expressedin kelvins (K). Thus ''photographic daylight'' has a colour temperature ofabout 5500K. Photographic tungsten lights have colour temperatures of either 3400Kor 3200K depending on their construction.

18 [ colour wheel ] A diagrammatic chart show the placement of colors in relationship to each other. For more details, see: Colour Theory in Painting



Term applied to various periods of painting, e.g. 16th-century Venetian, in which colour was emphasized, rather than drawing. 'colourist' is an artist who specializes in, or is famed for, his/her use of colour.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ column ] A decorative or structural feature, most often composed of stone, typically having a cylindrical or polygonal shaft.

2 [ column rule ] A line used between two columns of type.



1 [ com ] (appended to a font or volume name) Linotype’s “Communication” (or Com) fonts have been optimised for international communication and for use with Microsoft Office applications. They are TrueType-flavored OpenTypefonts and are compatible with Mac and Windows operating systems. Com fonts support all languages defined as LEEC (Linotype Extended European Character set).

2 [ com port ] A serial communication port which support the RS-232 standard of communication



1 [ coma ] A lens aberration restrictedto off axis image points; the inability of a lens to render point sources of lightnear the edges of the frame as circular; the points of light appear as comet-shapedblurs (hence the name coma) with the tails flaring toward the center of the image;this aberration is very difficult to eliminate in wideangle lenses with large maximumapertures; improves by stopping down the lens.

2 [ coma ] Aberatie ce consta din incapacitatea obectivului de a reproduce corect un punct stralucitor din lumea reala si care apare sub forma unei comete.

3 [ coma ] Aberatie ce consta din incapacitatea obiectivului de a reproduce corect un punct stralucitor din lumea reala si care apare sub forma unei comete.

4 [ coma ] One of Seidel's five aberrations. The image of a point source of light is prevented from being brought into focus, but instead appears shaped as a comet or teardrop. Coma can be reduced by stopping down the lens.

4 | COMA

coma, comatic aberration

Coma, or comatic aberration, is a phenomenon visible in the periphery of an image produced by a lens which has been corrected for spherical aberration, and causes light rays entering the edge of the lens at an angle to converge in the form of a comet instead of the desired point, hence the name. The comet shape is oriented radially with the tail pointing either toward or away from the center of the image. The resulting blur near the edges of the image is called comatic flare. Coma, which can occur even in lenses which correctly reproduce a point as a point on the optical axis, is caused by a difference in refraction between light rays from an off-axis point passing through the edge of the lens and the principal light ray from the same point passing through the lens center. Coma increases as the angle of the principal ray increases, and causes a decrease in contrast near the edges of the image. A certain degree of improvement is possible by stopping down the lens. Coma can also cause blurred areas of an image to flare, resulting in an unpleasing effect. The elimination of both spherical aberration and coma for a subject at a certain shooting distance is called aplanatism, and a lens corrected as such is called an aplanat.

Canon glossary EU

combination printing

A technique using two or more photographic negatives or prints to make a single image. It was suggested by Hippolyte Bayard in 1852 for improving the appearance of skies. It was first shown by William Lake Price in 1855. 0.G. Rejlander's Two Ways of Life of 1857 and Henry Peach Robinson's Fading Away of 1858 are the best-known examples. The technique was revived in the 1920s and 1930s often to produce surreal work. Digital techniques have made it obsolete.

Visual art cork


The technique of affixing cast-off items to a traditional support, like a canvas.


commander mode

For cameras that offer this feature (check your manual to see if yours offers this feature) the D-SLR's built-in flash or external accessory Speedlight can be set to Commander mode, which makes that flash the master flash, controlling remote (optional) flash units in one or more groups.

Nikon Grossary


A voice (the person speaking may be either seen or unseen) commenting on the action of a film. A commentator, unlike a narrator, provides supposedly unbiased information, maintaining apparent perspective and distance from what occurs on the screen.

Penn State Integrative Arts department

commercial printer

Business producing wide range of printed products, e.g. magazines, brochures, business forms, announcements, posters, booklets, stationery, books. Also called job printer.

canon glossary us


To request, or the request for, the production of a work of art.


communist party

A political party advocating communist principles and ideologies, as developed by such political figures as Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin.



Short for comprehensive layout; used to show a client how the printed piece will look.

ProximaSoftware Glossary

compact camera

1 [ compact camera ] A 35mm compact is a camera that is usually small enough to fit into a bag or coat pocket. Its ideal of you dont want much fuss or easily become confused by complicated features. Most offer point & shoot modes and many have overrides and creative modes for the more advanced users. Cameras start at around 20 and go up to 500 or so for highly advanced models.

2 [ compact camera ] Commonly refers to a point-and-shoot camera. Sometimes referred to as a 'CSC,' a Compact System Camera.

3 [ compact flash ] See CF. This is the most commonly used type of memory. It is small, removable and available in a wide range of sizes up to 12GB.

4 [ compact flash ] Unul dintre cele mai raspandite medii de stocare a informatiei pentru aparatele de fotografiat digitale si alte dispozitive electronice (PDA-uri, playere mp3, etc). Are controlerul incorporat direct in el si este direct compatibil cu sloturile PCMCIA de la calculatoare.

5 [ compact flash ] Unul dintre cele mai raspândite medii de stocare a informatiei pentru aparatele de fotografiat digitale si alte dispozitive electronice (PDA-uri, playere mp3, etc). Are controlerul incorporat direct in el si este direct compatibil cu sloturile PCMCIA de la calculatoare.

6 [ compact flash or cf ] Brand name for one type of digital camera's re-usable memory card on which images taken by the camera are stored.

7 [ compact macro ] Specialized Canon Lens Abbreviations - similar to regular macro lenses, Compact Macro can focus very close. As far as I know, there is only one such lens the EF 50mm f/2.5 Compact Macro. There is a dedicated converter available for this lens that increases the working distance (distance between subject and front lens element at minimum focus) and enables 1:1 magnification for this lens. It is called the Canon Life-Size Converter EF.


compacta, camera foto ~

Camera foto cu film sau digitala cu dimensiuni reduse, ce poate fi purtata intr-un buzunar, dotata cu multiple automatisme: autoexpunere, autofocalizare, blitz automat, avansare automata a filmului (pentru cele pe film argentic), inchidere automata a camerei, etc.



1 [ compactflash ] A popular sort of memory card used in some digital cameras.

2 [ compactflash ] (CF) The most common type of digital camera flash memory storage. There are two types: CF Type I: the original 5mm high card, CF Type II: cards and devices that are 9mm high. Type I devices are all solid state but Type II devices include the new IBM Microdrive, a miniature, rotating hard drive. and check here: Flash Memory Cards/Readers, CF Type III: used in double-height slots only.

3 [ compactflash ] A removable memory card used in digital cameras to store pictures. The current maximum capacity is 256Mb.

4 [ compactflash ] Most digital cameraswith PC Card interfaces use a storage technology called CompactFlash. Standard supportedby the CompactFlash Association. CompactFlash is ATA compatible and will fit intoany Type II or Type III slot when used with a passive adapter.Component.Part of a compound lens consisting of one element (single lens) or more than oneelement cemented or otherwise joined together. A lens may therefore be describedas 4-element, 3-component when two of the elements are cemented together.

5 [ compactflash ] A type of storage card, available in a range of capacities, that's used in digital cameras to store images captured by the camera. The card can be erased when the images have been transferred or are no longer needed.

6 [ compactflash card (cf) ] A popular flash memory device, which is available in a number of storage capacities. Unlike earlier mechanically driven MicroDrives, newer CF cards are solid state, quite stable, and are capable of operating under extreme environmental conditions. Once the dominant format for in-camera data storage, CF cards have receded from the spotlight as smaller SD/SDHC/SDXC memory cards have become the card of choice in ever-smaller digital cameras.



How well devices, programs, files understand each other s commands, formats or language, true compatibility means any operational differences are invisible to both programs and people.

canon glossary us


Different hardware, software work together without major issues.

canon glossary us


1 [ compensare ] Un revelator foto compensat este un revelator care reda tonurile din umbre si lumini mai putin contrastante.

2 [ compensare ] Un revelator foto compensator este un revelator care reda tonurile din umbre si din lumini mai putin contrastant.


complementary color

1 [ complementary color ] Color that is minus one of the primary colors. Cyan is minus red-cyan and red are complementary colors; yellow is minus blue-yellow and blue are complementary colors; magenta is minus green-magenta and green are complementary colors. A color that produces white when mixed in equal parts with the primary color to which it is complementary.

2 [ complementary color ] A complementary color is one of a pair of primary or secondary colors that are in opposition to each other on a color wheel. Complementary colors display maximum contrast, one to the other. For pigmented colors, like paint, complementary color pairs include: orange opposed to blue, green opposed to red, and violet opposed to yellow. For the colors of light, complementary colors include: blue opposed to yellow, green opposed to magenta, and red opposed to cyan. CMYK complementary colors are cyan-red, magenta-green, and yellow-blue.

3 [ complementary colors ] Colors located opposite one another on the color wheel. When mixed together, complementary colors produce a shade of gray or brown. When one stares at a color for a sustained period of time then looks at a white surface, an afterimage of the complementary color will appear.

4 [ complementary colors ] Yellow, cyan, and magenta, which are complementary to the Primary Colors.

5 [ complementary colours ] The colour created when one of the three red, green or blue primaries is taken away from white light. Complementary colours are cyan, magenta or yellow and are also known as secondary colours.

6 [ complementary metal oxide semiconductor ] See CMOS above.



(appended to a font volume name) A discounted font volume.

Font Shop Glosary

component video

A video signal with luminance (brightness) and chrominance (color) signals separate. There are 3 cables: they can be R, G, B or Y (luminance), Pb, Pr (analog color difference signals) or Y, Cb, Cr (digital color difference signals).

canon glossary us


A musician whose music appears in a movie's score. Most movies have at least some original music written for the score, usually after the relevant parts of the movie have been filmed. See also lyrics.

imdb Movie Terminology

composit black

Culoarea negru obtinuta prin tiparirea tuturor celor patru componente CMYK. Cunoscut si sub denumirea de Rich Black.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A

composite photographs

1 [ composite photographs ] Also called photomontages or montages, are made by combining pictures from different sources into a single image.

2 [ composite print ] A print of a film that contains both picture and sound track. Films regularly shown in theaters are composite prints. Also called Release Print.

3 [ composite print ] AKA: Synchronized PrintA print with a images and sound on the same strip of film. The sound component may be either a magnetic soundtrack or an optical soundtrack. See also advance.

4 [ composite video ] A video signal with luminance (brightness) and chrominance (color) combined. Typically used to describe NTSC or PAL video, which also includes horizontal and vertical synchronizing information and other data combined in one signal. Also refers to a direct video connection using an RCA-type plug and jack.



1 [ compositing ] The combining of visual elements from separate sources intosingle images (or sequences of images), often to create the illusion that allthose elements are parts of the same scene. Examples might be incorporatingrendered 3D images (CGI) into filmed material, or extracting elements shot infront of blue/green screen. Today most compositing is achieved through digitalimage manipulation.

2 [ compositing ] The process of creating multiple layers of video, using such tools/techniques as painting, rotoscoping, keying, color correction, matting, etc.

3 [ compositing ] The technique of assembling a composite photograph. It may be done manually by cutting, overlapping, and gluing different images together into one final composition, or digitally using an image-editing program such as Adobe Photoshop.



1 [ composition ] The distribution, balance, and general relationship of masses and degrees of light and shade, line, and color within a picture area.

2 [ composition ] The pleasing arrangement of the elements within a scene— the main subject, the foreground and background, and supporting subjects.

3 [ composition ] Putting together various visual elements to create a unique organization or grouping to achieve a unified image or photograph.

4 [ composition ] The arrangement of the individual elements within a work of art so as to form a unified whole; also used to refer to a work of art, music, or literature, or its structure or organization.

5 [ composition ] The pleasing arrangementof the elements within a scene-the main subject, the foreground and background, andsupporting subjects.

6 [ composition ] The arrangement of the elements (subject and other objects) in a scene or photograph.

7 [ composition ] The placement of people or objects within the frame and the arrangements for actual movements within the frame or by the camera.

8 [ composition ] The arrangement of elements in a photograph.


composition, mise-en-scene

1 [ composition, mise-en-scene ] An arrangement of visual elements in the Frame; the path followed by the eye while viewing an image. Film and video composition exists in time and may change during the shot as well as through the cut or dissolve between shots. Composition and lighting are interdependent. See: Framing.

2 [ composition, of a painting ] Composition describes the complete work of art, and in particular the way that all its elements unite in, an overall effect. Compositional elements in a painting might include: size of canvas, subject matter, focal points of the picture (if any), colour scheme, tonal warmth and contrasts, draughtsmanship, representation and meaning, among others.



1 [ composition: ] The arrangement of subject matter, graphic elements, tones, and light in a scene. Can be harmonious or discordant, depending on the photographer, his or her mood, and the subject at hand. There are no set rules, just suggestions successful compositions are ones that best express particular feelings about the subject or scene.

2 [ composition: ] The process of adjusting framing, camera position, and/or focal length to turn the subject into a visually appealing photograph.



A person who works with compositing. See also digital compositor.

imdb Movie Terminology

compound lens

1 [ compound lens ] A lens combining two or more individual elements, usually cemented together.

2 [ compound lens ] A lens made up of two or more lens elements.



Set de reguli de aranjare a subiectelor din cadru, de ponderare a primului plan si al fundalului, etc., in scopul obtinerii unei fotografii placute.


comprehensive dust reduction system

Special care should be taken when changing lenses in order to avoid the possibility of dirt or dust entering the camera. Once inside the camera, foreign matter may adhere to the low-pass filter and show up in photographs. To help prevent the appearance of these artifacts in photographs Nikon has created the Comprehensive Dust Reduction System. This system uses a series of high resonance frequencies to vibrate the optical low-pass filter. This dislodges dust on the front of the sensor and reduces dust spots appearing on images. This system combined with the existing Image Dust Off system in Capture NX 2 provides a full dust prevention system for photographers.Sensor cleaning can be set to be performed manually when required by selecting the 'Clean now' setting, or automatically by selecting the 'Clean at startup/shutdown' setting. The 'Clean at startup/shutdown' setting has options for when the camera automatically performs an automatic sensor clean, either each time the camera is turned on, turned off or both.Sensor cleaning takes approximately three seconds to complete. If the shutter release is depressed during a sensor clean, cleaning will be cancelled. This enables images to be taken even if a sensor clean has started.

Nikon Grossary


Algoritm prin care fisierele (de imagine) sunt prelucrate si salvate in asa fel incat sa ocupe un spatiu mai mic pe mediile de stocare. Exista metode de compresie a imaginilor cu pierderi de calitate (JPEG) si metode fara pierdere de calitate (TIFF).



1 [ compression ] A Digital photograph creates an image file that is enormous. To enable image files to become smaller and more manageable cameras employ some form of compression such as JPEG. RAW and TIFF files have no compression and take up more space.

2 [ compression ] Algorithms that discard or reorganize information to reduce file size. Compression reduces the amount of storage space and bandwidth needed for images in the digital intermediate.

3 [ compression ] A digital process that reduces the number of bits in an image to reduce the file size. The benefit is that it takes less storage space and can be e-mailed quicker. There are two types of compression – Lossy which permanently loses detail and Lossless that returns all the data. JPEG lossy compression is the common method for digital imaging and can be adjusted to offer low compression which maintains most of the quality or higher compression which starts to affect image quality.

4 [ compression ] A method of reducing the size of a digital image file to free up the storage capacity of memory cards and hard drives. Compression technologies are distinguished from one another by whether or not they remove detail and color from the image. Lossless technologies compress image data without removing detail, while lossy technologies compress images by removing some detail. Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a lossy compression format supported by JPEG, PDF and PostScript language file formats. Most video formats are also lossy formats. TIFF files are not and, as such, are far more stable than JPEGs and other lossy file formats.

5 [ compression ] The process of reducing the bandwidth or data rate in a video or audio signal. Often used with audio and video to reduce storage and transmission costs. Compression techniques common in digital imaging rely on removing both redundant data and data that is deemed less critical or imperceptible to the viewer. This can be done either within a frame (intra-frame compression) or across multiple frames (inter-frame compression). Compression systems are developed to reduce perceptible losses, however most compression systems in use today will exhibit some level of distortion.

6 [ compression ] The process of reducing the size of a file. Compression is either lossless or lossy

7 [ compression ] The state of being pressed down under a weight or squeezed together.

8 [ compression ] Image files containing all the information recorded on a digital camera's sensor can be quite large. 'Compression' results in a smaller file that contains almost all the same information. The most popular compressed formats used by cameras are .jpg or .jpeg formats. If there is a loss of information from compression, it is called 'lossy compression.' Saving an image as a .jpg or .jpeg is a method of lossy compression, since some information is discarded. RAW files are uncompressed. Many digital cameras permit the photographer to select the degree of compression (e.g. Standard, Fine, Extra-Fine or Superfine) for an image the photographer is about to take. A 'Standard' image will show more loss of image detail than an 'Extra-Fine' or a 'Superfine' image, which will show minimal detail loss.

9 [ compression ] Refers to reducing the quality of digital data in an effort to conserve storage space. For example, the JPEG file format is a compressed format. Certain Nikon cameras that offer RAW capture, using the Nikon Electronic File format (NEF) can

10 [ compression ratio ] Usually expressed as a ratio--such as 5:1 (5 to 1), it s the difference between the original quantity of data and how much is left after bandwidth compression, or the degree to which the data has been reduced numerically.


compuserve gif

More commonly known simply as a 'GIF' [Graphics Interchange Format], it is a small image file format that is constrained to a maximum of 256 colors, generally making it a poor choice for your digital images. When it was created, most computer video cards were able to display no more than 256 colors. It is used mainly on the internet for graphic images that don't require subtle or gradual change in tones. It was created for viewing online images from the CompuServe network.

Photo Tips

computer art

1 [ computer art ] Visual images either computer-generated or computer-controlled using software or hardware tools. Also referred to as Digital art.

2 [ computer connections ] Indicates which method the product uses to connect to the computer. SCSI methods are generally the fastest, but also potentially the most difficult to set up, especially when you have several other items connected or installed. SCSI needs a special card installed to support the product. Most PC and new Macs don't have one so you may need to add this. Parallel is the slowest method of data transfer that's normally used to connect a printer to the computer If you also have a scanner or older card reader there's usually an adaptor to run it from the same connection point as the printer. This can protrude further out of the back of the computer so make sure you have the space to allow this.USB and Firewire are the new, easier methods of connection. Firewire is more popular on MAC platforms and is the fastest system, but also currently the least popular. Both recognize that an item has been attached and install necessary software from the supplied CD, using simple help menus. Both can be connected and disconnected with the computer and peripheral turned on. Unlike SCSI or Parallel, where both have to be switched off.


computerised flash.

Electronic flash guns which sense the light reflected from the subject, and cut offtheir output when they have received sufficient light for correct exposure. Mostunits must be used on or close to the camera for direct lighting only. And the cameralens must be set to a specific aperture (or a small range of apertures) determinedby the speed of the film in use.

Mir glossary

concave lens

An inwardly curved lens.

Photo Tips


Reprezinta raportul dintre substanta dizolvata si cantitatea de solutie. Se masoara in grame la 100 ml solutie (si se exprima ca g %) sau in grame la 1.000 ml. solutie.



Two or more things having a common center.



A scheme; a plan. An idea.



1 [ conceptual ] Emphasizing ideas rather than objects.

2 [ conceptual art ] Art that emerged in the late 1960s, emphasizing ideas and theoretical practices rather than the creation of visual forms. In 1967, the artist Sol LeWitt gave the new genre its name in his essay “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art,” in which he wrote, “The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of art as any finished product.”


conceptualism/conceptual art

Form in which the concepts and ideas are more important than tangible, concrete works of art.

Vizual Art Cork

concrete art

Term coined in 1930 when Theo van Doesburg became editor of the magazine art Concret; it is sometimes used as a synonym for abstract art, though the emphasis is not just on geometric or abstract form, but on structure and organization in both design and execution.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ condensed ] A condensed font is one where the space between the stems of the glyphs, and the distance between glyphs themselves has been reduced.

2 [ condensed ] A narrower version of a font, used to get a maximum number of glyphs into a given space.

3 [ condensed ] Characters which are narrower to fit into a compact space. A properly condensed character should fit into a smaller space without making it too thin or reducing the character's height.

4 [ condensed type ] Type that is narrow in width proportionate to its height.

5 [ condensed type: ] Any type style that is designed using narrow proportions. Condensed fonts can have thick or thin strokes.



1 [ condenser ] A lens in the enlarger head or spotlight that concentrates the light to a point of focus.

2 [ condenser enlarger ] An enlarger with a sharp, undiffused light that produces high contrast and high definition in a print. Scratches and blemishes in the negative are emphasized.

3 [ condenser enlarger ] An enlarger with asharp, undiffused light that produces high contrast and high definition in a print.Scratches and blemishes in the negative are emphasised.

4 [ condenser enlarger ] Photographic enlarger with an undiffused light enabling high contrast and definition in a print.



Generally a simple lens used to collect light and concentrate it on a particulararea, as in enlarger or projector. Frequently in the form of two planoconvex lensesin a metal housing. A condenser, normally of the fresnel type, is used to ensureeven illumination of the viewing screens on SLR cameras.

Mir glossary


Sistem de lentile folosit la aparatele de marit care concentreaza optim lumina emisa de bec. Exploateaza la maxim contrastul negativului.



AKA: Musical Conductor, Orchestra ConductorA person who directs the orchestra's performance of the score, often the composer.

imdb Movie Terminology

conflicting hints

1 [ conflicting hints ] If a glyph contains two hints where the start or end point of one is within the range of the other then these hints conflict. They may not be active simultaneously.

2 [ conflicting shadows ] Shadows that point in the direction of the main light in a studio lighting set-up.



1 [ conform ] Match the original film to the final edited work print.

2 [ conform ] Assembling recorded material by following a prepared scheme such as a rough cut or edit decision list (EDL). Autoconforming uses an EDL to directly control assembly in online editing.



Progressive versions of a film in the editing stage are known as conformations, often identified by date. Conformations are only of any significance on a large production where different editing departments should be sure to be working with the latest conformation.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


1 [ conforming ] The word to describe the negative cutter’s matching of the original to the workprint.

2 [ conforming (auto-conforming) ] Matching the digital intermediate to the final edit. Special conforming software is used to auto conform the digital intermediate by using an edit decision list or a film cut list provided by the editor.


confédération internationale des cinémas d'art et essai

AKA: C.I.C.A.E., CICAE, Internationaler Verband der Filmkunsttheater

imdb Movie Terminology


the associations a particular font brings to the readers interaction with it; what it reminds the reader of, the feelings or thoughts that arise when looking at it.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


In psychoanalysis, waking awareness; the activity of the mind directly perceptible to and under the control of a person.


consistency of lighting, matching

With film and video it is important that scenes used together match in Mood and spirit. This can be challenging when parts of a sequence are shot days - or sometimes months - apart, or when exterior light changes in mid-sequence. Also, the relative brightness of the subject, walls, and any windows should be constant unless the angle changes drastically. Quote: I have the assistant keep a shot-to-shot logbook which gives the f-stop, the filtration, whether there were any [camera] nets, the focal length of the lens, etc. . . . [in case] you have to come back and finish it three weeks later but you want everything to match. - John Bailey [ML]

Tiffan edu Glossary

constant bit rate (cbr) compression

Short for Constant Bit Rate. Unchanging encoding rate for MPEG, quality reduces when compressing demanding scenes, i.e. high amount of movement. Opposite: Variable Bit Rate (VBR), maintains quality at standard level, considered more efficient.

canon glossary us


Something that restricts, limits, or regulates.



Something formed or constructed from parts.


construction co-ordinator

AKA: Construction Foreman, Construction ManagerFinancial responsibilities include budgeting, tracking costs, generating reports, etc. Through drawings, a construction co-ordinator is directed artistically by the Production Designer and Art Director to produce their 'vision' in three dimensions. Also responsible for the physical integrity of the structures built by the construction department.

imdb Movie Terminology


Developed by the Russian avant-garde at the time of the October Revolution of 1917, the goal of this idealistic movement was to make art universally understandable and essential to everyday life.



A person (artist) who acquires goods or services for direct use or ownership.



A preoccupation with and an inclination toward the buying of manufactured goods.


contact print

1 [ contact print ] Aprintmade by exposing photographic paper while it is held tightly against the negative. Images in the print will be the same size as those in the negative.

2 [ contact print ] Print made by exposing the receiving material in contact with the original. Images are the same size as the original images, but have a reversed left-to-right orientation.

3 [ contact print ] A contact print is a photographic image produced from a film , usually a negative , occasionally from a film positive. The defining characteristic of a contact print is that the photographic result is made by exposing through the film original onto a light sensitive material pressed tightly to the film.

4 [ contact print ] A photographic image produced from film; sometimes from a film negative, and sometimes from a film positive. The defining characteristic of a contact print is that the photographic result is made by exposing through the film negative or positive, onto a light sensitive material that is pressed tightly to the film.

5 [ contact print ] A print made by exposingphotographic paper while it is held tightly against the negative. Images in the printwill be the same size as those in the negative.

6 [ contact print ] A reference print made by laying the negative strip directly on photographic paper and exposing to light so that the result matches in size.

7 [ contact print ] A print made with the negative in contact (held tightly against) the photographic paper so that both negative and print are the same size.

8 [ contact print: ] A print made the same size as the negative.

9 [ contact printer ] A device used for contact-printing that consists of a lighttight box with an internal light source and a printing frame to position the negative against the photographic paper in front of the light.

10 [ contact printer ] A device used for contact-printingthat consists of a lighttight box with an internal light source and a printing frameto position the negative against the photographic paper in front of the light.

11 [ contact printing ] The method used by the lab to copy film. A contact print is made on a machine called (sensibly enough) a Contact Printer, in which the original film and unexposed print stock are sandwiched together, emulsion against emulsion, and are run at a constant speed past a light which shines through the original, exposing the print stock with the same image. All workprints, answer prints and release prints are contact prints. The only other type of printing is Optical Printing, which is usually done to add an effect or to blow up or make a reduction print.

12 [ contact sheet ] Method for printing negatives the same size as the film so that the photographer can choose the images to be enlarged.

13 [ contact sheet ] A set of multiple images printed at the same size as the negative, on one page. In film photography, contact sheets were often used to quickly scan for the highest quality images from a roll of film.

14 [ contact sheet ] A contact print made from several negatives at one time, usually an entire roll or whatever number of frames will fit on the print paper. The negatives actually come in 'contact' with the printing paper, or as close as possible to the print paper when in a contact-printer negative holder.


conte crayon

Proprietary manufactured chalk.

Vizual Art Cork

contemporary art

1 [ contemporary art ] Embraces late 20th century contemporary art movements in painting, sculpture and architecture, as well as new media such as installation art, (including sound), conceptualism and video art.

2 [ contemporary art ] A rather loose term, used by museums to describe post-war art, and by art critics to refer to art since 1970.



The subject matter or significance of a work of art, especially as contrasted with its form.


content, of a painting

This traditionally refers to the message contained and communicated by the work of art, embracing its emotional, intellectual, symbolic, and narrative content.

Vizual Art Cork


Feature-rich OpenType fonts can detect certain characters or character combinations before and/or after specific characters and substitute them with alternate glyphs or ligatures according to the context. Certain (older) operating systems and applications cannot access these OpenType features.

Font Shop Glosary


1 [ continuity ] AKA: Continuity ErrorThe degree to which a movie is self-consistent. For example, a scene where an actor is wearing a hat when seen from one camera angle and not from another would lack continuity. A person is often employed to check that continuity is maintained since reshooting embarrassing lapses in continuity can be prohibitively expensive. See also continuity report. In modern times, some continuity errors can be corrected through digital compositing. See the Terminator 2: Judgment Day trivia entry for an example.On the web: IMDb Goofs Section

2 [ continuity ] The seamlessness of detail from one shot to another within a scene. Continuity refers particularly to the physical elements, rather than to the choices in Coverage that can result in a lack of seamlessness. Elements of continuity include any actions of the actor, the placement of props, the lighting, the costumes, and so on.

3 [ continuity ] The narrative growth of a film created through a combination of visuals and sound (resembling the story in print literature).

4 [ continuity cuts ] These are cuts that take us seamlessly and logically from one sequence or scene to another. This is an unobtrusive cut that serves to move the narrative along.

5 [ continuity editing ] An editorial style that preserves the illusion of undisrupted time and space across editorial transitions (especially cuts).

6 [ continuity report ] AKA: Continuity ScriptA detailed list of the events that occured during the filming of a scene. Typically recorded are production and crew identification, camera settings, environmental conditions, the status of each take, and exact details of the action that occurs. By recording all possible sources of variation, the report helps cut down continuity error between shots or even during reshooting.

7 [ continuity sketches (see storyboard.) ]


continuous auto-focus

1 [ continuous auto-focus ] A camera mode that automatically adjusts the lens to keep a moving subject in focus.

2 [ continuous autofocus ] As it says. The auto focus system is continuously working on focussing on the subject.

3 [ continuous autofocus ] An always-on autofocus system

4 [ continuous contact printer ] A printing machine where the emulsion of the negative film is in direct physical contact with the positive raw stock emulsion, and the two films are moving continuously across the printing aperture.

5 [ continuous focus ] See AF Servo

6 [ continuous high shooting ] Continuous is one of the shooting options found in the Auto Mode of select Nikon digital cameras. Continuous allows you to take a series of pictures. Depending upon your camera model, the battery life and remaining memory in the buffer Continuous High lets you take more frames per second than Continuous Low; however if the flash is fired, only one picture will be taken.

7 [ continuous low shooting ] Continuous is one of the shooting options found in the Auto Mode of select Nikon digital cameras. Continuous allows you to take a series of pictures. Depending upon your camera model, the battery life and remaining memory in the buffer Continuous Low lets you take fewer frames per second than Continuous High; however if the flash is fired, only one picture will be taken.

8 [ continuous servo af ] A mode of autofocus in which focus detection continues as long as the shutter release button is lightly pressed.

9 [ continuous servoaf focus ] Autofocus term used by Nikon, the AF sensor detection continues as long as shutterrelease button is lightly pressed and the reflex mirror is in the viewing position.Useful when the camera-to-subject distance is likely to change.

10 [ continuous shooting ] Continuous is one of the shooting options found in the Auto Mode of Nikon digital cameras. Continuous allows you to take a series of pictures.

11 [ continuous single shooting ] The camera will take one photograph each time the shutter button is released. Continuous Single is often the default setting.

12 [ continuous white balance ] Camera control for ongoing, moment-by-moment adjustments to the color temperature of a scene.


continuousservo (nikon's term)

AFFocus detection continues as long as shutter release button is lightly pressed andthe reflex mirror is in the viewing position. Useful when the camera-to subject distanceis likely to change.

Mir glossary


The outline of something.



An artifact similar to posterization in digital video with picture brightness changing in large steps, especially noticeable in areas of even brightness.

canon glossary us


1 [ contralumina ] Numita si contrejour, se refera la modul de iluminare al subiectului in care lumina vine spre obiectivul aparatului intr-un unghi foarte apropiat de axa optica.

2 [ contralumina ] Numita si contrejour, se refera la modul de iluminare al subiectului in care lumina vine spre obiectivul aparatului intr-un unghi foarte apropiat de axa optica.



('opposite', 'anti-thesis', 'placed against') word used in sculpture, referring to the posing of human form so that head and shoulders are twisted in a different direction from hips and legs.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ contrast ] (1) The general term for describing the tone separation in a print in relation to a given difference in the light-and-shade of the negative or subject from which it was made. Thus, contrast is the general term for the property called gamma (Y), which is measured by making an H & D Curve for the process under study. (2) The range of tones in a photographic negative or positive expressed as the ratio of the extreme opacities or transparencies or as the difference between the extreme densities. This range is more properly described as scale or latitude. (3) The ability of a photographic material, developer, or process as a whole to differentiate among small graduations in the tones of the subject.

2 [ contrast ] The degree of difference between the thick and thin strokes ina font (if any).

3 [ contrast ] The measure of rate of change of brightness in an image.

4 [ contrast ] The range of difference in the light to dark areas of a negative, print, or slide (also called density); the brightness range of a subject or the scene lighting.

5 [ contrast ] A measure of rate of change of brightness in an image

6 [ contrast ] A subjective feeling that graphic elements (such as fonts) are different but work together well. This gives a feeling of variety without losing harmony. Within a particular font, contrast also refers to the variety of stroke thicknesses that make up the characters. Helvetica has low contrast and Bodoni has high contrast.

7 [ contrast ] An indication of the difference between the thicker and thinner parts of characters in a typeface. Bodoni with its thin serifs and horizontal strokes and thick verticals, is a high contrast face. Helvetica (and most Egyptians) is a low contrast face.

8 [ contrast ] Diferenta dintre zonele cele mai intunecate si cele mai luminate dintr-un cadru sau dintr-o fotografie. Cu cat aceasta diferenta este mai ampla, cu atat contrastul este mai mare.

9 [ contrast ] The degree of distinction between areas of different brightness levels in a photograph, i.e., the difference in brightness between light and dark areas. For example, when the reproduction ratio between white and black is clear, contrast is said to be high, and when unclear, contrast is said to be low. In general, quality lenses producing high quality images have both high resolution and high contrast.

10 [ contrast ] The difference between one tone and another or between the darkest and lightest parts of a scene or processed film. High contrast involves not only an extreme Brightness Ratio but also few gray tones. Low contrast has an expanded range of intermediate tones with limited pure blacks and whites. Tip: What is too Contrasty for one medium or emulsion may not be so for another. See: Brightness Ratio; and Fall-off (on a surface).

11 [ contrast ] The difference in darkness or density between one tone or another.

12 [ contrast ] The range of differencein the light to dark areas of a negative, print, or slide (also called density);the brightness range of a subject or the scene lighting. It may be also explainedas tonal difference. More often used to compare original and reproduction. A negativemay be said to be contrasty if it shows fewer, more widely spaced tones than in theoriginal.Or another way to explain,a difference in visual brilliance between one part of the image and another; withoutcontrast, there would be no such thing as a visible image; a line in a photographis visible only because it is either darker or lighter in tone than the background;every distinguishable part of the image is the result of a contrast in tonal values.

13 [ contrast ] The relative difference between light and dark areas of the photograph.

14 [ contrast ] (1) the range of difference between highlights and shadow areas in an image. Many factors affect an image’s contrast, including the degree of development and the contrast grade of the paper on which an image is printed. (2) The range of brightness in a scene or in the light striking a subject. (Sometimes contrast is also referred to as 'Density.')

15 [ contrast ] A measure of the rate of an image's change of brightness. High contrast implies dark black and bright white content; medium contrast, a good spread from black to white; low contrast, a small spread of values from black to white.

16 [ contrast (photo) ] Smoothness of gradations and differences between light and dark areas. High contrast gives abrupt changes between light and dark areas, while low contrast gives very gradual changes. Also: the differences in color and brightness of one object compared to another.

17 [ contrast (photography) ] In photography, the range of light to dark areas in the composition. An image with high contrast will have a greater variability in tonality while a photograph with low contrast will have a more similar range of tones.

18 [ contrast (print) ] The degree of tones in an image, ranging from highlight to shadow.

19 [ contrast (viewing) glass ] A filter that darkens the scene to help the new and old pro evaluate contrast and shadow areas.

20 [ contrast de faza ] Metoda pasiva (dezvoltata de Honeywell) de realizare a autofocalizarii, prin care o portiune din imagine este divizata si proiectata pe doi senzori AF alaturati; in urma analizei diferentelor de semnal se poate determina nu doar lipsa punerii la punct a planului de claritate, dar si raportul dintre actualul plan de punere la punct si cel dorit de fotograf. Astfel, autofocalizarea nu este doar foarte precisa, dar si mai rapida (de circa trei ori mai rapida decat metoda de detectie a contrastului pe senzor). Detectia contrastului de faza este aplicabila doar la camerele (D)SLR.

21 [ contrast detection autofocus ] – This AF technology uses light sensors behind the lens, usually on the imaging chip itself, to measure when contrast is at its greatest point, which corresponds to maximum sharpness. It's generally slower than a rival technology, phase detection. Contrast detection AF is found in most point-and-shoot, cellphone, bridge and mirrorless cameras, as well as in video cameras. DSLRs also use contrast detection when they shoot in live view mode.

22 [ contrast filter ] A colored filter that attaches to a camera's lens when photographing in black and white that lightens or darkens an object or an area of the scene.

23 [ contrast grade ] Numbers (usually 1-5) and names (soft, medium, hard, extra-hard, and ultrahard) of the contrast grades of photographic papers, to enable you to get good prints from negatives of different contrasts. Use a low-numbered or softcontrast paper with a high-contrast negative to get a print that most closely resembles the original scene. Use a high-numbered or an extra-hard paper with a low-contrast negative to get a normal-contrast paper.

24 [ contrast grade ] Numbers (usually 1-5)and names (soft, medium, hard, extra-hard, and ultra hard) of the contrast gradesof photographic papers, to enable you to get good prints from negatives of differentcontrasts. Use a low-numbered or soft contrast paper with a high contrast negativeto get a print that most closely resembles the original scene. Use a high-numberedor an extra-hard paper with a low-contrast negative to get a normal contrast paper.

25 [ contrast grade ] A scale using numbers (generally 1 to 5) or terms (soft, medium, hard, extra-hard and ultra-hard) that refer to the contrast level of photographic papers. (A high contrast negative printed onto low-numbered or soft contrast grade paper will more closely reproduce the normal contrast of the original scene, and vice-versa.)

26 [ contrast grade: ] In black and white printing, an indication of the contrast rendition the paper will yield. #0 and #1 are low contrast #4 and #5 are high contrast. The normal contrast grade is #2.

27 [ contrast index (ci) ] A measure of contrast used in processing to determine the correct grade of paper to use to print a negative with a full tonal range using a diffuser enlarger.

28 [ contrast range (light) ] see Brightness Ratio

29 [ contrast ratio ] Relation between two quantities: display s whitest white and darkest black, e.g. 400:1, 10000:1. See ANSI contrast.

30 [ contrast ratio ] The difference between the darkest and lightest areas of a subject, stated in a mathematical ratio.

31 [ contrast sensitivity function (csf) ] CSF is a functional description of the human visual system threshold sensitivity to the contrast (i.e. peak-to-peak luminance difference) of sine wave patterns of a range of spatial frequencies. The Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) is dependent on the viewing conditions, i.e. viewing distance, size of the displayed image and luminance viewing conditions.


contrast-control filter

Used with black-and-white film to emphasize contrast in a picture. Yellow (Y), orange (O), and red (R) filters are available with contrast increasing in this order.

Nikon Grossary


1 [ contrast: ] The degree of difference between a subject's tones, a function of its inherent shades and colors and also of the quality of light.

2 [ contrast: ] The relationship between the lightest and darkest areas in a scene and/or photograph. A small difference means low contrast a great difference high contrast. High contrast scenes usually cause the most exposure problems however, their difficulty can mean they hold the potential for more expression. Though contrast is often linked with scene brightness, there can be low contrast in a bright scene and high contrast in dim light. Contrast can also describe attributes of color, composition, and inherent qualities of film.

3 [ contrast: ] The difference between the lightest and darkest part of the photo.



1 [ contrasty ] Higher-than-normal contrast including very bright and dark areas. The range of density in a negative or print is higher than it was in the original scene.

2 [ contrasty ] A scene or image with high Contrast.

3 [ contrasty ] Higher-than-normalcontrast including very bright and dark areas. The range of density in a negativeor print is higher than it was in the original scene.

4 [ contrasty ] A scene or an image that has an abnormally wide range of differences between the amount of light in highlight areas and the amount of light in shadow areas is said to be 'contrasty.'


control strip

1 [ control strip ] A short length of film containing a series of densities to check on laboratory procedures.

2 [ control strips ] Strips of pre-exposed film or paper that are used to test the accuracy and consistency of processing chemicals.



1 [ convergence ] Alignment of display colors, electron beams or pixels must be in correct position to display colors correctly. Critical for CRT displays, projectors, RPTVs.

2 [ convergence (stereoscopic) ] The horizontal movement inward of two optical axes. For example, with human eyes, when the left eye moves horizontally to the right, and the right eye moves horizontally to the left, to focus on an object moving towards the face. With two cameras, each optical axis is adjusted (toeing) to converge or focus at a specific point in a scene -- the convergence point.


converging light rays

Light rays that approach and tend to unite at one point. (Note: A focus is that point at which converging rays meet.)

Photo Tips

conversion factor

1 [ conversion factor ] Used to describe changes in apparent magnification when a 35mm lens is used on a D-SLR with a sensor smaller than 24mm x 36mm.

2 [ conversion filter: ] A filter that gives allows daylight film to record color faithfully in artificial light or, conversely, for tungsten-balanced film in daylight. For example, orange conversion filters are used when exposing tungsten-balanced films in daylight, bluish filters for daylight-balanced films in tungsten light. Most useful with slide films, as color negative imbalances can usually be corrected when prints are made.



Ansamblu de una sau mai multe lentile care, adaugate in fata sau in spatele unui obiectiv ii modifica distanta focala (implicit si unghiul de cuprindere). Pe tubul convertorului este inscriptionat factorul de conversie; de exemplu 0,5x transforma un obiectiv de 50 mm intr-unul de 25 mm, iar unul de 2x transforma acelasi obiectiv intr-unul de 100 mm. Convertoarele reprezinta o solutie ieftina de a obtine distante focale diferite, dar afecteaza calitatea imaginii obtinute si reduc luminozitatea obiectivului pe care sunt montate.


convex lens

A lens that curves outward, as if it is bulging.

Photo Tips


A fancier way of saying Gobo or Cookie.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


A flat board, like a flag, but full of irregular holes used for creating a pattern of shadows when put in front of a light.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms

cookie, cucoloris, cucaloris

A device almost as strange as its names. Placed in front of a Hard Light, it throws realistic or abstract shadows, or dappled light, on bland walls or areas of the scene.

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ cool ] Light, gels, or subjects in the blue-green region of the Spectrum.

2 [ cool colors ] Blues, greens and violet shades. Some color experts say that 'neutral' tones such as gray and silver are also cool colors. Psychologists consider that they have a calming effect. Cool colors appear smaller than warm colors in an image and seem to recede in a print or on a screen, while red can visually overpower them, dominating over even an equal amount of a cool color.


cooling system

Indicates whether the flash head incorporates a fan or ventilation system to ensure it doesn't overheat. This can be important on power full units.



1 [ coolpix ] The trade name given to Point & Shoot digital cameras manufactured by Nikon.

2 [ coolpix projector camera ] COOLPIX compact digital camera with a built-in projector.



The trade name for film scanners manufactured by Nikon. Nikon COOLSCAN scanners have been discontinued as of December 2010.

Nikon Grossary


Companie japoneza (Copal Optical Works Co. Ltd) care produce obturatoare centrale folosite in structura obiectivelor pentru camere foto reflex cu doua obiective (TLR), cu vizare directa sau camere in format mare.



Proces pozitiv in hartia fotosensibila este expusa dupa ce filmul negativ a fost pus in contact cu aceasta. Se realizeaza reproduceri la scara 1:1 care servesc pentru analiza si selectia imaginilor care vor fi ulterior marite.


copper plate

A printing plate used by any method of intaglio printing, etched or engraved to take ink for transferring on to paper. Although the term copper plate is widely used, plates are commonly made from copper or zinc.

Visual art cork


1 [ copy ] All typeset words and/or text incorporated into the publication (as in art and copy)

2 [ copy art ] Shooting and lighting relatively flat art - artfully, whenever possible. Tips: lights must be set beyond the Glare Angle; small focusing lights or Broads are usually preferable to Soft Lights; with reflective subjects, hide the camera, people, and any windows behind a large black cloth. Don't bake the art.

3 [ copy or document scene mode ] A high contrast black & white mode designed specifically for photographing text.



The process of adjusting the size and spacing of type to make it fit within a defined area of the page.

Adobe Glossary of typographic terms


1 [ copyright ] An individual s right to copy, redistribute, republish, modify an image. Also: ownership. Some Canon cameras allow users to add copyright notice and photographer s name to image s EXIF data.

2 [ copyright ] Drept de proprietate ce apartine autorului unei creatii artistice si prin care acesta decide asupra distributiei si publicarii sau interpretarii creatiei sale, prin vanzare, inchiriere sau alte forme, remunerate. Drepturile de autor sunt stipulate si in legislatia romaneasca prin Legea nr. 8 din 1996 cu modificari in 2004 si 2005.

3 [ copyright ] A legal right accorded to the creator (for example, the author, composer, photographer, playwright) or the owner (for example, a person, publisher or distributor) to the exclusive publication, production, display, sale or distribution of a work, such as a photograph.


cor-ten steel

A steel alloy that develops a rust-like appearance when exposed to weather for several years, eliminating the need for repainting. Because of this quality, it is also called weathering steel.



A plastic hub used to hold film without a reel. There are 2 inch cores (small cores) and 3 inch cores (large cores). 2 inch cores can also be called camera cores.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms

corector dioptric

Subansamblu reglabil din componenta ocularului vizorului prin care pot fi compensate deficientele de vedere (miopie, presbiopie sau hipermetropie) ale fotografului si care, astfel, priveste o imagine clara fara sa mai fie nevoie si de ochelari.


correct exposure

1 [ correct exposure ] that amount of light that makes an acceptably-good image without being over-exposed or under-exposed.

2 [ correct exposure: ] The combination of aperture and shutter speed that yields a full-toned negative or slide that yields the best possible tonal representation of the scene onto film or sensor. The constants in an exposure calculation are the speed of the film and the brightness of the scene the variables are the aperture and shutter speed.

3 [ correct exposure: ] The specific amount of light that must strike a given film to produce the best possible picture quality.


corrected print

Same as a Timed Print.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


1 [ correction ] All lenses have aberrations (defects) to a degree. Minimizing them is known as correction. High-quality lenses have greater correction. The effect of their aberrations is less evident.

2 [ correction of aberrationsat close distance focusing (or crc) ] In general, lenses are designed for maximum performance at infinity. Accordingly,when the lense barrel is fully extended to the shortest focusing distance, resolutionis reduced. Although this is negligible for ordinary lenses, it becomes increasinglyimportant in lense specially designed for close distance photography. Lense designersadopted a system where mechanism moves certain lense components as a unit automaticallycorrecting for aberrations. This assures high lense performance throughout the focusingrange.



Further changes in the timing of a print are known as corrections.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms

cort foto

Structura cuboidala sau piramidala, realizata din materiale translucide, folosita pentru a fotografia obiecte mici, fara umbre, in scop publicitar.



States that light fall-off in peripheral areas of the image increases as the angle of view increases, even if the lens is completely free of vignetting. The peripheral image is formed by groups of light rays entering the lens at a certain angle with respect to the optical axis, and the amount of light fall-off is proportional to the cosine of that angle raised to the fourth power. As this is a law of physics, it cannot be avoided. However, with wide-angle lenses having a large angle of view, decreases in peripheral illumination can be prevented by increasing the lens aperture efficiency (ratio of the area of the on-axis entrance pupil to the area of the off-axis entrance pupil).

Canon glossary EU


1 [ costume ] The clothes worn by actors when being filmed.

2 [ costume ] What a figure is wearing.

3 [ costume designer ] A person who designs the costumes for a movie.

4 [ costume supervisor ] The person in charge of costumes, usually preparing them for use and making sure they are accurate and faithful to the designs. Other responsibilities include consulting with the designers and training, supervising, and scheduling the costume staff.



AKA: Wardrobe, Assistant Wardrobe, Wardrobe AssistantA person responsible for handling the costumes worn by actors.Fictional Movie(s): Postcards from the Edge (1990)

imdb Movie Terminology


The person or department responsible for obtaining wardrobe items specified by the costume designer. Most items are borrowed from the studio's costume stock or rented from outside companies; others may be created specifically for the production.

imdb Movie Terminology


1 [ counter ] The negative space of a letter. A counter may be either fully enclosed, as in an O, or partially enclosed, as in a C.

2 [ counter ] The enclosed (or partially enclosed) space within letters such as 'c,' 'e,' S,' 'H,' and 'g.' Often confused with 'bowl.'

3 [ counter ] The enclosed or partially enclosed circular or curved negative space (white space) of some letters such as d, o, and s is the counter.



The open space inside letter strokes. Counter space can result from fully-closed or partially closed letter shapes.

Font tympanus (codedrops)

coupled dyes

The visible colours that are created by colour development.



Statistical numerical value describing the degree of dependence of two random variables.

DXO Glossary


The gradual, curved transition between adjacent walls of a Cyc.

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ coverage ] All the shots and angles needed to capture a scene effectively and edit it well. Quote: Planning scene coverage in advance is the most essential element in an effective lighting design. - Kris Malkiewicz [FL]

2 [ coverage ] Coverage is used to describe the architecture of breaking down a script into the shots that will allow the scene to be cut together. Although coverage addresses the bare-bones question of getting shots that will cut together smoothly, it is important not to be too distracted from bigger aesthetic question of getting the right shots for the scene to work.


covering power

The image area that a lens covers that will produce good even exposure and sharpness. This should exceed the film format area to ensure theres no fall off at the edges. Also the covereing power needs to be large if a camera with lens movements is used.



Secret, hidden, e.g.,CCTV surveillance system using hidden cameras, lenses.

canon glossary us

cowboy shot

A shot framed from mid-thigh up. Got its name during the filming of many westerns, when this was a common framing used.

imdb Movie Terminology

cp filter

See Polarising filter.



(Compact Prime gen. 2) obiective fixe, produse de Zeiss, destinate filmarii si fotografierii cu numeroase camere foto (monturi PL, EF, F, E si MFT), cu focalizare si diafragma manuale si care acopera formatul 24x36 mm



extensie pentru fisierele de imagine CorelDraw Photopaint.



1 [ cpu ] Central processing unit. This is a computer's microprocessor that's connected to the motherboard. Its speed is measured in Mhz, which indicates how quickly the computer can handle data. You need a fast one to minimise processing time while working with digital images.

2 [ cpu ] Central Processing Unit. Sometimes called the Central Processor, the Chip or Microprocessor. The CPU is a computer's critical component that contains the circuitry necessary to interpret and execute software application instructions.

3 [ cpu (central processingunit) ] Theelectronic component that controls an electronic product's functions. Essentially,all automatic cameras have at least a CPU to control various functions of the cameras.Some top models have three to five CPU to handle individual task functions - somehandle the exposure, one handle the autofocus and so on. The latest on some top modelsutilising 8 or 16 bits chips now. Newerautofocus lenses have built-in CPUs to relay information relating to focal length,distance info, lens type to the camera body for exposure to AF processing.



Baterie de litiu cu dimensiuni standardizate (34 x 16,5 mm) si care genereaza 3 V.



1 [ cr2 ] Extensie a fisierelor RAW la Canon.

2 [ cr2 ] One of Canon's two proprietary RAW image file formats in some camera models (CRW being the other).

2 | CR2


Baterie de litiu cu dimensiuni standardizate (20 x 1,5 mm) ce genereaza 3 V si care este folosita pentru functionarea ceasului intern in camerele foto.



Baterie de litiu cu dimensiuni standardizate (20 x 3 mm) ce genereaza 3 V si care este folosita pentru functionarea ceasului intern.


craft service

AKA: Crafts ServiceThe person (or people) available to assist the other crafts which include camera, sound, electricians, grips, props, art director, set decorator, hair and makeup, service the other crafts during the actual shooting of a motion picture, with tasks including providing snacks and cleaning the set.

imdb Movie Terminology


A category embracing most decorative arts.

Vizual Art Cork

crane shot

1 [ crane shot ] A crane shot is achieved by a camera mounted on a platform, which is connected to a mechanical arm that can lift the platform up, bring it down, or move it laterally across space.

2 [ crane shot ] A shot taken by a camera on a crane; often used to show the actors/action from above. Cranes usually carry both the camera and a camera operator, but some can be operated by remote control.

3 [ crane shot ] A shot taken from a boom that can move both horizontally and vertically.



Occurs when a computer suddenly and unexpectedly ceases to function.

Photo Tips


Text moving sideways across the bottom of the screen.

canon glossary us


1 [ crc ] Short for Cyclic Redundancy Check. Designed to recognize errors in digital data, a calculation is made on each block or string of data, and the resulting calculation (CRC) is attached to the data stream. If data is moved from one place to another, and the CRC and data stream no longer match, the data has been corrupted.

2 [ crc (close range correction) ] Sistem de corectie a aberatiilor cromatice in cazul punerii la punct in apropiere, prin deplasarea unui grup de lentile posterioare la obiectivele Nikkor.

3 [ crc (close range correction) system ] The Close-Range Correction (CRC) system is one of Nikon's most important focusing innovations, for it provides superior picture quality at close focusing distances and increases the focusing range. With CRC, the lens elements are configured in a floating element design wherein each lens group moves independently to achieve focusing. This ensures superior lens performance even when shooting at close distances. The CRC system is used in fisheye, wide-angle, micro and selected medium telephoto NIKKOR lenses.ass=product-technology data-id=>


creative consultant

1 [ creative consultant ] A multi-faceted individual that works primarily for the director of a feature, who helps with the creative process of a film in more than one field (e.g. script, special effects, photography sound design, music, etc.) In many cases, creative consultants go unaccredited, like ghost writers, for various reasons.

2 [ creative mode ] The Creative mode is an effects mode available in select Nikon digital cameras such as the DL series. Effects are chosen while you’re shooting either still images or movies and can be selected from five different groups (Light, which is the default, Depth, Memory, Classic and Noir). You can further adjust the amount, contrast, hue, saturation, filter or peripheral illumination of each of the effects.

3 [ creative palette ] Creative Palette puts creativity at a photographer’s fingertips, by allowing you to modify the look of a photo via the touchscreen LCD or multi-selector before you shoot. This is a new feature in the Nikon 1 V3. The camera will automatically detect one of four scenes: portrait, close-up, landscape or other and will then display a ring showing four effects that can be applied to the scene. Brightness, saturation and white balance will change between the different effects as a finger is rotated around the ring or the multi-selector is rotated, so what you see is what you get.



Coming up with the ultimate image, a lot of electricity, or a good cup of coffee on a late night shoot, just when all seems lost. Quote: Creativity describes a state of grace in which commerce, ego, and, lastly, taste, are all sufficiently served. - Tom McDonough [LY]

Tiffan edu Glossary


AKA: ConceptThe writer or other primary creative force behind a movie, series, or group of characters.

imdb Movie Terminology


AKA: CrewA collective term for anyone involved with the production of a movie who does not appear in the movie. This term is usually used to refer to the more subordinate members of a production team (contrast with filmmakers.)

imdb Movie Terminology


see Color Rendering Index

Tiffan edu Glossary


Sharp, clean, clear, usually used when describing an image.

canon glossary us


A person who publishes a review of a movie from either an artistic or entertainment point of view.

imdb Movie Terminology

critical end!

1 [ critical end! ] What to label your film can when turning it in at the lab when the roll ran out during a very important shot and you want to make sure you get every last frame possible.

2 [ critical focus ] An image's most sharply focused point.



In a general sense, a critique is an evaluation of someone's work or ideas. Someone's work is examined, and its creator is provided with a judgment. This can sometimes be negative, especially when the person giving the critique concentrates on the limititations of the work he is evaluating. In a specific photographic sense, a critique is an evaluation of the stronger and weaker aspects of a photograph. The community on ePhotozine generally prefers an even more positive approach, more like that of constructive criticism. In the Reader Gallery and even in the Critique Gallery, most ePhotozine users prefer a critique to offer well-reasoned opinions about other members' photographs, with the intention of helping the photographer, rather than taking an oppositional attitude. And the wording should always be diplomatic. Normally, on ePhotozine, the best critique method is the sandwich approach, whereby any negative criticism is sandwiched between positive remarks. Example: Good composition and exposure. You may want to straighten the horizon. But overall this is a pleasing image.



1 [ crominanta ] Informatie referitoare la ponderea culorilor fundamentale (rosu, verde, albastru).

2 [ crominanta ] Informatie referitoare la ponderea culorilor fundamentale (rosu, verde, albastru).



1 [ crop ] Enlarging a photography to purposely cut-off certain edges of an image when printing negatives.

2 [ crop factor ] – Originally, lenses on SLRs were designed to cover a full frame of 35mm film (1 x 1.5 inches), but most DSLR and mirrorless camera image sensors are smaller than a frame of 35mm film. When this occurs, the image they capture is cropped to the center of the image, effectively producing a higher level of zoom. Most of the dominant APS-C sensors, for example, have a 1.5X crop factor. A 50mm lens that works for portraits on a high-end camera with a full-frame sensor would be the equivalent of a slight telephoto 75mm lens on an APS-C camera.

3 [ crop factor ] Describes how much an imaging sensor has been cropped in relation to its full-frame equivalent. It always describes how many times larger the full-frame is in relation to the cropped sensor. Take an APS-C sensor with a crop factor of 1.6, for instance. This indicates the sensor is 60% of the size of a frame of 35mm film. The crop factor is used to calculate how much of the equivalent of the full-frame field of view the cropped sensor will have with a lens. In order to calculate this, one multiplies the focal length of the lens by the crop factor. A 1.6 crop-factor, for instance, will give a 100mm lens the same field of view as a 160mm lens on a full-frame camera.

4 [ crop factor ] A number used to multiply a lens's actual focal length to express how much of an apparent increase you can expect in the effective focal length of any traditional 35mm SLR lens you use on a dSLR camera. Also called the Focal Length Multiplier or FLM, and sometimes referred to as the Format Factor. Typical crop factors are in the range 1.5 or 1.6 to 2.0.

5 [ crop factor: ] The sensor length / 35mm. 1.3 – 1.6 is the range for most cropped sensor dSLRs, 1.0 for full-frame DSLRs, 2.0 for Olympus DSLRs.

6 [ crop marks ] Printed lines showing final printed page dimensions, used for final trimming.

7 [ crop sensor: ] A camera with a crop factor greater than one.



To select a portion of the full-frame image as the final picture. Cropping is done in the darkroom or computer environment by the photographer, or by an appointed surrogate in a commercial photo lab.


cropped sensor

See Crop factor.



1 [ cropping ] Altering the boundaries of a photograph, negative or digital image to improve the composition, remove unwanted elements, or to fit a method of display.

2 [ cropping ] Printing only part of the image that is in the negative or slide, usually for a more pleasing composition. May also refer to the framing of the scene in the viewfinder.

3 [ cropping ] In photography, editing, typically by removing the outer edges of the image. This process may happen in the darkroom or on a computer.

4 [ cropping ] Printing only partof the image that is in the negative or slide, usually for a more pleasing composition,in medium format, esp the 6 x 6, some form of cropping is necessary for publishingon A4 magazine format. May also refer to the framing of the scene in the viewfinder.

5 [ cropping ] Removing portions of an image that are outside the area of interest.

6 [ cropping ] To trim off edges of an image, removing unwanted areas to improve composition.

7 [ cropping ] (1) Removal of parts of an image in order to improve the image’s composition. Cropping occurs when an area that is smaller than the entire image frame is printed or reproduced. Digital image editing programs have a cropping tool that facilitates the task. (2) Cropping is sometimes also used in reference to a photographer moving closer to a subject, thereby eliminating (cropping) unnecessary surrounding elements from the composition.

8 [ cropping ] Trimming unwanted parts of an image.



Masking or otherwise shaping a photographic image to change its proportions.

Glossary of Photo Jargon for Travelers

cross bar

1 [ cross bar ] The horizontal bar connecting two strokes of a let-terform, as in 'H' and 'A', the ends are not free.

2 [ cross front ] Camera movement usually found on large format cameras that allows the front lens panel to shift sideways parallel to the film plane.

3 [ cross key ] see Multiple Key

4 [ cross light ] The illumination of a subject from both sides. Also see: Multiple Key.

5 [ cross modulation test ] Sometimes called 'cross mod' for short. This is a test the Mixing House will do in conjunction with the lab you plan to use to make sure the optical track is exposed and developed for optimal sound quality.

6 [ cross process ] Shooting color reversal film but processing as a color negative film, resulting in an alternate look.

7 [ cross processing ] A technique used much more by still photographers. Cross processing is the use of color reversal film stock to be developed as a negative. A positive print struck from that negative will have strange and rich colors, intense contrast and on overall yellowish hue.

8 [ cross processing ] r Xpro) – The deliberate processing of photographic film in a chemical solution intended for a different type of film. The effect was discovered independently by many different photographers often by mistake. Color cross processed photographs are often characterized by unnatural colors and high contrast.

9 [ cross stroke ] The horizontal part of a letterform that intersects the vertical part. Example: the arm of the lowercase t.

10 [ cross stroke ] The (usually) horizontal stroke that intersects the stem of the lowercase ‘f’ and ‘t’.

11 [ cross stroke ] The part of the letter that cuts horizontally across the stem, like in the letters 't' and 'f.' Also known as the 'cross bar.'



1 [ cross-cutting ] Cutting between different events occurring simultaneously in different locations. Especially in narrative filmmaking, cross-cutting is traditionally used to build suspense or to suggest a thematic relationship between two sets of actions.

2 [ cross-cutting ] Literally, cutting between different sets of action that can be occuring simultaneously or at different times, (this term is used synonomously but somewhat incorrectly with parallel editing.) Cross-cutting is used to build suspense, or to show the relationship between the different sets of action.

3 [ cross-cutting (parallel editing) ] A method of editing in which the point of view (p.o.v.) switches alternately from events at one location to those of another related action. The action is ususlly simultaneous and used to create a dynamic tension as in the chase scene in D.W. Griffith's A Girl and Her Trust. (See Intercutting for the distinction between cuts.)



Autofocusing sensors, shaped like this: + that measure horizontal and vertical subject contrast simultaneously.

canon glossary us


1 [ crossbar ] The horizontal part of a letterform that connects two segments. Example: the bar of an uppercase H.

2 [ crossbar ] The (usually) horizontal stroke across the middle of the uppercase ‘A’ and ‘H’.



The technique of interweaving pieces of two or more scenes, usually in order to show simultaneous actions or illuminate themes.

imdb Movie Terminology

crosstalk (ghosting)

1 [ crosstalk (ghosting) ] In 3D images, shadow-like second image created when left eye image is visible to right eye.

2 [ crosstalk (projector) ] Interference of one electrical signal by a second in close proximity, caused by electromagnetism.



1 [ crotch ] The inside angle where two strokes in a character meet.

2 [ crotch ] The pointed space where an arm or arc meets a stem: an acute crotch less is than 90 degrees, and an obtuse crotch is more than 90 degrees.


crown (sticla)

1 [ crown (sticla) ] Sticla cu formula speciala de preparare, care are un indice de refractie mica.

2 [ crown (sticla) ] Sticla cu formula speciala de preparare, care are un indice de refractie mica.



1 [ crt ] Short for Cathode Ray Tube, a vacuum tube with an electron gun at one end and a phosphor screen at the other. The phosphors glow when struck by electrons. It is the tube in older TV sets and computer monitors.

2 [ crt (cathode ray tube) ] Tub electronic ce contine un tun de emisie de electroni si care, la impactul cu peretele opus produc lumina vizibila. Se folosesc pentru monitoare si TV-uri.



1 [ crw ] The RAW CCD file format used by Canon Digital Cameras. Comes from Canon RAW.

2 [ crw ] Extensie a fisierelor RAW la Canon

3 [ crw ] One of Canon's two proprietary RAW image file formats (CR2 being the other).

3 | CRW

crystal sync

Specifically, a way of recording Sync Sound where the camera runs at correct speed with a quartz crystal-governed motor, and tape recorder records its pilottone using a built-in quartz crystal pilottone generator. The crystal is much like the kind used in a quartz watch. Unlike cable sync, the camera and tape recorder are not attached.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms


1 [ cs ] Mod continuu de fotografiere mai putin zgomotos (Nikon).

2 [ cs ] Mod continuu de fotografiere mai putin zgomotos (Nikon).

3 [ cs (crop sensor) ] A lens designed for use with APS-C or DX format cameras.

4 [ cs mount lenses ] Have longer focal distance than C-mount, with 12.5mm flange back distance. More practical for compact cameras. With 5mm spacer ring (C ring) C-mount lenses can be used on CS cameras.



see Discharge Lamp

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ csm ] Meniu de personalizare a functiilor aparatului (Nikon: Custom Setting Menu).

2 [ csm ] Meniu de personalizare a functiilor aparatului (Nikon: Custom Setting Menu).

2 | CSM

ctf (computer-to-film)

Metoda prin care fisierul de pe calculator este transpus pe un film fotografic. Acest film este folosit pentru a realiza imaginea pe placa tipografica conventionala, într-o rama de copiat.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A

ctp (computer-to-plate)

Tehnologie folosita în procesul de tiparire în cadrul caruia o imagine creata într-o aplicatie DTP (desktop publishing) este expusa direct pe o placa tipografica cu ajutorul laserului. CTP-ul prezinta mai multe avantaje în comparatie cu metoda conventionala de expunere a placilor. În CTP, întregul proces de transfer al imaginii de pe film pe placa de tipar este eliminat din procesul de tipar, crescând astfel claritatea imaginii si a detaliilor.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A


Having the shape of a cube.



An artistic movement begun in 1907, when artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque together developed a visual language whose geometric planes and compressed space challenged the conventions of representation in painting. Traditional subjects—nudes, landscapes, and still lifes—were reinvented as increasingly fragmented compositions. Its influence extended to an international network of artists working in Paris in those years and beyond.


cue sheets

A road map, of sorts, for the mixer to find the sounds on your tracks during the mix. It is laid out as a grid with each track forming a column and time moving ahead in rows measured in 35mm footage (even if your film is 16mm you must convert the footage to 35mm).

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms

culoare spot

O cerneala tipografica aplicata pe anumite portiuni ale unei coli tiparite.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A

culori html

1 [ culori html ] In paginile HTM sunt considerate 'sigure' 216 culori. In tabelul de mai jos sunt afisate culorile, codul HTML si RGB.

2 [ culori speciale de tipar ] Auriu (bronz-auriu), Argintiu (bronz-argintiu).

3 [ culori speciale directe ] Culori definite prin coduri de culoare Pantone.


cultural icon

A person, symbol, object, or place that is widely recognized or culturally significant to a large group of people.



The customs, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular nation, people, or other social group.



Procedura de transformare a unei variabile continue intr-un set limitat de valori numerice, de exemplu transformarea unei nuante de verde intr-o valoare din cele 256 posibile intr-un fisier digital de imagine.



The Sumerian writing style of wedge-shaped characters that are pressed into damp clay with a stylus.

ProximaSoftware Glossary

cuplant de culoare

Compus chimic ce reactioneaza cu substantele de oxidare ale revelatorului pentru a forma pigmenti colorati.



A person (artist) whose job it is to research and manage a collection and organize exhibitions.


curbura de camp

1 [ curbura de camp ] Proprietate a unei lentile de a focaliza pe suprafata concava de raza egala cu focala si cu centrul sferei in centrul optic al lentilei; deoarece filmul este asezat pe o suprafata plana, si nu concava, la periferie imaginea pierde din claritate.

2 [ curbura de camp ] Proprietate a unei lentile de a focaliza pe suprafata concava de raza egala cu focala si cu centrul sferei in centrul optic al lentilei; deoarece filmul este asezat pe o suprafata plana, si nu concava, la periferie imaginea pierde din claritate.



A defect of a photographic film consisting of unflatness in a plane cutting across the width of the film. Curl may result from improper drying conditions, and the direction and amount of curl may vary with the humidity of the air to which the film is exposed.

Kodak cine


First used in the 16th century, these typefaces imitate handwriting. Script letters and cursive typefaces appear to be drawn with pen and ink. Unlike script, however, cursive letters are not joined.

ProximaSoftware Glossary

curvature of field

1 [ curvature of field ] .This optical defect causes points on an object plane perpendicular to the lens axisto focus on a curved surface rather than a plane.

2 [ curvature of field ] Curvature of field is a phenomenon which causes the image formation plane to become curved like the inside of a shallow bowl, preventing the lens from producing a flat image of a flat subject. When the center of the image is in focus, the periphery is out of focus, and when the periphery is in focus, the center is out of focus. The degree of curvature of field is largely affected by the method used for correcting astigmatism. Since the image plane falls between the sagittal and meridional image surfaces, good correction of astigmatism results in small curvature of field. Since curvature of field cannot be improved very much by stopping down the lens, lens designers reduce it as much as possible using various methods such as changing the shapes of the various single lens elements making up the lens and changing the position of the aperture. In doing this, one necessary condition that must be satisfied to simultaneously correct astigmatism and curvature of field is Petzvals Condition (1843). Petzvals Condition states that a lens element is good if a result of zero is obtained when the inverse of the product of the index of refraction and focal length of that lens element is added to the total number of lens elements making up the lens. This sum is called Petzvals Sum.

3 [ curvature of field ] One of Seidel's five aberrations. Curvature of Field is a phenomenon in which straight lines are not rendered perfectly straight in the picture. Curvature of field can be improved but not eliminated by stopping down the lens.


curve (h&d)

The characteristic curve developed by Hurter and Driffield that depicts how faithfully a photographic emulsion has reproduced the tonal scale of the original scene.

Kodak cine


Design or patternwork (eg. Etruscan/Celtic interlace) based on pattern of curved lines; sinuous.

Vizual Art Cork

custom functions

1 [ custom functions ] Series of menu-controlled camera functions, allowing customization of camera operation according to photo requirements or personal preferences.

2 [ custom mode ] Camera setting to create user-specific mode of operation. Set the specific operations, store them, recall when needed.

3 [ custom profile ] Parameters set for use of specific printer, ink, paper to obtain desired output.



1 [ cut ] 1: What the director says to end the filming of a shot. 2: The cutting apart of 2 shots at the frameline, or the point where the shots have been cut apart. 3: In the different stages, or at the completion of editing the edited film itself can be referred to as 'the cut' or 'the edit.'

2 [ cut ] A change in either camera angle or placement, location, or time. 'Cut' is called during filming to indicate that the current take is over. See also shot, action. A 'cut' of a movie is also a complete edited version.On the web: IMDb Alternatve Versions SectionFictional Movie(s): Ed Wood (1994)

3 [ cut ] An editorial transition signified by the immediate replacement of one shot with another.

4 [ cut ] The splicing of 2 shots together. this cut is made by the film editor at the editing stage of a film. Between sequences the cut marks a rapid transition between one time and space and another, but depending on the nature of the cut it will have different meanings.

5 [ cut ] To remove light from the scene, scenes from the film, money from the budget, or terms from an interminable glossary.

6 [ cut ] An individual strip of film consisting of a single shot; the separation of two pieces of action as a transition (used when one says cut from the shot of the boy to the shot of the girl); a verb meaning to join shots together in the editing process; or an order to end a take (cut!).

7 [ cut (edit) ] A transition from one shot/clip to another, or a transition within a clip where frames have been removed.

8 [ cut and paste ] A two -step process. (1) To remove and copy (cut) to the computer's clipboard an image or part of one using image-editing software, or text, and (2) to insert (paste) the image or text into another file.



1 [ cutaway ] A short video sequence other than the main scene which interrupts the main scene. The cutaway often is a related shot, such as of an interviewer.

2 [ cutaway ] A shot, usually a closeup of some detail, or landscape, that is used break up a matching action sequence, and is often very helpful in editing to rescue you from an impossible break in continuity or coverage. A cutaway, as the name implies, is a shot that does not focus on some detail of the shot before or after it but cuts away from the action at hand, unlike an Insert Shot. However, the two terms are sometimes used vaguely or interchangeably, although this is not always a useful practice. The best cutaways are the ones that have some logic to them, that relate to the scene.



Term used predominantly by newspapers to describe a photo (see caption).

ProximaSoftware Glossary


1 [ cutter ] see Flag

2 [ cutter (see editor. ]



(Center Weighted metering sistem) metoda de determinare a expunerii in care se masoara intregul cadru dar se acorda preponderenta zonei centrale.



1 [ cx ] Nontula ransata de Nikon in 2011 pentru seria de camerele foto digitale Nikon 1.

2 [ cx format ] The CX format utilizes a Dual AF CMOS image sensor with the dimensions: 13.2mm x 8.8mm. The Nikon 1 digital cameras utilize the CX format imaging sensor.



1 [ cxprocess ] Procedeu folosit de Minolta in modele sale de aparate digitale pentru a oferi imagini 'Clear & eXcellent results' prin ajustarea acutantei, a redarii culorilor si a diminuarii zgomotului.

2 [ cxprocess ] Procedeu folosit de Minolta in modele sale de aparate digitale pentru a oferi imagini Clear & eXcellent results prin ajustarea acutantei, a redarii culorilor si a diminuarii zgomotului.



1 [ cyan ] Blue-green light; the complementary colour to red.

2 [ cyan ] Blue-green; the complement of red or the minus-red subtractive used in three-color processes.

3 [ cyan ] A bluish-green process color also known as process blue.

4 [ cyan ] Culoare de nuanta albastru-verziue, cu lungime de unda de 485 nm. Alaturi de magenta si galben reprezinta una dintre celei trei culori primare in sistemul substractiv de culori.

4 | CYAN


1 [ cyanotype ] A process invented by Sir John Herschel and reported in 1842. The prints are also known as blue-prints. The process is simple and produces a characteristic blue image on paper or cloth. It was popular in the 1840s and the 1880s. Its main use has been for the reproduction of architectural or technical drawings.

2 [ cyanotype ] Invented by Herschel in 1842, Cyanotype produces characteristic Prussian Blue images through the combination of iron salts with potassium ferricyanide. Once coated, the paper can either be left to dry by air in a darkened room or heat dried with a hair dryer. The image is formed by contact printing using the sun, but because the process cannot resolve fine detail, working from a line negative is recommended. Once exposure is complete, wash the print in cold running water for around 30 minutes until all yellow is gone. To brighten the highlights, rinse the print briefly in a dilute chlorine bleach bath, or to lighten specific areas, use a brush and bleach diluted 1:32. As well as paper, Cyanotype prints can be made onto heavy cotton or canvas, but you should avoid exposing finished images to bright light, or they will fade.



1 [ cybachrome ] Metoda de obtinere in mod direct (fara negativ intermediar) a fotografiilor color dupa un diapozitiv color. Aceasta metoda se remarca prin claritatea si stralucirea culorilor, claritate datorata absentei negativului intermediar ('inter-negative', in limba engleza) folosit in mod obisnuit pentru a obtine copii pe hartie dupa un diapozitiv color. Se intilneste si forma 'Cibachrome'. Denumirea probabil provine de la firma 'Ciba' devenita 'Ciba-Geigy' si apoi 'Novartis'), important producator de substante chimice, medicamente s.a.

2 [ cybachrome ] Metoda de obtinere in mod direct (fara negativ intermediar) a fotografiilor color dupa un diapozitiv color. Aceasta metoda se remarca prin claritatea si stralucirea culorilor, claritate datorata absentei negativului intermediar (inter-negative, in limba engleza) folosit in mod obisnuit pentru a obtine copii pe hârtie dupa un diapozitiv color. Se întâlneste si forma Cibachrome. Denumirea probabil provine de la firma Ciba devenita Ciba-Geigy si apoi Novartis), important producator de substante chimice, medicamente s.a.



A subgenre of science fiction that typically has elements which include a futuristic tone, massive urban areas in decay and poverty, partial environmental collapse, extremely powerful business corporations, random street gang violence with the overall presence of extremely powerful computer, robotic and information technology. Blade Runner is considered the definitive cyberpunk movie.On the web: List of cyberpunk titles at the IMDb.

imdb Movie Terminology

cyc strip, strip light

1 [ cyc strip, strip light ] A row of connected Broads used to light a Cyclorama or wall.

2 [ cyc wall ] A cyc wall (or cyclorama) is a term that is probably used more in cinematography or videography than in photography. It describes a curved, seamless wall and floor used as a backdrop. It can be as small as a table or a hundred feet long. Some people call it an 'infinity' wall. 'Cyc' is pronounced as 'sike.'


cyc, cyclorama

The ultimate Limbo background, found in many studios. The wall(s) and floor are joined in a gradual curve. Tip: simulate it with a Seamless Paper sweep. See: Cove and Limbo.

Tiffan edu Glossary

cycladic art

type of Aegean art from the Cyclades - a group of Greek islands - c.2800 BCE to 1100 BCE.

Vizual Art Cork


See 'Cyc wall'.

Photo Tips

cyr (cyrillic)

(appended to a font or volume name) Language support; includes the cyrillic alphabet and all necessary accents for the cyrillic languages. The supported languages may vary a little depending on the foundry.

Font Shop Glosary


d - distance information

1 [ d - distance information ] Obiective Nikkor tip D si G care transmit procesorului camerei fotografice distanta de punere la punct, pentru a fi folosita in calcularea expunerii (D Matrix Metering) sau a puterii descarcarii blitzului (3D Multi-Sensor Balanced Fill-Flash).

2 [ d chip ] Subansamblu electronic prezent in obiectivele tip D care transmite informatii despre distanta de focalizare pentru: 3D Color Matrix Metering, 3D Matrix Metering si 3D Multi-Sensor Balanced Fill-Flash, in vederea imbunatatirii expunerii.

3 [ d fa (pentax) ] Obiective realizate de Pentax ce acopera formatul 24 x 36 mm dar dispun de tratamente speciale pentru a obtine rezultate de inalta calitate si pe camerele digitale.

4 [ d log h curve ] The curve showing the relation between the logarithm of the exposure and the resultant density on processed film. Also called the characteristic curve.



Short for Digital Image Light Amplifier, a JVC LCos light valve projection display technology producing 2k resolutions at high brightness and contrast ratios. Employs a reflective-mode active matrix liquid crystal display to control light output.

canon glossary us


1 [ d-lighting ] Functiune prezenta in unele camere foto Nikon D-SLR si in programul Capture NX2 prin care poate creste luminozitatea zonelor subexpuse sau creste contrastul in cadrele supraexpuse.

2 [ d-lighting ] A function built into several Nikon D-SLRS and into Nikon's Capture NX2 imaging program that allows you to brighten subjects that have been underexposed or enhance the contrast of an overexposed subject.


d-log e

(Density vs. the log of Exposure) The graph made by plotting the density of a film sample against the log of the exposure that made that density. Also known as D-Log H, H and D, and characteristic curve. D-Log H (H for exposure) is the technically correct term.

Kodak cine


1 [ d-max ] See Maximum Density.

2 [ d-max ] Valoare folosita pentru a descrie densitatea maxima dintr-o imagine.

3 [ d-max ] Value used to describe the maximum density in an image.

3 | D-MAX


1 [ d-min ] See Minimum Density.

2 [ d-min ] Value used to describe the minimum density in an image.

2 | D-MIN

d-movie mode

An innovative feature first introduced by Nikon, DSLRs that can capture HD movies, is now available in the new D7000, D3100, in 1080p, and also available in the D3S, D300S, D5000 and D90 in 720p. Capture sound with the on-board microphone or through the external mic input on select models for vocal memories. The dramatic impact of your movie making is leveraged by the legendary line of NIKKOR lenses, from ultra-wide-angle and fisheye to super-telephoto.The camera's Live View capability makes D-Movies possible. Live View is essentially a video image, played back to the LCD monitor in near real-time for viewing. D-Movie mode records that image to the camera's memory card.D-Movies are enhanced by the fact that they are made using NIKKOR lenses, which provide an incredible choice of focal lengths as well as legendary optical quality. They also benefit from an image sensor much larger than a typical camcorder, resulting in higher image quality and exceptional high ISO performance during low-light shooting.

Nikon Grossary


1 [ d-slr ] Aparat foto SLR (Single Lens Reflex) digital.

2 [ d-slr ] Camera foto digitala (D) cu vizare prin obiectiv (SLR).

3 [ d-slr ] See DSLR

4 [ d-slr ] A digital single-lens reflex camera.

4 | D-SLR


The camera measures the amount of light reflected from the subject through the lens to automatically control flash output level and give correct exposure.

Nikon Grossary

d-type af nikkor lenses (only apply to nikon):

1 [ d-type af nikkor lenses (only apply to nikon): ] AFNikkor lenses that send Distance Information to some of Nikon's top cameras, Usedfor 3D Color Matrix Metering or 3D Multi Sensor Balanced Fill Flash (with Nikon SB27/SB 26/SB 25 Speedlight). Some third party lens manufacturers are catching up tosupply with compatible functions lenses too.

2 [ d-type nikkor lens ] A NIKKOR lens that sends distance information to the microcomputer of a dedicated Nikon camera. D-type lenses can be distinguished by a model name in which the letter D follows the maximum f/number.



An original Sony digitized tape format, resolution 720 x 486 (NTSC), 720 x 576 (PAL).

canon glossary us


Viewing light source. Most printer output profiles are built around a D50 light source, same spectral distribution curve as natural sunlight, 5000 K.

canon glossary us


Viewing light source representing average daylight -- color temperature of approximately 6500 K. CIE Standard Illuminant D65.

canon glossary us


1 [ da ] Short for Distribution Amplifier, which creates multiple outputs of a signal.

2 [ da (pentax) ] Obiective Pentax construite pentru utilizarea pe camerele foto digitale, care ofera un bun compromis intre pret si calitate.


da* (pentax)

Obiective de inalta calitate realizate de Pentax, pentru utilizare exclusiv pe camerele D-SLR, cu motorizare ultrasonica (SDM) si protectia articulatiilor impotriva prafului si a umezelii.


dac, d/a

Short for Digital to Analog Conversion, or simply Digital to Analog.

canon glossary us

dach ~ prisma

Prisma cu baza triunghiulara (duch = acoperis, germ), folosita in constructia vizoarelor si a altor instrumente optice, pentru rasturnarea sau inversarea imaginii.



An artistic and literary movement that grew out of dissatisfaction with traditional social values and conventional artistic practices during World War I (1914–18). Dada artists were disillusioned by the social values that led to the war and sought to expose accepted and often repressive conventions of order and logic by shocking people into self-awareness.



Louis Jacques Mand, 1789-1851 - French painter who, in 1839, with Nicphone Nipce, invented the daguerrotype.

Photo Tips


1 [ daguerreotype ] Announced on 7 January 1839 and presented to the world in August 1839 (except in England and Wales where it was patented), the daguerreotype produced a unique image on a silver-coated copper plate. The process was popular until the mid 1850s, although for longer in the United States, until it was superseded by the more sensitive wet-collodion process. For more details, see: History of Photography (1800-1900).

2 [ daguerreotype ] A photographic technique invented by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre in 1839. A daguerreotype uses a silver or silver-coated-copper plate to develop an image in a camera obscura. The image is formed when the light-sensitive plate is exposed to light through a camera lens. A daguerreotype was a unique, direct positive image that could not produce copies.



(1) An obsolete photographic process in which a picture made on a silver surface sensitized with iodine was developed by exposure to mercury vapor. (2) A picture made by this process.

Photo Tips


1 [ dailies ] Picture and sound work prints of a day's shooting; usually an untimed one-light print made without regard to color balance. Produced so that the action can be checked and the best takes selected; usually shown before the next day's shooting begins.

2 [ dailies ] AKA: RushesThe first positive prints made from the negatives photographed on the previous day. During filming, the director and some actors may view these dailies as an indication of how the filming and the actors' performances are progressing.Day-For-NightA shoot done during that day, that simulates night time, using filters, underexposure, and other techniques to create a feeling of darkness.

3 [ dailies ] AKA: RushesThe first positive prints made from the negatives photographed on the previous day. During filming, the director and some actors may view these dailies as an indication of how the filming and the actors' performances are progressing.Day-For-NightA shoot done during that day, that simulates night time, using filters, underexposure, and other techniques to create a feeling of darkness.

4 [ dailies ] The workprint, before it has been edited, so called because some labs will have it ready later the same day it was dropped off (if you are a client to whom they give some type of priority). Also known as Rushes.

5 [ dailies (see rushes.) ]


daisy chain

Used to describe the task of linking computer accessories such as hard disks and scanners to a connection such as a SCSI port on a computer.



Sistem mecanic proiectat sa absoarba si sa anihileze vibratiile parazite in aparatele fotografice, de exemplu cele produse de oprirea oglinzii principale la aparatele SLR.


dark adaptation

1 [ dark adaptation ] Optical and chemical changes in the eye which, over a period of about 20 minutes, enable people to see in the dark. It makes Exposure judgments by eye doubly difficult when light levels change. Tip: at such times, color perception is minimal or non-existent.

2 [ dark ages ] period of the Middle Ages from c.5th century CE to 10th century, considered a phase in which philosophy and the arts were ignored or actively hindered.

3 [ dark backgrounds ] One way to focus attention on the subject is to use a dark background, especially with backlit and Translucent subjects.

4 [ dark current ] Stray electrical charge that appears in areas of the CCD elements that are not exposed to light. The result is irregular noise in image areas such as shadows.

5 [ dark current (aka noise) ] Pixels collect signal charges in the absence of light over time, which can vary from pixel to pixel. The result is known as dark current, or more commonly, noise.

6 [ dark current dark noise ] The charge accumulated by pixels while not exposed to light. Normally, this charge is reduced or eliminated prior to capturing a picture

7 [ dark frame ] A noise reduction process where a camera takes a second exposure of a black frame after the camera takes a long exposure image. The image noise is easily identified in the black frame shot and is then electronically removed from the actual image. This helps to reduce the amount of hot pixels that normally show up in long exposure shots from digital cameras.

8 [ dark frame ] Cadru inregistrat de camerele foto digitale cu obturatorul inchis, folosind acelasi timp de expunere, pentru a atenua zgomotul din imaginile cu timpi lungi / ISO ridicat.

9 [ dark noise ] Noise measured on a sensor in the absence of light. A perfect sensor should have a uniform signal in the dark, meaning no noise. See Noise, thermal [electronic]



Material used to cover the photographer’s head and camera to block surrounding light in order to better view the image on the camera’s ground glass viewing screen.

Photo Tips


1 [ darkroom ] A lighttight area used for processing films and for printing and processing papers; also for loading and unloading film holders and some cameras.

2 [ darkroom ] A space in which there is total darkness or limited illumination by red or orange safelights so that light-sensitive materials such as film or paper can be handled, processed or printed without being affected by unwanted light.

3 [ darkroom ] A light tight areaused for processing films and for printing and processing papers; also for loadingand unloading film holders and some cameras. For image purist, the cycle of photographis not complete if the darkroom process is not handled personally.

4 [ darkroom ] A room without lights that is used to develop and process film and prints.

5 [ darkroom ] A room in which total darkness is achievable, permitting light-sensitive materials such as film to be handled without fear of their exposure to light.



The work space for developing and printing photographic film and making prints.



1 [ darkslide ] A removable plastic or metal sheet that slides into a sheet-film holder or film magazine to protect film from light when the holder is removed from the camera.

2 [ darkslide ] An opaque sheet that is slid in place over the front of a sheet film holder to protect the film from exposure to light.



Short for Digital Audio Tape, a 3.8mm wide magnetic tape which records two channels of 16-bit digital audio, either at 48 KHz or 44.1 KHz.

canon glossary us


1 [ data ] Digital information processed by a computer.

2 [ data disc ] A pattern on the base of APS film cartridges that tells the camera the film speed and number of exposures, so when loading a film you don't have to worry about getting it wrong. Or, in a more general sense, a data disc can be any disc with electronic files on it.

3 [ data disk ] A circular, rotatingdisk at the end of Advanced Photo System film cassettes that functions as a circularbar code, communicating the film speed, type and exposure length through a sequenceof reflective bars to an optical sensor in the camera.

4 [ data predarii specificatiilor ] Data la care toate informatiile tehnice pe baza carora se executa produsul comandat sunt trimise de catre client. Nerespectarea datei de predare a specificatiilor poate influenta data de livrare a produsului.

5 [ data storage capacity ] This is how much data (usually indicated in megabytes [MB]) that can be stored on either a hard drive or a drive's removable media disks.



A replacement back for a camera that records the date, time and sometimes more advanced exposure information on the film frame or in the rebates.



An organised list of information, such as a catalogue of pictures or collection of records that can be quickly sorted within fields.


date back

Back prin care se poate imprima data calendaristica pe negativul argentic.


day for night

Day for night refers to the creation of a night effect while shooting during the day, through the manipulation of filters, underexposure, or printing.

Columbia Film School Glossary


Since ours is the Art of Illusion, it doesn't have to be night, it only has to look like it. Tip: shoot late in the day with the sun, if any, as Back Light and use little fill; avoid the sky; underexpose 1 or 2 stops; some subtle-blue helps convey the effect. If you want to see the moon, street lights, or store lights in the scene, shoot during late dusk or real night.

Tiffan edu Glossary

day-of slideshows

Your photographer can quickly create a slideshow of images from the ceremony and cocktail hour and project them onto a big screen during dinner. Guests will love looking at what they just experienced (and at themselves!), plus it will give them plenty to talk about at the tables.

TheKnot wedding photograhy


1 [ daylight ] Light consisting of a natural combination of sunlight and skylight (approximately 5500 degrees K).

2 [ daylight ] Depending on sun s position in the sky, it can appear red to orange to white in color. By definition, photographic daylight is in the range of 5000 to 6500 degrees Kelvin (K), with neutral white to bluish color. (Lower color temperatures have red/orange color, such as at sunrise, sunset.)

3 [ daylight balanced ] The color temperature of daylight which is 5,400K on the color temperature scale (it does vary during the day, being higher at noon and lower in the earlier and later parts of the day). Color film for outdoor shooting is balanced for daylight, otherwise the image would appear blue in hue. If daylight balanced film is used indoors without a correction filter the image will have a orange hue.

4 [ daylight film ] A film color-balanced for average daylight and flash illumination - approximately 5,500K.

5 [ daylight film ] Colour film balanced for subjects lit with a colour temperature source of 5500K.

6 [ daylight film ] Color film designed to render correct color balance when exposed in normal daylight.

7 [ daylight filter ] see 85 Filter

8 [ daylight setting ] A camera's white balance setting that results in a scene's accurate color representation when in bright sunlight at noon.

9 [ daylight spool ] An aluminum spool holding 100 feet of film with solid, opaque sides, painted black, which will protect the film from becoming completely exposed when loading a camera in daylight. The name daylight spool comes from the fact that the film may be loaded without total darkness. There are also 400 foot daylight spools, but these are very rarely used as they do not always work very well in a magazine.

10 [ daylight variations ] The color, direction and quality of daylight goes through stunning changes between dawn and dusk. Exploring and exploiting those permutations is one of the challenges and rewards of the craft.



A film that will reproduce colors faithfully when exposed in daylight. The film can also be used with flash, as properly made flash or strobes yield daylight-balanced light.


daylight-type film

m balanced for proper color rendition when exposed in daylight.

Nikon Grossary


1 [ dc ] Direct Current. Battery power such as 9v DC battery

2 [ dc ] Acronim folosit de Sigma pentru a nota obiectivele destinate camerelor digitale, cu senzor APS-C.

3 [ dc ] (Direct Current) - termen anglosaxon pentru curentul continuu, furnizat de transformatoare - redresoare.

4 [ dc (defocus control) ] Sistem folosit de unele obiective Nikkor pentru controlul redarii planurilor din spatele punctului de focalizare.

5 [ dc (defocus control) ] A lens which allows the photographer to control the degree of spherical aberration in the foreground or background by rotating the lens' DC ring. This will create a rounded out-of-focus blur that is ideal for portrait photography. With the DC control set at zero, a DC-Nikkor lens operates in the same way as a non-DC lens with the same focal length and maximum aperture. A DC-NIKKOR lens will be labeled as such on the lens barrel.

6 [ dc (defocusimage control) ] A newtype of lens family introduced by Nikon, designated as DC lens. Mainly for portraitphotography. The lens enables to control background and foreground blur precisely,resulting in strikingly attractive portraits.

7 [ dc (direct current) ] Short for Direct Current. Electricity always flows in the same direction, different from AC (alternating current). Many security cameras use 12v DC.



Short for Directional Correlation Deinterlacing. Video algorithm designed to eliminate jagged edges generated by interlaced video.

canon glossary us


(Design rule for Camera File system) - standard care precizeaza numele directoarelor si structura lor pe un card de memorie, in scopul de a comunica cu alte dispozitive.



Short for Digital Cinema Initiatives, a consortium whose purpose was to create open architecture specifications for Digital Cinema components -- the Digital Cinema System Specification. This encompasses workflow from the feature post production to the screen. Terms used within the specification: Digital Source Master or DSM, Digital Cinema Distribution Master or DCDM (ver. 1.0), Digital Cinema Package or DCP, DCDM which is visually indistinguishable from DCDM version 1.0.

canon glossary us

dcs digital camera system.

Name used by Kodak for its range of digital SLR cameras.


dct (compression)

Short for Discrete Cosine Transform. This is a basic operation of MPEG video compression. It works on blocks -- usually 8 x 8 pixels -- of the picture, turning them into frequencies and amplitudes. DV, WM9, VC9, and JPEG compression also depend on DCT. If data rates are too low, blocks may be visible on the screen.

canon glossary us

dd (direct drive)

Short for Direct Drive, gearless drive mechanism, less prone to mechanical failure, often used by PTZ security cameras for pan, tilt, zooming.

canon glossary us

de stijl (the style)

Meaning “the style” in Dutch, a term describing a group of artists and architects whose style is characterized by the use of primary colors, rectangular shapes, and asymmetrical compositions. The movement was a direct response to the chaotic and destructive events of World War I, and its members believed that developing a new artistic style represented a means of rebuilding and creating a harmonic order.



Separating different video, audio, data channels multiplexed at source.

canon glossary us


(decalcomanie) American term for lithography.

Vizual Art Cork


Procedeu fizic de separare a unei solutii de reziduuri insolubile mai grele, dupa amestecul si reactia unor substante fizice; dupa o perioada de repaus, sedimentul se depune iar lichidul limpede poate fi sifonat intr-un alt recipient.


decibel (db)

A logarithmic unit of sound level measurement.

canon glossary us

decibels (db)

1 [ decibels (db) ] Logarithmic scale used to describe phenomena taking a large range of values. Decibels are not a unit and always describe the ratio to a reference value like Signal to Noise Ratio.

2 [ decibels (db, db) ] A unit used to express differences in electrical or acoustical signals including, for example, how noisy a motion picture camera or airplane is, or how much Gain a dark location requires. Formula: Equal to 10 times the logarithm of the two levels. Also see: Gain; and White Balance.


declansator flexibil

1 [ declansator flexibil ] Declansatorul flexibil este un accesoriu util pentru a prevenii miscarea aparatului de fotografiat la utilizarea unor timpi de expunere lungi. Din punct de vedere constructiv este de mai multe feluri: mecanic, pneumatic, electric si electronic. Declansatoarele mecanice si pneumatice transmit miscarea de apasare a declansatorului printr-un cablu coaxial sau printr-un sistem pneumatic. Deseori declansatorul aparatelor mecanice are un filetaj conic in care se infileteaza declansatorul flexibil.

2 [ declansator flexibil ] Declansatorul flexibil este un accesoriu util pentru a prevenii miscarea aparatului de fotografiat la utilizarea unor timpi de expunere lungi. Din punct de vedere constructiv este de mai multe feluri: mecanic, pneumatic, electric si electronic. Declansatoarele mecanice si pneumatice transmit miscarea de apasare a declansatorului printr-un cablu coaxial sau printr-un sistem pneumatic. Deseori declansatorul aparatelor mecanice are un filetaj conic in care se înfileteaza declansatorul flexibil.



1 [ decompression ] Process by which the full data content of a compressed file is restored.

2 [ decompression ] The process of restoring the contents of a compressed file


decorative art

1 [ decorative art ] Collective name for art forms like ceramics, tapestries, enamelling, stained glass, metalwork, paper art, textiles, and others, which are deemed to be ornamental or decorative, rather than intellectual or spiritual. See also: French Decorative Arts (c.1640-1792).

2 [ decorative arts ] A term used to describe the design and aesthetics of functional objects with an emphasis on unique and hand-crafted forms often available in limited quantity.



Victorian craft which involves the cutting out of motifs from paper, gluing them to a surface and layering with varnish to give a completely smooth finish.

Vizual Art Cork


Indepartarea marginilor unei fotografii in scopul imbunatatirii compozitiei.


dedicated flash

1 [ dedicated flash ] A fully automatic flash that works only with specific cameras. Dedicated flash units automatically set the proper flash sync speed and lens aperture, and electronic sensors within the camera automatically control exposure by regulating the amount of light from the flash.

2 [ dedicated flash ] An Electronic Flash Unit that is made to be used directly with a specific make or model of a camera. Canon, Nikon Minolta and Olympus for example, ll have electrical contacts in the hotshoe which passes TTL (through the lens) metering and AF range information to and from the flash unit or speedlight. You cannot interchange flash units and cameras. I.e. a Nikon speedlight on a Canon camera.

3 [ dedicated flash ] A fully automatic flashthat works only with specific cameras. Dedicated flash units automatically set theproper flash sync speed and lens aperture, and electronic sensors within the cameraautomatically control exposure by regulating the amount of light from the flash.A simple glance can differentiate by identifying the multiple contacts on the hotshoe (the place where the flash is mounted).

4 [ dedicated flash ] A portable flash gun which can be coupled with an automatic camera and can then be controlled by the camera's programmed functions.

5 [ dedicated flash ] An electronic flash unit that integrates automatically with a specific camera’s exposure meter and exposure controls, permitting simplified, fully-automatic use of the flash. A dedicated flash is designed to work with a particular model, brand or type of camera.

6 [ dedicated flash: ] A flash that coordinates with the camera s exposure, and sometimes focusing systems. Dedicated flashes may, among other things, automatically pick up the loaded film s ISO, set the camera shutter speed to X-sync, and tell the camera when its ready to fire. Flashes dedicated to autofocusing cameras may also vary their angle of flash throw according to the lens in use (even with zoom lenses), and contain autofocus beams that aid focusing in very dim light or even total darkness. For outdoor work, dedicated flashes may provide totally automatic fill-flash exposure. In short, a dedicated flash can be make flash photography as simple as automated natural light photography.


deep focus

1 [ deep focus ] A technique in which objects in the extreme foreground and objects in the extreme background are kept equally in focus.

2 [ deep focus ] A technique in which objects very near the camera as well as those far away are in focus at the same time.

3 [ deep focus ] Deep focus is a style or technique of cinematography and staging with great depth of field, using relatively wide-angle lenses and small lens apertures to render in sharp focus near and distant planes simultaneously.

4 [ deep focus (depth photography) ] Keeping images close by and far away in sharp focus simultaneously.


deepfocus shot

1 [ deepfocus shot ] A shot in which both the foreground and the background are in focus. In other words, a shot with exceptional depth of field.

2 [ deepfocus shot ] A shot in which both the foreground and the background are in focus. In other words, a shot with exceptional depth of field.



1 [ default ] Manufacturers' factory settings for hardware or software that can usually be overriden and then returned to the safety of default settings should problems occur.

2 [ default ] A term that refers to a camera's (or a computer's) factory settings for its functions, features and attributes that can be adjusted (changed to customized settings) by the user but are always available as a fall-back option to reset to the original factory settings.

3 [ default gateway ] IP address of router, needed to send data, video between networks.



A mode, or group of modes, that a point-and-shoot always returns to after settings are changed for a particular shot or roll.

Glossary of Photo Jargon for Travelers


1 [ definition ] The clarity of detail in a photograph.

2 [ definition ] The clarity or distinctness with which detail of an image is rendered. Fidelity of reproduction of sound or image.

3 [ definition ] The clarity of detailin a photograph.

4 [ definition ] Sharpness of an image (as seen by the clarity of detail) formed by an optical system.

5 [ definition ] The clarity of detail within a photograph.


definition, sharpness

The perception of a well-defined, sharp image depends on a complex combination of factors some of which are: Focus, Depth of Field, Contrast, and maximum potential detail inherent in the recording media or emulsion. The degree of image enlargement along with viewing distance and how many generations removed from the original the image is, will also affect definition. If you can remember all of that, you'll at least sound sharp. The opposite of . . .

Tiffan edu Glossary


When subject moves from being in sharp focus to being out of focus. Some lenses are purposefully built to defocus slightly (i.e. not produce sharp focus) for shooting portraits.

canon glossary us


Automatically joining segments of data that have been split when saved on the hard disk. Doing this tidies up the drive and creates more space.


degajament ocular

Distanta maxima dintre ochi si lentila externa a ocularului, la care se inca se observa imaginea in intregime.



Removing magnetic fields which build up in CRT monitors, these fields distort video signal, cause discoloration.

canon glossary us

degenerate art

('Entartete Kunst') Nazi propaganda term used from c.1937 for works of modern art disapproved of by the party.

Vizual Art Cork

degradation, image quality loss

Loss of image quality or Definition for any number of reasons including intentional ones. Quote: I don't like forced development and flashing. Because I do like a fairly rich negative with good blacks, I'm not keen on the strong use of fog filters, although on occasion I use them. I don't like the effect they produce. [Also] you're going to have to make a dupe negative. So you're into a degradation with the dupe. Then any opticals . . . give you further degradation. Then . . . the projector is not so good; it hasn't got a very sharp lens or there's not enough light. At every stage along the line, the picture's going to deteriorate . . . so I'm very reluctant to have a degraded negative in the first instance. I think you're cheating your audience. They've got a right to see what's on the screen. - Billy Williams [ML].

Tiffan edu Glossary


Electronic component which converts interlaced video signal to progressive scan.

canon glossary us


Converting interlaced video signal to progressive scan.

canon glossary us

delayed action.

1 [ delayed action. ] Mechanism delaying the opening of the shutter for some seconds after the releasehas been operated. Also known as self-timer.

2 [ delayed response remote ] The Delayed Remote mode is used when shooting with select Nikon cameras and the ML-L3 remote control, to ensure no camera shake will occur. The Delayed Remote sets the camera's shutter to release between 2 - 10 seconds after the shutter button on the ML-L3 remote control is pressed.



(1) To cause a computer file to become invisible and available to be overwritten. (2) To remove part of a digital file.

Photo Tips

delta hinting

Instructions added to a TrueType font, allowing it to display nicely at any point size on screen. Delta hinting does not affect printing, nor is it available for PostScript fonts. Due to the extensive time required to create delta hints, most fonts do not include them. Delta hinting is a time-consuming and expensive process, but makes for quality TrueType fonts.

Font Shop Glosary


Numerical algorithm used to reconstruct a multi-channel image from single-value pixels that can be read on a sensor behind a color filter array (typically a Bayer sensor).

DXO Glossary

denoising filter

Algorithm that attenuates noise in a signal to improve its quality.

DXO Glossary


An analytical descripton of a specific font, its serifs, bracketing, terminals, weight of strokes, etc.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


1 [ denoument ] The concluding scenes of a movie where the story elements are finished and the characters' status after the climax is shown.

2 [ denoument ] The concluding scenes of a movie where the story elements are finished and the characters' status after the climax is shown.



1 [ dense ] An overexposed negative or portion of it; the opposite of Thin. See: Overexposure.

2 [ dense ] Areas of a negative or slide that appear dark and don't transmit much light.



1 [ densitometer ] An instrument used for measuring the optical density of an area in a negative or print.

2 [ densitometer ] Instrument used to measure the optical density of an area in a processed image by transmittance (for films) or by reflectance (for photographic prints).

3 [ densitometer ] An instrument used to measure the density of film or paper images.

4 [ densitometer ] An instrument usedfor measuring the optical density of an area in a negative or print.

5 [ densitometer ] Instrument that measures optical density of part of a negative or print.



Instrument prin care se masoara densitatea optica a unui negativ sau pozitiv.



Science of measuring the light-stopping characteristics of film or filters.

Kodak cine


1 [ density ] Light-stopping characteristics of a film or a filter. The negative logarithm to the base ten of the transmittance (or reflectance) of a sample.

2 [ density ] The blackness of an area in a negative or print that determines the amount of light that will pass through it or reflect from it. Sometimes referred to as contrast.

3 [ density ] A numerical measure for the darkness of a tone.

4 [ density ] The blackness of anarea in a negative or print that determines the amount of light that will pass throughit or reflect from it. Sometimes referred to as contrast.

5 [ density ] The relative opacity (blackness) of an area of a negative, a transparency or a print. The greater the density, the less light can be transmitted through it. (Sometimes density is also referred to as 'Contrast.')

6 [ density filters ] Optical elements that absorb light used to simulate different levels of illumination. They are usually chosen to be as neutral as possible (i.e. their absorption is independent of wavelength) so that they do not change colors but only intensity.



In general terms, the measure of the light-gathering power of silver or dye deposits in film. Also, the buildup of silver that creates the image in film and paper. A dense negative or slide is more opaque than a thin one. There is an ideal density for film, one that yields good prints or slides too little density usually means that the film was underexposed (or underdeveloped), too much means its been overexposed (or overdeveloped).


depth (apparent)

1 [ depth (apparent) ] The illusion of a third dimension on a flat screen or print through various techniques, among them effective lighting that emphasizes planes. See: Foreground; Modeling (Relief); and Sculptural Lighting.

2 [ depth gauge ] Available in select cameras such as the Nikon 1 AW1. Calibrate the Depth Gauge on the surface before you enter the water, setting it to zero. Then, you can view your depth while you’re shooting or even include it in the EXIF data that is recorded along with the image.

3 [ depth grading (stereoscopic) ] In post production, the adjustment of negative and positive parallax convergence. Not only a creative tool, it also helps ensure the stereoscopic content can be comfortably watched at its intended screen size. For example, the rule of thumb is one degree of divergence, a critical element if the production is to be viewed on a large screen.

4 [ depth mode ] Program mode on some Canon cameras that sets the optimum aperture to ensure enough depth of field to make the whole of the subject sharp.

5 [ depth of field ] (DOF or DoF)- the distance between the nearest and farthest objects in your scene that appear in focus. It is controlled by many factors including the aperture, lens focal length, distance to subject, film or digital sensor size, and camera format. Read about how to use aperture to adjust depth of field.

6 [ depth of field ] (DOF). The range of items in focus in an image. This is controlled by the focal length and aperture opening of a lens. A large or wide aperture gives a shallow depth of field (not much range in focus) and a smaller or narrow aperture give a large depth of field (more range in focus).

7 [ depth of field ] The amount of distance between the nearest and farthest objects that appear in acceptably sharp focus in a photograph. Depth of field depends on the lens opening, the focal length of the lens, and the distance from the lens to the subject. A Glossary of Photographic Terms AA-9

8 [ depth of field ] The distance in front of the point of focus and the distance beyond that is acceptably sharp. Manipulation of this zone by extending or reducing it can be an important aspect of creative control and view cameras have evolved to facilitate this.

9 [ depth of field ] The distance range between the nearest and farthest objects that appear in acceptably sharp focus. Depth of field depends on the lens opening, the focal length of the lens, and the distance from the lens to the subject.

10 [ depth of field ] AKA: DOFA measure of the range along a camera's line of site in which objects will be in focus. See also aperture, shutter speed.

11 [ depth of field ] AKA: DOFA measure of the range along a camera's line of site in which objects will be in focus. See also aperture, shutter speed.

12 [ depth of field ] Depth of field is the area, range of distance, or field (between the nearest and farthest planes) in which the elements captured in a camera image appear in sharp focus.

13 [ depth of field ] The area between the nearest and farthest points from the camera that are acceptably sharp in the focused image.

14 [ depth of field ] The area in front of and behind a focused subject in which the photographed image appears sharp. In other words, the depth of sharpness to the front of sharpness to the front and rear of the subject where image blur in the film plane falls within the limits of the permissible circle of confusion. Depth of field varies according to the lens' focal length, aperture value and shooting distance, so if these values are known, a rough estimate of the depth of field can be calculated using the following formulas: Front depth of field = d ∙ F ∙ a² / (f² + d ∙ F ∙ a) Rear depth of field = d ∙ F ∙ a² / (f² − d ∙ F ∙ a) f: focal length F: F number d: minimum circle of confusion diameter a: subject distance (distance from 1st principal point to subject) If the hyperfocal distance is known, the following formulas can also be used: Near Point limiting = (Hyperfocal distance X shooting distance) / (Hyperfocal distance + shooting distance) Far Point limiting = (Hyperfocal distance X shooting distance) / (Hyperfocal distance - shooting distance) (Shooting distance: Distance from film plane to subject) In general photography, depth of field is characterized by the following attributes:Depth of field is deep at short focal lengths, shallow at long focal lengths. Depth of field is deep at small apertures, shallow at large apertures. Depth of field is deep at far shooting distances, shallow at close shooting distances. Front depth of field is shallower than rear depth of field.

15 [ depth of field ] The area in front of and behind the plane of focus in the scene which is acceptably sharp (for intended enlargement). Tip: a little more depth requires a lot more light (for smaller Stop) or a wider-angle lens. Don't call it depth of focus, a related but different matter.

16 [ depth of field ] The distance between the nearest and farthest points that appear in acceptably sharp focus in a photograph. Depth of field varies with lens aperture, focal length, and camera-to-subject distance

17 [ depth of field ] The distance between the nearest and furthest parts of a subject that are acceptably sharp. For more information, see this Depth-of-field article in the Techniques section.

18 [ depth of field ] The portions of a picture, both in front of and behind the main point of focus, which are in focus. Lens focal length, aperture, distance to focusing point, and imager or negative size all affect depth of field.

19 [ depth of field ] The range of acceptably sharp focus in front of and behind the distance the lens is focused on.

20 [ depth of field ] The zone of acceptablesharpness in front of and behind the subject on which the lens is focused; extendsapprox. one-third in front of and two thirds behind the in-focus subject; dependenton three factors: aperture, focal length, and focused distance; the wider the aperture,the longer the focal length, and the closer the focused distance, the less the depthof field, and vice versa; in comparison to a normal lens, wideangle lenses have inherentlymore depth of field at each f-number and telephoto lenses have less.Since this elementis very important, another simpler way to explain is the amount of distance betweenthe nearest and farthest objects that appear in acceptably sharp focus in a photograph.Depth of field depends on the lens opening, the focal length of the lens, and thedistance from the lens to the subject or can explain as in simpler term as the zone ofsharpest focus in front of, behind, and around the subject on which the lens is focused;can be previewed in the camera - very handy for critical work. Relating article inthis site: Depthof field.

21 [ depth of field ] While a lens focuses on a single plane of depth, there is usually an additional area in focus behind and in front of that plane. This is depth of field. Depth of field increases as the iris is closed. There is more depth of field the wider the lens and less the longer the lens. There is a deeper area in focus the further away a lens is focused than there is when a lens is focused close. Depth of field does not spread out evenly; the entire area is about 1/3rd in front and 2/3rds behind the plane of focus. To factor together all these variables it is best to consult a depth of field table, such as the ones found in the American Cinematographer’s Manual.

22 [ depth of field ] oF) – The area between the nearest and furthest objects that appear to be in focus. This technique is controlled by the aperture of a camera lens.

23 [ depth of field ] – The part of an image, from foreground to background, that is in focus. A shallow depth of field, appropriate for portraits, shows only a small portion in focus. Adjusting aperture is the main way to control depth of field. Large apertures of f1.4, f2.0 or f2.8 produce limited depth of field, whereas smaller ones such as f11, f16 or f22 are used for greater depth of field. A deep depth of field, often used for landscapes and group shots, captures virtually everything in sharp focus.

24 [ depth of field ] The area within which objects are in focus; a large depth of field allows a great range of objects to be in focus simultaneously, while a shallow depth of field offers a very limited area in focus. Depth of field normally depends on how far open a lens is (a lens works much like an eye, with the pupil opening or contracting to control light). An open lens (for example, f 1.4) creates a shallow depth of field while a stopped down (contracted) lens (for example f 16) creates a large depth of field.

25 [ depth of field ] The range of distance in a scene that appears to be in focus and will be reproduced as being acceptably sharp in an image. Depth of field is controlled by the lens aperture, and its area of acceptable focus extends for a distance in front of and behind the point on which the lens is focused (i.e. the plane of focus).

26 [ depth of field ] The zone of acceptable sharpness in front of and behind the subject on which the lens is focused. Depth of field varies according to focal length of the lens, chosen aperture and shooting distance.

27 [ depth of field (dof) ] Literally, the measure of how much of the background and foreground area before and beyond your subject is in focus. Depth of field can be increased by stopping the lens down to smaller apertures. Conversely, opening the lens to a wider aperture can narrow the depth of field. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/depth-field-part-1 Depth of Field, Part I: The Basics.

28 [ depth of field preview ] A button or lever on the camera that either stops the lens aperture down manually or electronically. This enables you to view the image at the aperture that will be used to take the picture. The view will be darker, but you will be able to see exactly what will and won't be sharp or in focus. See Using the depth of field button in the Techniques section.

29 [ depth of field preview button ] Many cameras are equipped with a preview button that, when pressed and held in, stops the lens down to the preselected aperture, allowing you to see how much foreground or background are in focus.

30 [ depth of field preview button: ] A switch, button, or electronic push-button that allows for preview of the depth of field of the set aperture in the viewfinder. During composition the lens is wide open, thus the depth of field in the viewfinder is always that of the maximum aperture of the lens. It is very useful for critical selective focus shots although some rightfully consider it no more than an approximation, others feel that an SLR lacking a depth of field preview function is greatly diminished as a creative tool.

31 [ depth of field scale ] A scale on the lens that indicates how much of the subject, from the nearest to furthest point from the camera, will be in focus.

32 [ depth of field scale ] Markings on the barrel of a lens that show the depth of field for a particular aperture and a particular focus setting.

33 [ depth of field scale ] A scale on the lens barrel with the markings of f/stops and distances, which shows the distance range that is in focus for a chosen f/stop.

34 [ depth of field: ] The zone, or range of distances within a scene that will record on film as sharp. Depth of field is influenced by the focal length of the lens in use, the f-number setting on the lens, and the distance from the camera to the subject. It can be shallow or deep, and can be totally controlled by the photographer. It is one of the most creative and profound effects available to photographers.

35 [ depth of focus ] The distance range over which the film could be shifted at the film plane inside the camera and still have the subject appear in sharp focus; often misused to mean depth of field.

36 [ depth of focus ] Depth of focus is the measurement of the area in focus within an image, from the closest point of focus to the furthest point of focus.

37 [ depth of focus ] The area in front of and behind the focal plane in which the image can be photographed as a sharp image. Depth of focus is the same on both sides of the image plane (film plane) and can be determined by multiplying the minimum circle of confusion by the F number, regardless of the lens focal length. With modern autofocus SLR cameras, focusing is performed by detecting the state of focus in the image plane (film plane) using a sensor which is both optically equivalent (1:1 magnification) and positioned out of the film plane, and automatically controlling the lens to bring the subject image within the depth of focus area.

38 [ depth of focus ] The distance rangeover which the film could be shifted at the film plane inside the camera and stillhave the subject appear in sharp focus; often misused to mean depth of field. Alsosee ''depth of field'' section.

39 [ depth of focus ] The distance the film or printing paper can be positioned either side of the focus point and still maintain acceptably sharp results.

40 [ depth of focus ] A zone of focus in the camera. If an image is focused on a ground glass screen in a camera,depth of focus makes it possible to move the screen slightly backward or forward and still have the image in acceptable focus.

41 [ depth of focus ] A measurement of the distance behind the lens wherein the film plane will remain sharply in focus. Depth of focus is sometimes referred to as lens-to-film tolerance.


depth-of-field preview

A feature on advanced SLRs that closes the lens down to the actual taking aperture to enable you to see the picture's depth-of-field.

Nikon Grossary

der blaue reiter (the blue rider)

Artist group active in Munich, Germany, from 1911 to 1914, and closely associated with the development of Expressionism. The group’s aim was to express their own inner desires in a variety of forms, rather than to strive for a unified style or theme.



1 [ descender ] That part of a lowercase letter (e.g., y, p; sometimes f) that descends below the baseline. In some typefaces, the uppercase J and Q also descend below the baseline. The descender line is an imaginary horizontal line that marks the bottom of most descenders in a font.

2 [ descender ] The part of certain lowercase letters that extends b elow the base line of the letter.

3 [ descender ] A stem on a lower case letter which extends below the baseline. 'p' has a descender. See also X-height, Cap-height, Ascender, Overshoot, Baseline

4 [ descender ] Any part in a lowercase letter that extends below the baseline, found for example in g, j, p, q, y, etc. Some types of descenders have specific names.

5 [ descender ] The lowest portion of letters such as 'g,' 'j,' 'p.' 'q,' and 'y' that extends below the baseline, or reading line of type. (See descender line.) The portion of a lowercase letter that extends below the base line of the letter.

6 [ descender ] The part of lowercase letters (such as y, p, and q) that descends below the baseline of the other lowercase letters in a font face. In some typefaces, the uppercase J and Q also descend below the baseline.

7 [ descender ] The portion of a lowercase letter that extends below the base line of the letter.

8 [ descender line ] A line marking the lowest point of the descenders within a font.

9 [ descender line ] A line marking the lowest point of the descenders within a font.

10 [ descender line ] The lowest line that a character's descender extends to, like the bottom stem of the lowercase 'j' and 'y.' A line marking the lowest point of the descenders within a font.



Any part of a letter that drops below the baseline of a character set.

Font tympanus (codedrops)


1 [ descent ] A font's maximum distance below the baseline.

2 [ descent ] In traditional typography the descent of a font was the distance from the bottom of a block of type to the baseline.Its precise meaning in modern typography seems to vary with different definers.


descentrare (obiectiv cu ~)

Posibilitate de deplasare in sus sau in jos a obiectivului dar cu pastrarea paralelismului intre montura si planul filmului. Astfel de aparate sunt folosite in special in fotografia de arhitectura deoarece evita deformarea liniilor verticale ale cladirilor.


descompunere în culori, filme tipografice

Materialul pregatit în calculator se descompune în cele 4 culori de baza ale tiparului (CMYK) cu ajutorul unui echipament specializat numit image-setter si se listeaza pe filme tipografice. Filmele tipografice au aspectul foliilor transparente (asemanatoare celor folosite pentru retroproiector) si se realizeaza câte unul pentru fiecare culoare de baza (CMYK) si câte unul pentru fiecare culoare speciala, unde este cazul.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A


To remove the marching ant selection from an image, returning this, or a file to its unselected state.



A chemical in a small bag that absorbs moisure.

Underwatter Photography


1 [ design ] Totalitatea informatiilor (variante) incluzând text, imagini, fotografii ce urmeaza a fi tiparite.

2 [ design (artistic) ] The plan involved in making something according to a set of aesthetics.

3 [ design brief ] A written record describing the elements and scope of a design project.



1 [ designer ] A person (artist) who conceives and gives form to objects used in everyday life.

2 [ designer ] Someone who creates plans for visual aspects of a production (e.g. costume designer).

3 [ designer ] Someone who creates plans for visual aspects of a production (e.g. costume designer).



1 [ desktop ] The computer window that displays your open files or images, along with folders, program menus, tools and palettes.

2 [ desktop videoconferencing ] Videoconferencing using desktop computer as sending/receiving device.



1 [ developare ] Actiunea de a oxida argintul din halogenurile de argint expuse la lumina, cu ajutorul substantelor revelatoare, in solutie (revelatori).

2 [ developare cromogena ] Actiune de oxidare a halogenurilor de argint expuse la lumina, in cursul careia produsii de oxidare se cupleaza cu substante cromogene si formeaza pigmentii colorati din stratul de gelatina al filmului sau hartiei color.



1 [ developer ] A solution used to turn the latent image into a visible image on exposed films or photographic papers.

2 [ developer ] A solution used to turn the latent image into a visible image on exposed films.

3 [ developer ] A solution used tomake visible the image produced by allowing light to fall on the light-sensitivematerial. The basic constituent is a developing agent which reduces the light-strucksilver halide to metallic silver. Colour developers include chemicals which producecoloured dyes coincidentally with reduction of the silver halides.

4 [ developer ] The chemical that removes the first layer of emulsion from film or photographic paper and allows the image to be seen.

5 [ developer ] A solution for developing a film or photographic paper - i.e. for turning an exposed film's or paper's latent image into an image that can be seen.


developing agent

1 [ developing agent ] Chemical ingredients of a developer that convert all the exposed silver halides into black metallic silver.

2 [ developing tank ] A lighttight container used for processing film.

3 [ developing tank ] A light-tight container used for developing film. A developing tank allows photographic film to be developed in a daylight environment. This is useful because most film is panchromatic and therefore can not be exposed to any light during processing. Depending upon the size and type, a developing tank can hold one to many roll or sheet films.

4 [ developing tank ] A light-proof container used for processing exposed film.



1 [ developing: ] A series of chemical and physical actions done in a commercial lab or the home darkroom that converts light-struck film to an image that can be viewed directly or printed making prints from negatives.

2 [ developing: ] See photofinishing.



A light tight containerused for processing film, a darkroom's essential accessory.

Mir glossary


1 [ development ] Process of making a visible film image from the latent image produced during exposure.

2 [ development ] The process of working on a fleshing out a script, in hopes that it will be greenlighted for production.

3 [ development ] The process of working on a fleshing out a script, in hopes that it will be greenlighted for production.

4 [ development ] The process of converting an exposed film's latent image into one that is visible. It can be described as changing exposed film into a negative.


device independent

1 [ device independent ] Print job saved as file which can be printed or displayed on any compatible hardware platform and achieve same results, e.g. PostScript files produce the same results whether printed or shown on a computer monitor.

2 [ device table ] A concept in OpenType which allows you to enter spacing adjustments geared to rasterization at particular pixel sizes. If a kerning value that works most of the time leads to an ugly juxtaposition of glyphs on a 12 pixel high font, then you can add a special tweak to the spacing that only is applicable at 12 pixels (and another one at 14 and 18, or whatever is needed). Similar functionality is needed for anchored marks.



Acronim folosit de Sigma pentru a marca obiectivele ce pot fi folosite atat pe corpuri argentice cat si pe corpuri digitale.


dhcp (dynamic host configuration protocol)

Short for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Set of rules. Lets computer network administrators automate, centrally manage assignment of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses to network devices, used by a host computer to obtain IP address so can communicate with other host computers. Uses concept of lease -- time given IP address will be valid for a device. Addresses usually change periodically, connection cannot be obtained/maintained over internet. Using both static IP addresses, dynamic DNS helps establish consistent connection. Also supports static addresses, e.g. for computers running web servers, needing permanent IP address.

canon glossary us


(Digital High Transmission) clasa de filtre Tiffen, de inalta calitate, realizate din sticla optica speciala, cu coeficient ridicat de transmisivitate si acoperite multistrat cu saruri de titaniu, pentru a le face mai rezistente la zgarieturi.



1 [ di ] Obiective Tamron optimizate pentru folosirea pe camere foto digitale si care acopera cadrul de 24 x 36 mm.

2 [ di ii ] Obiective Tamron optimizate pentru camere foto digitale in format APS-C, deci nu acopera formatul 24 x 36 mm.

2 | DI II


A mark like a circumflex, accent mark, cedilla, or umlaut, which is added to a letter to give it a special phonetic value, or to distinguish words which are otherwise graphically identical. Also called 'accent.'

ProximaSoftware Glossary


A diacritic is a ancilliary mark or sign added to a letter. Accents are one type of diacritics. In the Latin alphabet their function is to change the sound value of the letters to which they are added; in other alphabetical systems like Arabic or Hebrew they may indicate sounds (vowels and tones) which are not conveyed by the basic alphabet.

Font Shop Glosary


1 [ diafragma ] Sistem de lamele care delimiteaza un orficiu variabil aflat in centrul optic al obiectivului, cu care se poate varia fluxul de lumina care strabate obiectivul, dar si profunzimea si uneori chiar claritatea. Diafragma se poate controla din exterior, prin inelul diafragmelor sau electronic. Mai multe detalii la: http://www.foto-magazin.ro/tutorial_open.php?art=ftm20/archives/2007/03/despre_diafragm.html

2 [ diafragma ] Sistem de obicei variabil aflat in centrul optic al obiectivului, cu care se poate varia cantitatea de lumina care strabate obiectivul, dar si profunzimea si uneori chiar claritatea.

3 [ diafragma automata ] Subansamblu mecanic de inchidere a diafragmei la valoarea de lucru ce se realizeaza de o pargie plasata in camera fotografica si care impinge un stift aflat in obiectiv. Inchiderea diafragmei este asigurata printr-un sistem de parghii si arcuri si se produce in momentul declansarii. Mai multe detalii la: http://www.foto-magazin.ro/tutorial_open.php?art=ftm20/archives/2007/03/despre_diafragm.html

4 [ diafragma cu preselectie ] Inel suplimentar cu opritor, aflat in imediata vecinatate a inelului de diafragme prin care fotograful seta valoarea de lucru, utilizat in trecut la aparatele foto SLR. Cu aparatul la ochi, regla planul de claritate si apoi deplasa inelul diafragmei pana la opritorul de preselectie si declansa. Mai multe detalii la: http://www.foto-magazin.ro/tutorial_open.php?art=ftm20/archives/2007/03/despre_diafragm.html

5 [ diafragma electrica ] Sistem electric de rezistori, pini si contacte electrice prin care obiectivul comunica procesorului camerei diafragma aleasa de utilizator, in vederea determinarii expunerii. Mai multe detalii la: http://www.foto-magazin.ro/tutorial_open.php?art=ftm20/archives/2007/03/despre_diafragm.html



1 [ diagonal ] Screen size measured across screen between corners of two longest sides. Also computable using Pythagorean theorem: add square of width and square of height, take square root of sum. Therefore, 16:9 screen 49 x 87 inches has 100 inch diagonal, 4:3 screen 60 x 80 inches also has 100 inch diagonal.

2 [ diagonal screen ] See Diagonal. Screen 9 x 12 feet has 15 foot diagonal.


dialect coach

1 [ dialect coach ] A person who helps train an actor in diction and/or the use of accents to suit the character an actor is playing.

2 [ dialect coach ] A person who helps train an actor in diction and/or the use of accents to suit the character an actor is playing.


dialog editor

1 [ dialog editor ] Please see Dialogue Editor

2 [ dialog editor ] Please see Dialogue Editor



1 [ dialogue ] Dialogue is speech delivered by or between characters.

2 [ dialogue box ] A box that appears on-screen that asks for or suggests more information before a task is completed.

3 [ dialogue coach ] AKA: Dialogue DirectorA person who helps train an actor in diction and/or the use of inflections, so that his or her speech fits the character and situation.

4 [ dialogue coach ] AKA: Dialogue DirectorA person who helps train an actor in diction and/or the use of inflections, so that his or her speech fits the character and situation.

5 [ dialogue editor ] A sound editor who specializes in editing dialogue.

6 [ dialogue editor ] A sound editor who specializes in editing dialogue.



1 [ diaphragm ] Lens opening. A perforated plate or adjustable opening mounted behind or between the elements of a lens used to control the amount of light that reaches the film. Openings are usually calibrated in f-numbers.

2 [ diaphragm ] A series of metal blades that can be manipulated to form a larger or smaller opening through which the light is admitted.

3 [ diaphragm ] An adjustable deviceinside the lens which is similar to the iris in the human eye; comprised of six orseven overlapping metal blades; continuously adjustable from ''wide open''to ''stopped down''; controls the amount of light allowed to pass throughthe lens and expose the film when a picture is taken; a]so controls the amount ofdepth of field the photograph will have; in lenses designed for single-lens reflexcameras, there are basically two types of diaphragms: Lens opening. A perforatedplate or adjustable opening mounted behind or between the elements of a lens usedto control the amount of light that reaches the film. Openings are usually calibratedin f-numbers. The more blades used will have a more natural and rounded spots.There are two typesof diaphragms:Automatic: The mostpopular type; controlled by a single aperture ring; during viewing and focusing,the diaphragm remains wide open, allowing the maximum amount of light to go to theviewfinder for a bright and easy-to-focus image; at the instant of exposure, it stopsdown automatically to a particular aperture and then reopens to full aperture immediatelyafterward.Manual Preset: Usedin some specific lenses like, PC-Nikkorlenses for Nikon for instance; controlled by two separate rings; the preset ringis first set to the desired aperture, then the aperture ring is rotated to stop downthe diaphragm manually for metering or prior to taking pictures.

4 [ diaphragm ] The adjustable aperture of a lens, which controls the amount of light passing into the camera and may be in front of, within or behind the lens

5 [ diaphragm ] The technical name for the lens aperture that is made from overlapping blades.

6 [ diaphragm ] A ring or plate with a hole in the center, the size of which controls the amount of light entering the camera. An adjustable diaphragm in a lens enlarges or reduces the size of the hole, or aperture, thereby permitting more or less light to pass through the lens to the film or digital sensor.

7 [ diaphragm ] The mechanical device inside a lens that controls the aperture.


diaphragm, iris, aperture (camera lens)

The adjustable opening of a camera lens which controls the quantity of light reaching the film. See: Stop. Some lights also have an iris.

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ diaporama ] Montaj fotografic sonorizat, in cadrul caruia sunt proiectate cu acompaniament muzical sau comentarii adecvate o suita de diapozitive.

2 [ diaporama ] Montaj fotografic sonorizat, in cadrul caruia sunt proiectate cu acompaniament muzical sau comentarii adecvate o suita de diapozitive.



Modalitate de prelucrare a unui film argentic (in general dedicat) prin care se obtine direct imaginea pozitiva, in scopul vizionarii prin proiectie cu un diaproiector.



1 [ diascop ] Dispozitiv optomecanic, cu sau fara sursa proprie de lumina, pentru vizionarea diapozitivelor.

2 [ diascop ] Dispozitiv optomecanic, cu sau fara sursa proprie de lumina, pentru vizionarea diapozitivelor.



A viewer designed to enhance the viewing of autochromes.

Photo Tips


1 [ diason ] Vezi diaporama.

2 [ diason ] Vezi diaporama.



Metoda de a obtine imagini color prin folosirea de compusi diazo (doi atomi de azot) ca substrat fotosensibili.



exensie a fisierelor de imagine tip Windows Bitmap Image necomprimat.



1 [ dichroic ] A vapor-deposited coating (usually on glass or metal) that reflects unwanted portions of the light spectrum. A filter with such a coating, typically one that converts tungsten light to match daylight sources or films.

2 [ dichroic ] Lens or mirror reflecting/refracting select light wavelengths, used in projector light engines, separating lamp s white light into red, green, blue components.


dicom (digital imaging and communications in medicine)

Short for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine. DICOM projector gives medical profession ability to simulate 21 different levels of grayscale, for rendering X-rays, CAT scans, MRIs, other medical imaging applications.

canon glossary us

didot point

The European point. 62 2/3 points per 23.566mm ( 2.66pt/mm or 67.55pt/inch ). There is also a 'metric' didiot point: .4mm.

Font Forge Glossary

die brücke (the bridge)

Artist group active in Dresden, Germany, from 1905 to 1913, and closely associated with the development of Expressionism. The group is associated with an interest in the distortion of reality and expressive use of color to respond to the turmoil of modern urban society.



1 [ diegesis ] The denotative material of film narrative, it includes, according to Christian Metz, not only the narration itself, but also the fictional space and time dimension implied by the narrative.

2 [ diegesis ] rom the ancient Greek for “recounted story,” diegesis is a term used in film studies to refer to the story (or narrative) world of a film.


diegetic sound

1 [ diegetic sound ] AKA:Actual soundA sound that is created by something or someone visible on the screen or whose source is implied to be present by the action of the film.

2 [ diegetic sound ] AKA:Actual soundA sound that is created by something or someone visible on the screen or whose source is implied to be present by the action of the film.

3 [ diegetic sound ] Diegetic sound is any sound that emanates from the story (or narrative) world of a film, which is referred to in film studies as diegesis.



1 [ diffraction ] An optical effect which can soften photographs and make them less sharp. As long as light travels in straight lines, this phenomenon will not occur, but as soon as it starts to bend - disperse or diffract - when it has to travel through a hole so small that it has to squeeze through, it will begin to interfere with the quality of the final result. Although a negligible effect in most situations, it actually increases with smaller apertures. There is a break-even point at which the disadvantage of the diffraction of the light captured is still compensated by the advantage of extra sharpness due to greater depth of field. But beyond that point the softening effect of the diffracted light is only partly compensated by the sharpness due to the greater depth of field. Finding the break-even point can help prevent any negative effects of diffraction. And as a bonus it will limit the length of the exposure or the ISO needed to take a photo with a very small aperture. The difficulty is that the effect isn't the same for different cameras and lenses. The aperture isn't the only critical factor - the size of the film or sensor recording the photo counts as well, and so does the quality and the focal length of the lens. For those who don't want to get into complicated mathematical calculations in order to find the ideal aperture, it is good to remember that the sharpest results for most lenses are found around two or three stops below their maximum aperture. Especially cheaper lenses can give very bad results at full aperture.

2 [ diffraction ] A phenomenon exhibited by a light’s wave front when passing the edge of an opaque object (one that does not allow light to pass through it). The light becomes modulated, causing a redistribution of the light’s energy within the wave front. You will see it at the edges of the object’s shadow, in the form of minute dark and light bands. The edges of the shadow have a fuzzy appearance. Think of ripples meeting a rock in a pond. They go around the rock in a new series of ripples that can be seen on the sides of the rock. Light waves behaving in a similar manner are said to be diffracted.



A loss of sharpness at 100% magnification as a result of shooting at too small of an aperture.

Underwatter Photography

diffractive optics

Diffractive Optics, a revolutionary new lens optical technology that permits super-telephoto lenses that are significantly shorter and lighter than previously possible, while simultaneously improving optical performance by reducing chromatic aberrations and even spherical aberrations.

Canon glossary EU

diffuse lighting

1 [ diffuse lighting ] Lighting that is low or moderate in contrast, such as on an overcast day.

2 [ diffuse lighting ] Lighting that is lowor moderate in contrast, such as on an overcast day.

3 [ diffuse rms granularity ] The objective measurement of grain.


diffused light or diffuse lighting

1 [ diffused light or diffuse lighting ] Light that is scattered and spread out as opposed to specular light. Diffused light is softer than direct light, with shadows that are less sharply-defined (lower contrast).

2 [ diffused light: ] Light that has been softened by cloud cover or any other translucent element.



1 [ diffuser ] Material that diffuses light. A diffuser may be a translucent material or a rough-surfaced reflective material, both of which scatter light’s rays, thereby softening the light.

2 [ diffuser ] Any device or substance placed between the central light source and the subject that softens or spreads the light.



1 [ diffusing ] Softening detail in a print with a diffusion disk or other material that scatters light.

2 [ diffusing ] Softening detail ina print with a diffusion disk or other material that scatters light.

3 [ diffusing ] (1) Moderating light so it is softened (diffused), generally either by reflecting it off a material that scatters the light or by placing a diffusing panel of translucent material between the light source and the subject. (2) Softening of detail in a print with a diffusion disk or other light-scattering material.



1 [ diffusion ] 1: A filter used on the camera to create a soft focus effect. 2: A white or pearlecent sheet of material used on a movie light to soften the shadows.

2 [ diffusion enlarger ] An enlarger that scatters light before it strikes the negative, distributing light evenly on the negative. Detail is not as sharp as with a condenser enlarger; negative blemishes are minimized.

3 [ diffusion enlarger ] An enlarger that scatterslight before it strikes the negative, distributing light evenly on the negative.Detail is not as sharp as with a condenser enlarger; negative blemishes are minimised.

4 [ diffusion enlarger ] An enlarger in which the light is diffused, and therefore spread more evenly as it strikes and passes through the negative, resulting in less sharpness of detail. Negative flaws (scratches, etc.) are de-emphasized with a diffusion enlarger.


diffusion, diffuser

A Translucent material placed in front of a Light to soften Highlights and Shadows, reduce Contrast and increase Beam Angle.

Tiffan edu Glossary

diffusion-condenser enlarger

1 [ diffusion-condenser enlarger ] An enlarger that combines diffuse light with a condenser system, producing more contrast and sharper detail than a diffusion enlarger but less contrast and blemish emphasis than a condenser enlarger.

2 [ diffusion-condenser enlarger ] An enlarger that has both a condenser system (for greater contrast) and a diffused light, producing less contrast than a condenser enlarger but more contrast and sharper detail than a diffusion enlarger (see below).



An enlarger that combinesdiffuse light with a condenser system, producing more contrast and sharper detailthan a diffusion enlarger but less contrast and blemish emphasis than a condenserenlarger.

Mir glossary


The softening of light because the light is coming from multiple sources. Can be created by various substances such as tussue paper, clouds, a translucent window, a milk carton, haze or a diffuser on a strobe. A byproduct of diffusion is softer shadow boundaries.

Underwatter Photography


Fenomen optic care transforma un flux de raze paralele, in raze divergente, la trecerea printr-o orificiu. Cu cat orificiul este mai mic, cu atat difractia este mai pronuntata.In fotografie, difractia altereaza acutanta si contrastul imaginii, facind inutilizabile diafragmele inchise la camerele foto digitale cu senzori de mici dimensiuni. Pata de difuzie realizata prin difractie are un diametru aproximativ egal (in microni) cu indicele de diafragma; de exemplu, pentru f:8, pata de difuzie are diametrul de circa 8 microni si poate acoperi 2 x 2 = 4 fotosituri pentru majoritatea camerelor foto digitale actuale, iar rezolutia efectiva scade la 25% din valoarea teoretica.



1. Dispozitiv optic desinat difuzarii luminii prea concentrate si atenuarii contrastelor. 2. Dispozitiv optic instalat in cutia de lumina a aparatului de marit in scopul luminarii uniforme a negativului si al atenuarii contrastului acestuia.


digic 4

1 [ digic 4 ] Canon digital image processing chip-takes data from image sensor to create image data with natural color reproduction, rich gradation, low noise. Faster chip, includes noise reduction technology, scene detection technology, improved video functionality, face detection technology, motion detection technology.

2 [ digic iii ] Canon proprietary image processing chip designed to ensure fine details and natural colors of images are optimally recorded, responsible for high-speed performance, faster signal processing, efficient energy consumption, with face detection technology, advanced noise reduction.

3 [ digic net processor ] Canon s proprietary, hardware-based compression engine for IP security cameras, performs all image processing, encoding, and tramission. Allows for multiple video streams to be transimtted with no loss of frame rate.


digicam (also digi-cam)

A digital camera.

Photo Tips


Termen propus de Epson si care se refera la fotografii imprimate in urmatoarele conditii: a) pe o imprimanta Epson Stylus Pro cu 8 sau mai multe culori, b) folosind cerneluri Ultrachrome sau Ultrachrome K3, c) pe anumite tipuri de hartie foto Epson, Hahnemuhle sau Canson, d) fiecare copie are o marca de timbru sec (cu o stampila de timbru sec furnizata de Epson), este semnata de autor si insotita de un certificat de autenticitate e) sunt realizate un numar redus de copii.



Technique of taking film or digital still images or video by attaching a camera to a Fieldscope or Spotting Scope. In addition to camera equipment, Nikon also manufactures Fieldscopes, and the array of attachments and adapters necessary to marry our Fieldscopes to Nikon COOLPIX and Nikon D-SLRs. Digiscoping lets you capture photographs without the use of traditional photographic lenses. Bird watchers and naturalists are some of the people who capture close-up images of wildlife by digiscoping.

Nikon Grossary


1 [ digital ] A system whereby a continuously variable (analog) signal is broken down and encoded into discrete binary bits that represent a mathematical model of the original signal.

2 [ digital ] One of the first decisions you'll need to make is whether you want your photographer to shoot with digital or film (see below). Digital is the most popular way to shoot. The major advantage is time—depending on your photographer, you could see snaps just days after your wedding. Digital cameras can also shoot in very low light—a perk when you're photographing an afternoon-into-evening wedding. And thanks to a display screen, your photographer can preview shots and adjust accordingly as he goes.

3 [ digital ] (din engl. Digit = cifra) proprietatea unei variabile de a lua doar anumite valori discrete; spre deosebire de variabila analogica, cea digitala ia un numar limitat de valori.

4 [ digital ] (din engl. Digit = cifra) proprietatea unei variabile de a lua doar anumite valori discrete; spre deosebire de variabila analogica, cea digitala ia un numar limitat de valori.

5 [ digital ] Referring to binary data (1s and 0s, on/off) and the methods and equipment used to process, store and distribute such data.

6 [ digital ] Any device or system in which information is stored or manipulated by on/off impulses.

7 [ digital asset management (dam) ] An asset is any content or media in binary form. DAM encompasses everything involved in the handling of those assets, including but not limited to cataloguing, storage, retrieval, distribution, downloading, renaming, backing up, archiving, exporting.

8 [ digital asset management (dam) ] This is the process of managing tasks and decision making regarding the import, export, annotation, cataloguing, storage, retrieval, and distribution of digital assets such as image files.

9 [ digital camera ] A digital camera is a modern way to take photographs. They have many advantages including not having to use film, not causing any processing costs, giving instant results, creating e-mailable pictures and pictures that can be improved with the use of a computer. Many are compact shaped, but there are also bigger SLR types.

10 [ digital camera ] A camera that takes pictures without film, but instead records the image on an image sensor chip in a format that is readable by a computer.

11 [ digital camera: ] A filmless camera that converts light energy to digital information and stores that information in a buffer or directly onto a removable memory card.

12 [ digital cinema ] Instead of film being used as the distribution and projection medium, movies are handled digitally. See DCI. The end result is high quality projection on large screens, without the familiar scratches and weaving of projected film. It also allows for stereo (3D) movies to be presented using one projector.

13 [ digital cinema distribution master (dcdm) ] Digital content that conforms to specifications set by the Digital Cinema Intiatives (DCI). The DCDM is a set of digital files that include images, audio, subtitles and other auxiliary data.

14 [ digital cinematography ] Using specifically-designed digital cameras to shoot movies. This delivers an uncompressed data output so color grading, for example, can be done as part of the digital intermediate process.

15 [ digital closed caption ] Unlike Closed Caption sytem, allows setting size, color, style, opacity of text displayed on digital TV programs. Indicated by display of 3-letter abbreviation indentifing language of displayed text.

16 [ digital compositing ] A technique whereby separately filmed components are combined through digital editing. Contrast with optical printing.

17 [ digital compositing ] A technique whereby separately filmed components are combined through digital editing. Contrast with optical printing.

18 [ digital compositor ] A person who does compositing by digital means (at acomputer), as opposed to using (pre-digital) optical or physical techniques.

19 [ digital compositor ] A person who does compositing by digital means (at acomputer), as opposed to using (pre-digital) optical or physical techniques.

20 [ digital darkroom: ] The computer and image editing and manipulation programs.

21 [ digital editing ] Editing a portion of a movie by digitizing one or more frames and altering them electronically or combining them with other digitized images, and then printing the modified frame.

22 [ digital editing ] Editing a portion of a movie by digitizing one or more frames and altering them electronically or combining them with other digitized images, and then printing the modified frame.

23 [ digital film ] Quite simply that. Solid state flash memory cards in place of emulsion film.

24 [ digital image ] A photograph or work of art which is made up of pixels.

25 [ digital image ] An image that is represented by discrete numerical values organized in a two-dimensional array. The conversion of images into a digital form is known as digital imaging.

26 [ digital imaging ] The new evolution of the art of photography where images are scanned into an electronic format and then processed with software such as Adobe Photoshop.

27 [ digital imaging technician ] A person who provideson-set quality control, image manipulation & color correction, productioncontinuity, trouble shooting and consultation to assist in fullfilling therequirements and vision of the cinematographer in film-style digital production.

28 [ digital imaging technician ] A person who provideson-set quality control, image manipulation & color correction, productioncontinuity, trouble shooting and consultation to assist in fullfilling therequirements and vision of the cinematographer in film-style digital production.

29 [ digital intermediate ] A project in its digital state between input and final output. The digital intermediate goes through many different processes such as digital retouching, digital color grading, integration of visual effects and titling. Therefore, the term digital intermediate refers to the digital data's transitional nature-a state between the input stage and final delivery.

30 [ digital intermediate (di) ] The middle step in a film-to-video-to-film process. Film is scanned to create high quality digital file, to which is applied color treatment, special effects or other creative processes. The finished video is transferred back to film for final release (theatrical, for example). The file also can become the master for video duplication.

31 [ digital keying and chroma keying ] Keying means putting down an area of one picture onto another. Digital keying allows the placement of the image into any one of the colors of component digital video, no matter how subtle or subdued that color may be. This can prevent the color spill problems associated with keying on highly saturated colors. With high quality digital chroma keying, each of the three components of the picture is analyzed to generate a linear key for each, with the three combined into a single linear key for final keying -- delivering much greater subtlety of selection than with a chrominance-only key.

32 [ digital manipulation ] Altering a digital image using image-editing software, such as Adobe Photoshop.

33 [ digital master ] Final digital version with all changes in the image processing stage applied. It is used to create all distribution formats, including film, digital cinema, HD, SD, and DVD.

34 [ digital negative ] Digital Negative (DNG) is a publically available raw image format owned by Adobe and used for digital photography. It s based on the TIFF/EP standard format and incorporates the use of metadata.

35 [ digital negative ] Digital image information containing all detail (spatial and dynamic/ latitude) in the original camera negative (OCN) film. In a DI process, this allows all latitude headroom to be included, allowing adjustments of color and exposure to the same degree as with film.

36 [ digital paint ] Software tools and techniques to fix imperfections in digital images.

37 [ digital photography ] Photography that utilizes a digital camera to produce the image.

38 [ digital print ] In photography this refers to a photograph produced from either a conventional negative or a digital file by a digital printer. This includes various fine art digital printing techniques, Inkjet and laser printing. See also: Computer Art.

39 [ digital print order format ] DPOF. Camera function which automatically marks images in-camera for printing, tagging individual images with printing instructions, such as quantity, print type. These tags, stored in the image metadata, also can be used to signal images to be viewed or moved, for example.

40 [ digital print order format (dpof) ] Developed jointly by Kodak, Canon, Fuji and Matsushita, DPOF is a function that appears in some digital cameras to allow users to order prints of specific pictures from files stored on the cameras memory card, such as CompactFlash, SmartMedia or floppy d

41 [ digital signal ] See Digital. Transmits data. Note: most projectors use analog signals, whether from component, composite, RGB cables.

42 [ digital signal ] Signal composed of numerical value or digit (or bits). Digital signals are now widespread since they can be easily stored, copied and transmitted with no signal loss on any media.

43 [ digital single-lens reflex ] See DSLR

44 [ digital television (dtv) ] The broadcast of a digital signal. The Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) allows both standard definition and high definition programs transmitted digitally to be called DTV.

45 [ digital theatre systems ] AKA: DTSA company which has produced a digital soundtrack standard. Competitors include Dolby Digital and SDDS.On the web: IMDb Sound Mix Section, Official DTS Home Page

46 [ digital theatre systems ] AKA: DTSA company which has produced a digital soundtrack standard. Competitors include Dolby Digital and SDDS.On the web: IMDb Sound Mix Section, Official DTS Home Page

47 [ digital versatile disc ] AKA: Digital Video Disc, DVDDigital Versatile Discs resemble audio CDs in appearance, but have a much higher storage capacity. Hence, they can store rich digital media such as video in addition to audio and computer software. DVD was once called 'Digital Video Disc' but the name change reflects its wider uses. As a video medium, DVD offers full length feature films to be stored with exceptional picture quality accompanied by high end digital sound, such as Dolby Digital and DTS. Thanks to the huge capacity of discs, DVD movies are often sold with extra features such as the option to view the movie in widescreen or fullscreen, or the option to listen to the movie or director commentaries.On the web: IMDb DVD browser, DVD FAQ

48 [ digital versatile disc ] AKA: Digital Video Disc, DVDDigital Versatile Discs resemble audio CDs in appearance, but have a much higher storage capacity. Hence, they can store rich digital media such as video in addition to audio and computer software. DVD was once called 'Digital Video Disc' but the name change reflects its wider uses. As a video medium, DVD offers full length feature films to be stored with exceptional picture quality accompanied by high end digital sound, such as Dolby Digital and DTS. Thanks to the huge capacity of discs, DVD movies are often sold with extra features such as the option to view the movie in widescreen or fullscreen, or the option to listen to the movie or director commentaries.On the web: IMDb DVD browser, DVD FAQ

49 [ digital zoom ] A digital magnification of the centre 50% of an image. These give less than sharp images because the new zoomed image has been interpolated. Don’t be swayed by the incredible 500% zooms on some cameras, the images won’t be really acceptable. The optical zoom gives much more clarity to an image.

50 [ digital zoom ] A way of magnifying an image using software techniques. Instead of pulling your subject closer, a small patch of pixels is enlarged or interpolated to make a detail look bigger than it really is.

51 [ digital zoom ] A digital magnification of the center 50% of an image. Digital zooms increase the apparent image size by interpolation. They do not increase the amount of image information

52 [ digital zoom ] Cameras with figures in this column have a digital zoom that increases the magnification of the optical lens by the quoted figure. To do this it uses part of the CCD so the resolution is reduced to allow for the increase magnification. If you dont intend making big enlargements this is useful other wise stick to the optical zoom. Most cameras have the option to turn the digital zoom on or off.

53 [ digital zoom ] Unlike an optical zoom, which is an optically lossless function of the camera’s zoom lens, digital zoom takes the central portion of a digital image and crops into it to achieve the effect of a zoom. This means that the existing data is not enhanced or added to, merely displayed at a lower resolution, thereby giving an illusion of an enlarged image.

54 [ digital zoom ] Zoom effect in some digital cameras that is not true (optical) zoom, but is instead an enlargement of the information from the center of the CCD or CMOS (image sensor). It is literally a cropping of the image at the sensor to give the illusion of the use of a telephoto zoom lens. Although the camera's software interpolates the image so that it has the same resolution as a normal (non-digitally zoomed) image, it is not as sharp as an image created with an optical zoom lens.

55 [ digital zoom ] The digital zoom uses software interpolation to zoom into the image further than the actual optical zoom lens in the camera allows. Because digital zooms use interpolation instead of an actual zoom lens, the resulting image will be of lower quality.

56 [ digital ~ semnal ] Semnal compus din valori numerice, ce poate fi usor stocat, copiat, transmis fara pierderi.



1 [ digital: ] Information used by the computer, represented by numbers. The buzzword for any capture device that converts photons to electrons. The use of that information to store, manipulate, transmit or output images in a computer environment. As opposed to analog.

2 [ digital: ] Pertaining to computer language and operation. A digital point-and-shoot captures and stores pictures without film, for direct use in computer software and printing applications.



The process of converting analogue information into digital for use by a computer.

All things photography


The process of converting something into a digital format.



1 [ digitization ] The process of converting analog information into digital format

2 [ digitization ] The process by which analog images are converted to a digital form.

3 [ digitization ] Conversion of analog information into digital format so that it can be used by a computer.

4 [ digitization (digitize) ] process of sampling and converting a continuously variable (analog) signal into discrete mathematical representation of that signal.



The conversion of analog (film, print) information to digital form by use of a scanner, digital sensor or camera.



Step by step tutorials on the use of current Nikon D-SLR cameras, NIKKOR lenses and Speedlights.

Nikon Grossary

dimm (dual in-line memory module)

A plug-in chip that contains (part of) a computer's internal memory or RAM.



An electric or electronic device that can reduce a fixture's brightness, usually with some loss of Color Temperature. Optical dimming mechanisms maintain Color Temperature.

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ din ] Deutche Industrie Norm(Film speed rating defined by the Deutscher Normenausschuss (German standards organisation).).Numeric rating used to describe emulsion speed for German Made photosensitive materials.Just as the same as ASA and ISO numbers.

2 [ din ] German standards system that expressed a film speed rating by a number followed by a degree symbol ( ° ). DIN derives its name from the initials of the Deutsche Industrie Normen or Deutsche Industries Norm. The DIN system has been replaced by the more universal ISO system.

3 [ din (deutsche inclustrie normen) ] German-based film speed rating used in Europe before ISO became the norm. A three DIN increase doubles the films light sensitivity.

4 [ din standard ] The German system (Deutsche industrie normal) for rating film sensitivity. Every 3 degrees doubles the film speed. See: EI/ASA; and ISO.


dinamic range

Photographers use dynamic range for the luminance range of a scene being photographed, or the limits of luminance range that a given digital camera or film can capture. The dynamic range of sensors used in digital photography is many times less than that of the human eye and generally not as wide as that of chemical photographic media

Nikon Grossary


1 [ dingbats ] Once known as 'printer's flowers,' these are the small decorative marks, bullets, or symbols that usually make up a specialty face. Zapf Dingbats is one well-known example of a dingbat font.

2 [ dingbats ] Typefaces that consist of symbol characters such as decorations, arrows and bullets.



1 [ diopter ] Optical unit of measurement used in eyeglass lens manufacture -- higher the number, greater the correction needed to obtain proper focus.

2 [ diopter ] The degree to which the light ray bundles leaving the viewfinder converge or disperse. The standard diopter of all EOS cameras is set at 1 dpt. This setting is designed to allow the finder image to appear to be seen from a distance of 1m. Thus, if a person (artist) cannot see the viewfinder image clearly, the person should attach to the camera's eyepiece a dioptric adjustment lens having a power which, when added to the viewfinder's standard diopter, makes it possible to easily see an object at one meter. The numerical values printed on EOS dioptric adjustment lenses indicate the total diopter obtained when the dioptric adjustment lens is attached to the camera.

3 [ diopter ] The diopter is part of the viewfinding system of a camera that can be adjusted to compensate for your own particular eyesight, allowing you to see the groundglass clearly.

4 [ diopter ] A unit of measure of the refractive power (strength or magnifying power) of a lens. A prescription for eyeglasses is normally written with numbers that represent diopters. Greater vision correction is needed as the diopter measurement increases. In photography, the term is used (1) with close-up lenses to indicate their magnification and focal length, and (2) with corrections to the camera viewfinder's lens when adjusting it to suit the user's eyesight, enabling the photographer to focus an image on the ground glass without wearing his or her eyeglasses. Note that not all camera's viewfinders can be adjusted to compensate for the photographer's eyesight. When they can, the cameras are sometimes said to have a 'diopter.'

5 [ diopter ] A measure of lens power equal to the reciprocal of the focal length. Eyeglass prescriptions are generally indicated in diopters. For cameras, the diopter is used as the measure of the dioptric power for the image in the viewfinder.

6 [ diopter correction ] An adjustment on the viewfinder of a camera, allowing someone to adjust the viewfinder to their vision and removing the need to wear their glasses when looking through it. Diopter adjustments cannot compensate for all vision problems, only near and far sightedness can be compensated


dioptre adjustment

This adjusts the optical viewfinder’s magnification factor to suit the eyesight of the cameras user. There should be a knob or dial near the viewfinders eyepiece, however, not all cameras have this feature.

All things photography

dioptric adjustment

1 [ dioptric adjustment ] Manual control to adjust sharpness of image being viewed through camera viewfinder, changing viewfinder optics to sharpen focus on viewfinder screen.

2 [ dioptric power ] Apparent image distance through optics such as viewfinders. Rated in diopters. A plus sign is used for positive lenses, a minus sign for negative lenses.



Masura a puterii convergente a unei lentile / obiectiv.



1 [ diptych ] A work of art made up of two parts, usually hinged together.

2 [ diptych ] Pair of painted or sculptured panels hinged or joined together; especially popular for devotional pictures in the Middle Ages; see altarpiece.


direct broadcasting via satellite (dbs)

1 [ direct broadcasting via satellite (dbs) ] Short for Direct Broadcast Satellite, uses small dish to receive digital broadcast signal in 12GHz to 18GHz frequencies from satellite. Subject to signal weakening when raining. Also called Direct To Home.

2 [ direct carving ] Method of stone sculpture where form is carved immediately out of the block, and not transferred from a model.

3 [ direct positive ] A photographic term referring to a positive image made directly by exposure to light and by development without the use of a negative. In a direct positive print an image is produced on a surface and then treated chemically to imitate the tonal range of nature.

4 [ direct print ] System bypassing PC. Camera-direct: output photos by connecting digital camera to printer via dedicated cable. Card-direct: uses camera memory card inserted in printer.

5 [ direct view television ] Display device with imager viewed directly, opposite of projection surface.

6 [ direct vision ] Cameras using an optical viewfinder

7 [ direct vision viewfinder ] A camera's viewfinder that is not through the lens, as in a viewfinder camera. The photographer looks through it directly at the scene while the image is captured through a separate lens.


directing animator

1 [ directing animator ] The animator responsible for creating the key poses or key frames of an animation.

2 [ directing animator ] The animator responsible for creating the key poses or key frames of an animation.


direction or function of a light

The big four: Key, Fill, Back Light and Background Lights are the cornerstones of traditional lighting. Used without regard to the needs of the subject and scene, they become millstones. The small six: Kicker, Side Light, Eyelight, Top Light, Rim Light, and Accent Light. Tip: learn to use all ten effectively, then forget about them and just light.

Tiffan edu Glossary

directional light

A loose term for light that is not loose, and does not spill. Hard Light is directional, Soft Light can be made fairly directional with an Eggcrate.

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ director ] AKA: Dir, HelmerThe principal creative artist on a movie set. A director is usually (but not always) the driving artistic source behind the filming process, and communicates to actors the way that he/she would like a particular scene played. A director's duties might also include casting, script editing, shot selection, shot composition, and editing. Typically, a director has complete artistic control over all aspects of the movie, but it is not uncommon for the director to be bound by agreements with either a producer or a studio. In some large productions, a director will delegate less important scenes to a second unit.Factual Movie(s): Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse (1991)Fictional Movie(s): Living in Oblivion (1995), Ed Wood (1994), Stunt Man, The (1980)

2 [ director ] AKA: Dir, HelmerThe principal creative artist on a movie set. A director is usually (but not always) the driving artistic source behind the filming process, and communicates to actors the way that he/she would like a particular scene played. A director's duties might also include casting, script editing, shot selection, shot composition, and editing. Typically, a director has complete artistic control over all aspects of the movie, but it is not uncommon for the director to be bound by agreements with either a producer or a studio. In some large productions, a director will delegate less important scenes to a second unit.Factual Movie(s): Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse (1991)Fictional Movie(s): Living in Oblivion (1995), Ed Wood (1994), Stunt Man, The (1980)

3 [ director ] The person responsible for overseeing all aspects of the making of a film.

4 [ director of photography ] AKA: DP, DoPA cinematographer who is ultimately responsible for the process of recording a scene in the manner desired by the director. The Director of Photography has a number of possible duties: selection of film stock, cameras, and lenses; designing and selecting lighting, directing the gaffer's placement of lighting; shot composition (in consultation with the director); film developing and film printing.Factual Movie(s): Visions of Light (1992)Fictional Movie(s): Living in Oblivion (1995)

5 [ director of photography ] AKA: DP, DoPA cinematographer who is ultimately responsible for the process of recording a scene in the manner desired by the director. The Director of Photography has a number of possible duties: selection of film stock, cameras, and lenses; designing and selecting lighting, directing the gaffer's placement of lighting; shot composition (in consultation with the director); film developing and film printing.Factual Movie(s): Visions of Light (1992)Fictional Movie(s): Living in Oblivion (1995)

6 [ director of photography, dp, cinematographer, cameraperson ] The individual on a film production responsible for lighting, Composition (except in the UK) and, to a large extent, crew performance. The full list is much longer.


director's cut

1 [ director's cut ] AKA: DCContracts under the terms of the Hollywood Director's Guild usually allow 6 weeks for a director to assemble a cut of the movie without studio interference as he or she would like it to be seen. This director's cut is fully edited and has a synchronized soundtrack. This cut is usually not color corrected or density corrected and may not even have the final music and effects tracks. In more recent times the term Director's Cut has taken on a popular meaning that implies a polished final cut of the movie that the director has complete artistic control over.

2 [ director's cut ] AKA: DCContracts under the terms of the Hollywood Director's Guild usually allow 6 weeks for a director to assemble a cut of the movie without studio interference as he or she would like it to be seen. This director's cut is fully edited and has a synchronized soundtrack. This cut is usually not color corrected or density corrected and may not even have the final music and effects tracks. In more recent times the term Director's Cut has taken on a popular meaning that implies a polished final cut of the movie that the director has complete artistic control over.

3 [ director's finder ] An optical device that helps you select a lens of appropriate Focal Length and a Frame.

4 [ director's guild of america ] AKA: DGAOn the web: Official Home Page

5 [ director's guild of america ] AKA: DGAOn the web: Official Home Page


directors guild-producer training plan

1 [ directors guild-producer training plan ] AKA: Director's Guild of America Trainee, DGA TraineeThe Director's Guild of America has various training programs whereby successful applicants are placed in various productions and can gain experience working in the film or television industry.On the web: Official Home Page

2 [ directors guild-producer training plan ] AKA: Director's Guild of America Trainee, DGA TraineeThe Director's Guild of America has various training programs whereby successful applicants are placed in various productions and can gain experience working in the film or television industry.On the web: Official Home Page



The term used to describe optical storage media (compact disc).

Nikon Grossary

discharge lamp

HID (High Intensity Discharger) CID (Compact Indium Discharge), CSI (Compact Source Iodide), xenon and most importantly for shooting purposes, HMI (Hydrargyrum, Medium Arc-length Iodide), are lamps containing special gases under pressure (some high, some low pressure) through which an electric arc is discharged to produce a highly efficient light source. They require a Ballast and starter. Their Color Rendering Index and Hot Restrike Time vary. Lamps may require individual Color Correction with gels. Also see: HMI.

Tiffan edu Glossary


The product is no longer being made.


discontinuous spectrum

Fluorescent lights and, to varying degrees many Discharge Lamps, have spectrums with gaps or excessive amounts of some colors such as too much green or too little red. They emit light not suited for precise color reproduction. See: Color Temperature; and Color Rendering Index.

Tiffan edu Glossary

discrete 5.1 audio

Also known as 5.1, this is an audio system with five full range channels -- left, center, right, rear-left, rear-right -- and a woofer or low frequency effects (LFE) channel. All main channels have full frequency response which, in combination with the woofer, create a three-dimensional effect.

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discretionary hyphens

A hyphen inserted in a word indicating where PageMaker can divide the word, if necessary, to fit the text on the line.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


Literally, 'drawing' or 'design', but which during the Renaissance acquired a broader meaning of overall concept.

Vizual Art Cork


1 [ disk ] The term used to describe magnetic storage media (floppy disk).

2 [ disk drive ] A computer device that can use storage media like floppy disks, hard disks or optical disks.



1 [ disp ] Buton de activare al display-ului de stare al aparatului.

2 [ disp ] Buton de activare al display-ului de stare al aparatului.

2 | DISP


Difference, inequality. Disparity in an image (other than horizontal disparity, i.e. parallax, between left, right eye) -- i.e. vertical, rotational, zoom, keystone, temporal -- will cause viewer eye strain.

canon glossary us


Fenomen optic ce se caracterizeaza prin modificarea proprietatilor optice ale unui mediu, in functie de lungimea de unda a luminii incidente. De exemplu, lumina alba este dispersata in culorile componente dupa refractia printr-o prisma optica.



1 [ dispersion ] A phenomenon whereby the optical properties of a medium vary according to the wavelength of light passing through the medium. When light enters a lens or prism, the dispersion characteristics of the lens or prism cause the index of refraction to vary depending on the wavelength thus dispersing the light. This is also sometimes referred to as color dispersion.

2 [ dispersion ] The property of materialswhich have a refractive index that varies according to the wavelength of light, i.e.,bend the rays of some colors more than others; a prism placed in the path of a rayof white light bends the blue and violet rays more than the orange and red, so thatit spreads out or ''disperses'' the colors as a continuous spectrum.

3 [ dispersion ] A phenomenon in which white light rays deviate by different wavelength amounts resulting in a spectrum. The rainbow created by a prism is the result of dispersion.


dispersion, light dispersion

A process whereby White Light is separated into a Spectrum of rainbowlike component wavelengths by, for example, a prism or raindrops.

Tiffan edu Glossary


1 [ display ] A category of typefaces designed for decorative or headline use. As opposed to text typefaces, display typefaces are usually meant for larger settings. (appended to a font or volume name) URW++ identify their Display fonts by adding the letter D after the font name.

2 [ display ] (1) A viewing screen, like that of a computer's monitor or a camera's LCD screen. (2) To show or exhibit, as in a display of one or more images.

3 [ display device ] Inside projector, technology to produce the image, with LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and DLP (Digital Light Processing) being most common, as well as LCoS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon).

4 [ display face ] A larger and bolder version of a text face (14 points or more) which is used for headlines and sub-headlines.

5 [ display font ] A font that has been designed to look good at large point sizes, often for use in headlines. Typically such a font is not as readable at smaller sizes for large amounts of text. If a serif font with optical sizes, it will likely have lighter weight main stems and much lighter weight serifs and crossbars than a text-size version of the same typeface.

6 [ display font: ] Typefaces used for large type in projects is called display type. These typefaces do not have to be different fonts than used elsewhere in the project but correspond to the size of text. Display fonts are typically used at 16 points or greater and are found in banners, headlines and headers.

7 [ display resolutions ] Using square pixels and not corresponding exactly to television formats, the computer industry s display resolutions encompass television s SD and HD formats, although QXGA is identical to the 2K image size used for digital film production. Because of the mismatch, care has to be taken when using images from TV on computers and from computers on TV. HD TV has 16:9 aspect ratio (1280 x 720 pixels),, WXGA s aspect ratio is 15:9 (5:3) and 1280 x 768, Full High Definition Television is 16:9 (1920 x 1080), WUXGA has a 16:10 (8:5) aspect ratio (1920 x 1200).

8 [ display type ] Type intended to catch the eye, usually of a large size and distinctive typeface.



1 [ dissolve ] An optical or camera effect in which one scene gradually fades out at the same time that a second scene fades in. There is an apparent double exposure during the center portion of a dissolve sequence where the two scenes overlap.

2 [ dissolve ] A dissolve is a transitional device in which one shot fades out while the next shot fades in, so it is briefly superimposed over the first and then replaces it altogether.

3 [ dissolve ] A transition between two shots, where one shot fades away and simultaneously another shot fades in. Dissolves are done at the lab in the printing phase, but prepared by the negative cutter, who cuts in an overlap of the two shots into the A&B rolls. Labs will only do dissolves in fixed amounts, such as 24 frames, 48 frames, etc.

4 [ dissolve ] AKA: Lap DissolveAn editing technique whereby the images of one shot is gradually replaced by the images of another.

5 [ dissolve ] AKA: Lap DissolveAn editing technique whereby the images of one shot is gradually replaced by the images of another.

6 [ dissolve ] An editorial transition overlapping a fade in and a fade out in such a way that one image gradually disappears while another simultaneously emerges. This transition generally suggest a longer period of narrative ellipsis than is suggested by cuts.

7 [ dissolve ] The gradual transition from one image to another in film and video editing, in effect, a controlled double exposure.

8 [ dissolve (lap dissolve) ] A method of making a transition from one shot to another by briefly superimposing one image upon another and then allowing the first image to disappear. A dissolve is a stronger form of transition than a cut and indicates a distinct separation in action. Dolly A platform on wheels serving as a camera mount capable-of movement in any direction.



These terms are used inter-changably to refer to a transition between 2 sequences or scenes. generally associated with earlier cinema but still used on occasion. In a dissolve a first image gradually dissolves or fades out and is replaced by another which fades in over it. This type of transition, which is known also as a soft transition (as opposed to the cut), suggests a longer passage of time than a cut.

Spring Hurst Cine


Termen folosit de producatorul Carl Zeiss pentru obiectivele superangulare de tip retrofocal.



The light-subject distance not only controls Fall-off, but also shadow quality and the effective Size of the light. See: Throw.

Tiffan edu Glossary

distanta de fotografie

1 [ distanta de fotografie ] Distanta de la subiect la planul focal / planul filmului. A nu se confunda cu distanta de lucru, care reprezinta dintanta dintre lentila frontala a obiectivului si subiect.

2 [ distanta de lucru ] Distanta necesara intre lentila frontala a obiectivului si subiect, pentru a realiza un anumit tip de incadrare a acestiua din urma. A nu se confunda cu distanta de fotografie (care reprezinta distanta de la subiect la planul focal / planul filmului).

3 [ distanta focala ] Distanta de la centrul optic al obiectivului la imaginea formata de acesta. Obiectivele pot avea distanta focala mica (grandangular), sau lunga (teleobiective) Obiectivele care au distanta focala egala cu diagonala imaginii sunt considerate normale.

4 [ distanta focala ] Distanta de la centrul optic al obiectivului la imaginea formata de acesta. Obiectivele pot avea distanta focala mica (grandangulare), sau lunga (teleobiective) Obiectivele care au disanta focala egala cu diagonala imaginii sunt consideate normale.

5 [ distanta focala echivalenta ] Termen referitor la camerele foto digitale al caror senzor este mai mic decat formatul 135 (24 x 36 mm). Arata distanta focala pe formatul 135 cu acelasi unghi de cuprindere. De exemplu, la aparatele foto D-SLR Olympus din seria E, un obiectiv cu distanta focala de 50 mm are acelasi unghi de cuprindere cu un obiectiv de 100 mm pe formatul 135.

6 [ distanta hiperfocala ] Generic, spatiul dintre doua planuri considerate ca acceptabile in redarea claritatii

7 [ distanta hiperfocala ] Generic, spatiul dintre doua planuri considerate ca acceptabile in redarea claritatii


distorsia (curbiliniara)

1 [ distorsia (curbiliniara) ] Aberatie a obiectivelor ce consta din reproducerea unor linii drepte sub forma curbilinie, mai ales la periferie (vezi pincushion si barrel).

2 [ distorsia (curbiliniara) ] Aberatie a obiectivelor ce consta din reproducerea unor linii drepte sub forma curbilinie, mai ales la periferie (vezi pincushion si barrel).


distorsiune barrel

1 [ distorsiune barrel ] Distorsie curbiliniara a obiectivelor cu focala mare (teleobiective) ce consta din deformarea liniilor drepte in linii curbe cu concavitatea spre centru.

2 [ distorsiune barrel ] Distorsiune curbiliniara a obiectivelor cu focala mare (teleobiective) ce consta din deformarea liniilor drepte in linii curbe cu concavitatea spre centru; in acest fel un dreptunghi este redat ca un butoi.

3 [ distorsiune pincushion ] Distorsie curbiliniara a obiectivelor cu focala mica (superangulare) ce consta din deformarea liniilor drepte in linii curbe cu convexitatea spre centru.

4 [ distorsiune pincushion ] Distorsiune curbiliniara a obiectivelor cu focala mica (superangulare) ce consta din deformarea liniilor drepte in linii curbe cu convexitatea spre centru; in acest fel un dreptunghi este redat ca o perna


distortable font

See Multi-Master

Font Forge Glossary


1 [ distortion ] A defect in an image caused by the lens, such as barreling and pincushioning

2 [ distortion ] Distortion is the variation of the magnification of the lens throughout the image field. In practical terms, photographic distortion describes the degree to which a lens cannot render straight lines in a scene as straight lines in the final image. Read more about how distortion is defined, measured and scored.

3 [ distortion ] Even if the other possibleaberrations were totally eliminated, images could result that still have a distortedappearance. For an example, an rectangle may appear as a barrel or pin cushion-shapedobject. A lensaberration which does not affect the sharpness of the image, but alters the shapeof objects; the inability of a lens to render straight lines perfectly straight;does not improve by stopping down the lens; there are two types of distortion:Barrel:Straight linesare bowed in at the edges of the picture frame re sembling the sides of a barrel;pres ent in small amounts in some wideangle or wideangle-zoom lenses, bu~ uncorrectedin fisheye lenses.Pincushion: The opposite of barrel distortion;straight lines are bowed in toward the middle to resemble the sides of a pincushion;present in smal amounts in some telephoto and telephoto-zoom lenses.

4 [ distortion ] Variation from intended output -- usually undesirable -- caused by device characteristics.

5 [ distortion ] Misrepresentation of proportions of objects or of their arrangement in a scene. The two main types of lens distortion are: (1) Barrel distortion, in which the straight lines near the edges of the viewframe appear bowed outward from the center, like a barrel-shape; and (2) Pincushion distortion in which the same lines bend in towards the center. Another type is tonal distortion, in which an image's contrast, brightness or colors appear markedly different from those of the subject.

6 [ distortion ] There are three types of distortion that could affect the shape of the image: Barrel: image deformation causes a rectangle to swell in the center, looking like a barrel (the corners of the rectangle are greater than 90 degrees); Pincushion: image deformation causes the sides of a rectangle to move inward, forming a pincushion or star shape (the corners of the rectangle are less than 90 degrees); or Combinations: the two types can also be combined.Distortion cannot be corrected by stopping down the lens. It can be improved by the optical combination of positive and negative lens elements.

7 [ distortion (lens) ] An optical aberration of a lens. Extreme example: a fish-eye lens. The term is often misused to describe the exaggerated Perspective effect of any lens when used too close to a subject, resulting in Big-nose-small-ears Syndrome.

8 [ distortion control ] Available in select COOLPIX models, Distortion Control provides optimum image quality for architectural and landscape photographs. The feature ensures precise subject reproduction and avoids the image distortion that occurs at wide-angle zoom settings or at the peripheries of an image.



Any changing of line, form, or even light by photographic materials, such as lenses, films, or filters. Though most designers do all they can to eliminate distortion from lenses, most photographers take the if you can t beat em, join em approach and exploit it wherever they find it they use distortion as part of their visual expression.


distribution amplifier

1 [ distribution amplifier ] Increases audio or video signal and distributes to multiple outputs, i.e. video monitors, recording devices. Maintains original signal s output impedance, avoiding mismatches, reducing power required to properly drive signal s end point.

2 [ distribution amplifier (projector) ] Maintains clean, noise-free signal to projector or flat panel device over significant distance. Video and computer signal range is limited to few dozen feet -- even with heavily shielded cables -- before signal degredation becomes noticeable. Distribution amp may be needed for shorter distances when wiring passes by or across electrical conduits -- especially with ceiling mounting. Distribution amp may be able to split and amplify signal to drive multiple projectors, flat panels.



1 [ distributor ] AKA: Distrib, DistributionThe organization responsible for coordinating the distribution of the finished movie to exhibitors, as well as the sale of videos, laserdiscs, and other media versions of movies.On the web: IMDb Distributors Section

2 [ distributor ] AKA: Distrib, DistributionThe organization responsible for coordinating the distribution of the finished movie to exhibitors, as well as the sale of videos, laserdiscs, and other media versions of movies.On the web: IMDb Distributors Section



A specialist technician and advisor, supporting the digital camera crew during preparation and production, and acting as a link between location and post-production.

canon glossary us


1 [ dither ] Simularea unei culori prin alaturarea a altor doua culori si combinarea lor la nivelul retinei privitorului.

2 [ dither ] When converting analog pictures for digital television, the continuous range of luminance and chrominance values must be converted into a finite range of numbers. Some values will convert exactly, others may require dithering -- a mathematical process applied to the least significant bit (LSB) -- of the two nearest values to create an approximation of the original value. Dynamic Rounding dither can deliver more accurate and better looking results.



1 [ dithering ] A method of simulating complex colours or tones of grey using few colour ingredients. Close together, dots of ink can give the illusion of a new colour.

2 [ dithering ] Approximating colors, tones, e.g. using two colors to create appearance of third by varying size and dot pattern. Synthesizing more gray levels than printhead can actually produce. Also: smoothing digital images by adding color, random noise during digitization. Also: using pattern of small dots out of palette to display intermediate, non-existent colors in limited palette.

3 [ dithering ] Where pixels are added to make a digital image look smoother.

4 [ dithering (or color quantization) ] Simulating colors or shades with a smaller, limited number of colors or shades, creating the illusion of 'color depth' in images.


diverging light rays

Light rays that diverge, that is, continue to recede from each other, spreading or drawing apart. The opposite is 'converge'.

Photo Tips


MPEG-4 digital video technology created by DivXNetworks. has become popular due to its ability to compress lengthy video segments into small sizes while maintaining relatively high visual quality hard drive.

canon glossary us


Acronim folosit de Sigma pentru a marca obiectivele lor din grupa ieftina.



Short for Digital Light Processing, Texas Instruments display technology using mirrors to display image. Advantages: projectors abie to produce very high contrast ratios, very light projectors. Disadvantages: colors not as vibrant and saturated, and possibility of artifact illusion called Rainbow Effect.

canon glossary us


Short for Digital Linear Tape, a data storage system.

canon glossary us

dmd (digital micromirror device)

Short for Digital Micromirror Device, imaging chip in Texas Instruments DLP projection systems.

canon glossary us

dnr (digital noise reduction)

Short for Digital Noise Reduction. To reduce picture noise, compares frames, uses algorithms to reduce noise. Also can reduce flickering in still sections of video image.

canon glossary us

dns (domain name system)

Short for Domain Name System. Locates and translates Internet domain names into IP (Internet Protocol) addresses.

canon glossary us


Avid HD codec using intra-frame compression and designed for multi-generation compositing, requiring reduced storage and bandwidth. There are four levels, designed to match quality requirements and manageable data volumes: 145 Mb/s or 220 Mb/s (both 8-bit) and 220 Mb/s (10-bit), all at 4:2:2, plus 36 Mb/s for HD offline. This codec is designed to deliver HD post at SD data rates, or lower.

canon glossary us


1 [ do ] (Diffractive Oprics) tehnolgie folosita de Canon la unele teleobiective. Suprafata lentilelor DO are striatii foarte fine (zecimi de microni) care realizeaza difractia luminii incidente, apoi refractia, in scopul corectarii mai bune a aberatiilor optice.

2 [ do ] Specialized Canon Lens Abbreviations - Diffractive Optics lenses have special glass elements that bend light more than regular glass. This allows them to be smaller than regular lenses of the same parameters. A well-known Canon DO lens is the telephoto EF 400mm f/4 DO IS USM. It shares the great build quality with the L siblings, but has a green ring around the front rather than a red one.

2 | DO

document camera

For displaying objects as well as transparencies. Can attach to any projector, capability integrated into some projectors -- attachable camera on arm or document scanner built in to projector.

canon glossary us


1 [ documentary ] Rather than posed or highly styled shots, documentary photography captures candid or spontaneous pictures of people, décor and action—in the moment. These shots feel intimate and real.

2 [ documentary ] AKA: DocuA non-fiction narrative without actors. Typically a documentary is a journalistic record of an event, person, or place. See also: cinema verité.On the web: List of documentaries at the IMDb.

3 [ documentary ] AKA: DocuA non-fiction narrative without actors. Typically a documentary is a journalistic record of an event, person, or place. See also: cinema verité.On the web: List of documentaries at the IMDb.

4 [ documentary photography ] A photographic depiction of the real world intended to show the subject in a literal and objective way. Early examples include the work of Maxime du Camp in recording the Near East, Roger Fenton in the Crimea; Mathew Brady in the American Civil War, and the Parisian Eugene Atget (1857-1927) in Paris. An important sub-genre is social documentary photography, which records the human condition within a wider context. Examples range from Thomas Annan in 1860s Glasgow, to Jacob Riis in 1890s America and the Farm Security Administration photographers of the 1930s, like Walker Evans (1903-75).

5 [ documentary photography ] A documentary photographer takes series of photos of a particular subject, generally involving people. His aim is to tell the story of the subject, or document/record events, through these photographs. He tries to capture truthful and objective (often candid) images of the chosen subject, although these images unavoidably illustrate the photographer's individual take on the subject. Often the photographs are meant to be published or exhibited. And some documentary photographers receive commissions from institutions or companies to document their activities. Also see street photography

6 [ documentary photography ] A genre of photography that aims to objectively chronicle a subject or event.


documentatia de executie

Totalitatea informatiilor tehnice (toate fisierele PDF) aferente lucrarii ce trebuie executata, conform Cerintelor Tehnice impuse de furnizor.

Dictionar de termeni tipografici A


1 [ dodging ] Holding back the image-forming light from a part of the image projected on an enlarger easel during part of the basic exposure time to make that area of the print lighter.

2 [ dodging ] Blocking light from an area of the photographic print to lessen the amount of exposure and lighten that particular spot.

3 [ dodging ] Holding back the image-forminglight from a part of the image projected on an enlarger easel during part of thebasic exposure time to make that area of the print lighter.

4 [ dodging ] Blocking a portion of the light when printing a photograph or manipulating a digital image so that an area of the image will be made lighter.

5 [ dodging ] Selectively lightening part of a photo using an image editing program or a mechanical technique in a traditional darkroom.



In conventional or digital printing and image manipulation, the selective reduction of density in certain areas of the scene.



1 [ dof ] Abbreviation of Depth of Field.

2 [ dof ('depth of field') ] Vezi - Camp de profunzime

3 [ dof (depth of field) ] Un obiectiv, in afara de obiectul exact pe care este pusa claritatea, mai reda clar un spatiu din fata si spatele acestuia. Acest spatiu este mai mare sau mai mic, functie de diafragma si distanta focala si mai ales cercul de difuzie ales. Câmpul in care parti din imagine sunt redate clar se numeste câmp de profunzime. Vezi - Câmp de profunzime

4 [ dof – depth of field: ] The area of an image that appears sharp or in focus. Read more about depth of field in underwater photography.


dogme 95

1 [ dogme 95 ] A filmmaking movement launched in 1995 by Danish directors Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg, among others. The Dogme 95 Manifesto renounces special effects and other forms of 'gimmickry' in favor of stripped-down techniques. In order to qualify for Dogme status, filmmakers must abide by the following ten rules (known as the 'Vow of Chastity'):1. Shooting must be done on location. Props and sets must not be brought in (if a particular prop is necessary for the story, a location must be chosen where this prop is to be found).2. The sound must never be produced apart from the images or vice versa. (Music must not be used unless it occurs where the scene is being shot).3. The camera must be hand-held. Any movement or immobility attainable in the hand is permitted. (The film must not take place where the camera is standing; shooting must take place where the film takes place).4. The film must be in color. Special lighting is not acceptable. (If there is too little light for exposure the scene must be cut or a single lamp be attached to the camera).5. Optical work and filters are forbidden.6. The film must not contain superficial action. (Murders, weapons, etc. must not occur.)7. Temporal and geographical alienation are forbidden. (That is to say that the film takes place here and now.)8. Genre movies are not acceptable.9. The film format must be Academy 35mm.10. The director must not be credited.On the web: Dogme

2 [ dogme 95 ] A filmmaking movement launched in 1995 by Danish directors Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg, among others. The Dogme 95 Manifesto renounces special effects and other forms of 'gimmickry' in favor of stripped-down techniques. In order to qualify for Dogme status, filmmakers must abide by the following ten rules (known as the 'Vow of Chastity'):1. Shooting must be done on location. Props and sets must not be brought in (if a particular prop is necessary for the story, a location must be chosen where this prop is to be found).2. The sound must never be produced apart from the images or vice versa. (Music must not be used unless it occurs where the scene is being shot).3. The camera must be hand-held. Any movement or immobility attainable in the hand is permitted. (The film must not take place where the camera is standing; shooting must take place where the film takes place).4. The film must be in color. Special lighting is not acceptable. (If there is too little light for exposure the scene must be cut or a single lamp be attached to the camera).5. Optical work and filters are forbidden.6. The film must not contain superficial action. (Murders, weapons, etc. must not occur.)7. Temporal and geographical alienation are forbidden. (That is to say that the film takes place here and now.)8. Genre movies are not acceptable.9. The film format must be Academy 35mm.10. The director must not be credited.On the web: Dogme

2 | DOGME 95

dolby ac3

1 [ dolby ac3 ] The audio standard for DTV broadcasting, this audio compression technique from Dolby Laboratories is designed to produce discrete multichannel digital surround sound. It supports up to six audio channels (5.1 surround) at various bitrates. It is a distribution format, not directly editable.

2 [ dolby e ] Designed for the production of discrete multichannel digital surround sound and metadata, it is a digital audio compression technique created by Dolby Laboratories. It supports up to 8 channels in any combination (including 8 Mono, 4 Stereo, and 5.1 plus stereo). It is a production format, editable on frame boundaries, maintaining quality through multiple decode/encode cycles.

3 [ dolby noise reduction ] AKA: Dolby, Dolby Labs, Dolby Digital, Dolby SR, Dolby 70mm, Dolby StereoDolby Laboratories, Inc has produced a number of noise reduction and sound enhancement processes. Competitors include DTS and SDDS.On the web: Official Home Page, IMDb Sound Mix Section

4 [ dolby noise reduction ] AKA: Dolby, Dolby Labs, Dolby Digital, Dolby SR, Dolby 70mm, Dolby StereoDolby Laboratories, Inc has produced a number of noise reduction and sound enhancement processes. Competitors include DTS and SDDS.On the web: Official Home Page, IMDb Sound Mix Section

5 [ dolby pro-logic ] The more advanced form of Dolby Laboratories Dolby Surround, it delivers a wider listening/viewing area and provides better channel separation, not only recovering surround information from encoded program material, but also adding a center channel, firmly positioning dialogue and center effects.

6 [ dolby surround ] Dolby Laboratories first generation home theater format. It delivers three channels: left, right, and surround (usually split into 2 rear speakers). The surround information is pulled from encoded program material and fed to a pair of surround speakers on the side walls next to the listening area.



1 [ dolly ] A mobile camera platform from simple to sophisticated.

2 [ dolly ] A set of wheels and a platform upon which the camera can be mounted to give it mobility. Dolly shot is a shot taken from a moving dolly. Almost synonomous in general usage with tracking shot or follow shot

3 [ dolly ] AKA: Dolly Shot, Dolly Up, Dolly In, Dolly Back, Pull backA dolly is a small truck which rolls along dolly tracks carrying the camera,some of the camera crew and occasionally the director. 'Dolly' is also the action of moving the camera towards (dolly up/in) or away from (dolly/pull back) the object that it is pointing at. The term often appears in screenplays. There is a subtle difference between the results of a zoom shot and a dolly shot. In a zoom, the relative positions and sizes of all objects in the frame remains the same, whereas in a dolly shot this will change as the camera moves. Alfred Hitchcock's much-imitated shot in Vertigo used a combination zoom-in and dolly back, resulting in a dramatic change in perspective.

4 [ dolly ] AKA: Dolly Shot, Dolly Up, Dolly In, Dolly Back, Pull backA dolly is a small truck which rolls along dolly tracks carrying the camera,some of the camera crew and occasionally the director. 'Dolly' is also the action of moving the camera towards (dolly up/in) or away from (dolly/pull back) the object that it is pointing at. The term often appears in screenplays. There is a subtle difference between the results of a zoom shot and a dolly shot. In a zoom, the relative positions and sizes of all objects in the frame remains the same, whereas in a dolly shot this will change as the camera moves. Alfred Hitchcock's much-imitated shot in Vertigo used a combination zoom-in and dolly back, resulting in a dramatic change in perspective.

5 [ dolly (dolly shot) ] A dolly is a mobile platform on wheels with a camera, which can be driven or pushed by a dolly pusher or dolly grip.

6 [ dolly grip ] A grip that moves a dolly.

7 [ dolly grip ] A grip that moves a dolly.

8 [ dolly shot ] A dolly shot is one where the camera is placed on a dolly and is moved while filmming. Also known as a tracking shot.

9 [ dolly shot ] A moving shot taken from a dolly. A Dolly-In moves the camera toward the subject, while a Dolly-Out moves the camera away from the subject. A dolly shot creates a sense of movement through space by capturing changes in perspective.

10 [ dolly tracks ] A set of tracks upon which a camera can be moved. See also dolly.

11 [ dolly tracks ] A set of tracks upon which a camera can be moved. See also dolly.


dollying or dolly shot

1 [ dollying or dolly shot ] A shot in which the camera moves toward or away from its subject while filming. Traditionally dolly shots are filmed from a camera dolly but the same motion may also be performed with a Steadicam , gimbal, etc. A dolly shot is generally described in terms of dollying in or dollying out. Trucking in and out is also a common synonym.

2 [ dollying vs. truck ] Dolly shots move toward or away from the subject or set (lens 0 degrees to travel); trucking shots are more or less parallel to the subject's line of movement (lens 90 degrees to travel).


domain names

The part of the Web address that sits between the http:// and .co.uk or .com. These can be registered for a minimal fee from many web sites.



1 [ dome ] Architectural feature found on top of buildingd like the Pantheon in Rome, the Cathedral in Florence (Brunelleschi), Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome (Michelangelo and others), St Paul's Cathedral in London (Christopher Wren) and the Pantheon in Paris, designed by Jacques-Germain Soufflot (1713-80).

2 [ dome ] In architecture, a hemispherical roof or ceiling.

3 [ dome camera ] Surface/Ceiling mounted indoor security camera with more appealing visual appearance, usually a fixed camera.



If several sources are needed, one of them (or one Direction of Light) usually should dominate.

Tiffan edu Glossary

dominant object

The object in a photograph that is predominant, usually one that is given the most visual weightand often appearing in the foreground.

Photo Tips

dope sheet

1 [ dope sheet ] AKA: Camera ReportA list of scenes from the script that have already been filmed, or a list of the contents of an exposed reel of film stock. An accurate dope sheet is the responsibility of the assistant cameraman. See also clapboard, continuity report.

2 [ dope sheet ] AKA: Camera ReportA list of scenes from the script that have already been filmed, or a list of the contents of an exposed reel of film stock. An accurate dope sheet is the responsibility of the assistant cameraman. See also clapboard, continuity report.


dos (disk operating system)

Operating system used by older personal computers.


dot (punct)

1 [ dot (punct) ] Pata de cerneala proiectata de imprimantele jet la un singur impuls. Imprimantele actuale trimit pe hartie mai multe mii de picaturi de cerneala pe fiecare inch (aprox 25 mm) atat pe orizontala cat si pe verticala (dot per inch = dpi).

2 [ dot gain ] Spread (enlargement) of ink dots during printing, creating darker image. Halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread, press gain.

3 [ dot pitch (projector) ] With CRT display, distance between dots. Higher resolution achieved when dots closer together.

4 [ dot size ] Size of dot produced by one drop of ink on paper, depending on drop volume and paper characteristics.


dot, target

Round devices used to shadow areas of the scene to control Contrast or improve lighting.

Tiffan edu Glossary

dots per inch (dpi)

The resolution of a computer monitor, scanner or printer. The more dots per inch, the higher the image quality - provided, of course, that the image is sharp in the first place.



1 [ double ] An actor who stands in for another actor in certain scenes, some of which may involve dangerous circumstances or require special skills (e.g. a stunt double). Sometimes body doubles are used in scenes that call for nudity or intimacy. Contrast with stand-in.

2 [ double ] An actor who stands in for another actor in certain scenes, some of which may involve dangerous circumstances or require special skills (e.g. a stunt double). Sometimes body doubles are used in scenes that call for nudity or intimacy. Contrast with stand-in.

3 [ double (multiple) exposure ] Double exposure is the superimposition of two images, one over the other, which results from exposing the same film twice.

4 [ double bill ] Two movies shown consecutively, typically for a discounted single admission price. Often the movies are sequels or are otherwise related (by genre, eg). See also feature presentation, supporting feature, and trailer.

5 [ double bill ] Two movies shown consecutively, typically for a discounted single admission price. Often the movies are sequels or are otherwise related (by genre, eg). See also feature presentation, supporting feature, and trailer.

6 [ double click ] The action of pressing the mouse button twice in quick succession to open a folder or launch a programme.

7 [ double exposure ] Two pictures taken on one frame of film, or two images printed on one piece of photographic paper.

8 [ double exposure ] A double exposure occurs when (prior to development) an exposed piece of film is reshot with a second image on top of the first. Several exposures can be made, but it still valid to call it a 'double' exposure rather than a 'triple' or 'quadruple' exposure. It is perfectly alright to say 'five double exposures,' as numerically incongruous as it may sound.

9 [ double exposure ] Exposing film twice allowing for two similar or different images to overlap on a single negative.

10 [ double exposure ] The re-exposing of film, intentionally or not, to a second image.

11 [ double exposure ] Two pictures takenon one frame of film, or two images printed on one piece of photographic paper. Somecameras can have double exposure level depressed with multiple exposures one evenwith a motor drive.

12 [ double exposure ] Two exposures on the same frame. With film cameras, the film is not wound forward after the first exposure. In digital photography, a double exposure is most commonly made by combining two images using an image editing program.

13 [ double exposure (superimposition) ] Two distinct images appearing simultaneously with one superimposed upon the other.

14 [ double perf ] 16mm film with a row of perforations running along both edges. On the film can this will be indicated by 2R appearing on the label.

15 [ double reel ] In 35mm a double reel is 2 single reels joined together, the maximum size being 2,000 feet. Double reels are labeled 1 A/B, 2 A/B etc., to distinguish them from single reels.

16 [ double system ] The term double system refers to sound and picture as two separate elements, recorded, edited or projected in sync. 16mm and 35mm use the double system format. A camera photographs the picture and a tape recorder records the sound. In the end, the final print is Single System, combining sound and picture onto the same piece of print stock.

17 [ double system projector ] A projector designed to project a workprint and play a mag track in sync.

18 [ double vision ] Used to describe the view seen through a pair of binoculars when the internal prisms or optics have been knocked out of alignment or the body is sprained. When this has happened, you see two separate images that cannot be brought together.



1 [ double-exposure ] The recording of two superimposed images on the same piece of photo-sensitive material. This may be through error or as part of the creative process.

2 [ double-exposure ] Exposing the same image frame twice. A typical double-exposure shows the same subject twice in the same image.



A double-story ‘a’ or ‘g’ has two counters, as opposed to their single-storey variants which only have one counter.

Font Shop Glosary

double-system sound recording

Includes a film camera and a separate device, such as a DAT, for audio. For accuracy, the camera should be synced with the sound device and the frame rate should be a constant 24 frames per second. Sound is later transferred to magnetic film and synchronized with picture in postproduction.

Kodak cine


Decrease the resolution of video to fit another format -- typically an HD format to an SD format -- with no change in frame rate.

canon glossary us


1 [ down-sampling ] Algorithm used to reduce the dimension of an image. According to information theory, down-sampling needs to be performed so that it cancels frequencies too high (over Nyquist frequency) to avoid aliasing.

2 [ down-sampling ] Reducing the file size of an image by making the image smaller.



Reducing high resolution video to lower resolution video. Often used so HD material can be handled offline on inexpensive standard definition editing systems before being assembled (conformed) in HD. May also be used to finish HD programs for delivery to non-HD clients.

canon glossary us


1 [ download ] Term used for the transference of image data from the camera to your computer. Can be done via a serial port or the faster USB port. Downloads can also be done via Bluetooth or Infra-red without the need for cables.

2 [ download ] To bring a file from the Internet or other remote computer to your own using an internet or network connection. Or to load pictures from a digital camera using a cable connection. (Sending pictures to another computer, a camera or the Internet is uploading.)

3 [ download ] Transfer data from a device to a computer using a cable connection

4 [ download ] Transfer files from a storage device to a computer. When you transfer your digital camera's or memory card's image files to your computer, you are 'downloading' them. (Note: Upload refers to transferring a file from a computer to another storage device or to a website.)

5 [ download ] A file or other information transferred from a camera, media card, CD, DVD, hard drive or the Internet to a computer or from one piece of computer equipment to another.


downloadable font

A font file that contains character descriptions that are copied from the computer and temporarily stored in the printer s memory while a document is printing.

ProximaSoftware Glossary


1 [ downloading ] Transferring fonts from the computer to the printer's memory.

2 [ downloading ] Moving computer data from one location to another. Though the term is normally used to describe the transfer of data from the Internet, it is also used to describe the transfer of photos from a camera's memory card to a computer.



means to expose a film to more light than its ISO rating indicates. Some say downrating is also known as 'Pulling,' but it is only step one in the pulling process, which includes (1) overexposing (downrating) to reduce its effective film speed and (2) underdeveloping the film to compensate for the downrating.

Photo Tips

downrezzing (downsampling)

Resizing a digital image to a smaller size.

Kodak cine


The process of reducing the sampling rate of a signal, usually done to reduce the data rate and/or the quantity of data.

canon glossary us

doza de developare

vezi tanc de developare.



1 [ dpi ] Dots per Inch. This is a measurement value used to describe the resolution of a display screen or that of a printer

2 [ dpi ] Dots per inch - it is a measure of the quality of a printed image.

3 [ dpi ] (Dots Per Inch) A measurement value used to describe either the resolution of a display screen or the output resolution of a printer

4 [ dpi ] (Dots per inch) The measure of resolution for a video monitor or printer high-resolution printers are usually at least 1000 dpi. Laser printers typically have a resolution of 600 dpi; monitors are usually 72 dpi.

5 [ dpi ] (Dots per inch) numarul de puncte pe care o imprimanta le poate aseza in mod distinct pe hartie pe unitatea de lungime (inch); in mod abuziv, extins si la alte dispozitive care capteaza sau prelucreaza fisiere de imagine.

6 [ dpi ] (Dots per inch) numarul de puncte pe care o imprimanta le poate aseza in mod distinct pe hârtie pe unitatea de lungime (inch); in mod abuziv, extins si la alte dispozitive care capteaza sau prelucreaza fisiere de imagine.

7 [ dpi ] An abbreviation for dots per inch. Refers to the resolution at which a device, such as a monitor or printer, can display text and graphics. Monitors are usually 100 dpi or less, and laser printers are 300 dpi or higher. An image printed on a laser printer looks sharper than the same image on a monitor.

8 [ dpi ] Dots per inch, describing the precision of a display device (screen, printer, fax).

9 [ dpi ] Short for Dots Per Inch. Measurement of print resolution, number of individual dots device can address per square inch of area, typically expressed horizontal by vertical resolution. Also called dot pitch.

10 [ dpi ] Dots Per Inch - (1) Printer - A measure of print resolution, that is, the number of dots of ink per linear inch of an image. The greater the number of dots, the higher the image's resolution. (2) Scanner - A scanner's maximum resolution is measured in dots per inch. When the number is high, the scanner can scan more data from an original image, increasing the scanner's output quality. (3) Images - When the spatial resolution of pixels in an image is altered, a digital image can be made larger or smaller. This is usually referred to as PPI [pixels per inch].

11 [ dpi ] Dots per inch. A measurement of the resolution of a digital photo or digital device, including digital cameras and printers. The higher the number, the greater the resolution.

12 [ dpi (dots per inch) ] Printing term for resolution. Also referred to as ppi (pixels per inch) when describing monitor resolution. The higher the ppi/dpi, the higher the resolution of the resulting image will be. For viewing images at magnifications of up to life size on a computer screen, you only need 72 dpi. For offset printing, the image must be set to 300 dpi at the desired print size, and for inkjet prints, anywhere from 180 to 360 dpi at the desired print size, preferably with a number divisible by 3. Dpi settings above 400 can diminish the quality of inkjet output.



1 [ dpof ] Digital Print Order Format. This allows you to embed printing information on your memory card. You just select the photographs that you want printed and how many prints to be made. Some photo printers such as Pictbridge use this information at print time.

2 [ dpof ] (Digital Print Order Format) - standard aplicat cardurilor de memorie care permite accesul direct al perifericelor (imprimante, multifunctionale, Kiosc-uri foto) la imaginile stocate in scopul imprimarii fara intermediul calculatorului.

3 [ dpof ] (Digital Print Order Format) A format which allows you to embed printing information on your memory card. Select the pictures to be printed and how many prints to make. Some photo printers with card slots will use this info at print time

4 [ dpof ] See Digital Print Order Format.

5 [ dpof ] Digital Print Order Format - A set of universal standards permitting you to specify print options directly from a digital camera.

6 [ dpof ] DPOF is the abbreviation for Digital Print Order Format. DPOF can be found on all Nikon COOLPIX cameras. It allows users to choose which images they wish to print, from the camera. The camera saves this information in special files on the media card for use at a later time when the images are downloaded to a computer, printer or photo kiosk.

6 | DPOF


1 [ dpx ] Short for Digital Moving-Picture Exchange. A file format, specified by SMPTE, containing both an image and information about it.

2 [ dpx (digital picture exchange) file ] The most common file format used in digital post-production. The DPX format is an ANSI and SMPTE standard. The format provides a great deal of flexibility because it is easy to share between workstations, equipment, and facilities.



1 [ draftsman ] A person (artist) who draws plans or designs, often of structures to be built; a person (artist) who draws skillfully, especially an artist.

2 [ draftsman ] A person who creates the plans for set construction. See also swing gang, production designer, and art director.

3 [ draftsman ] A person who creates the plans for set construction. See also swing gang, production designer, and art director.



An action which allows you to move text, picture elements or folders by holding down the mouse button and moving the selected item to its desired destination.


dragging the shutter

A technique that involves using flash with a long exposure (from a slow shutter speed) to also capture background objects that are in ambient light.

Photo Tips


1 [ dram ] Dynamic Random Access Memory. A type of volatile memory, which is lost when the power is turned off.

2 [ dram ] (Dynamic Random Access Memory) A type of memory that is lost when the power is turned off

3 [ dram ] (Dynamic Random Access Memory) tip de memorie care pastreaza informatiile atata timp cat se afla sub tensiune. Oprirea alimentarii cu curent duce la pierderea datelor.

4 [ dram ] Short for Dynamic Random Access Memory. These chips deliver high density memory which, to retain data, must be powered and clocked. Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) is faster. Double Data Rate SDRAM (DDRSDRAM) delivers approximately twice the bandwidth of SDRAM. DDR 2 increases the data rate while DDR 3 reduces DDR 2 s higher power consumption.

5 [ dram (dynamic random access memory) ] Standard type of memory chip used in computers.

6 [ dram buffer ] All digicams have a certain amount of fixed memory to facilitate image processing before the finished picture is saved to the flash memory card. Cameras with burst more have a larger buffer of 32MB or bigger to cope with the files however, they are more expensive.

7 [ dram buffer ] Fixed memory used for image processing before the image is stored. Cameras with a burst mode have much larger DRAM buffers. This also makes them more expensive



Lighting—especially using an off-camera flash—is a key component of dramatic photography. If the sun isn't cooperating, the photographer will use lighting equipment to capture the same gorgeous effect.

TheKnot wedding photograhy

draw scene mode

A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. When using a COOLPIX digital camera with a touchscreen display, you can draw pictures or write memos on the display and save them as photos using the Draw scene mode.

Nikon Grossary


1 [ drawing ] A work of art made with a pencil, pen, crayon, charcoal, or other implements, often consisting of lines and marks (noun); the act of producing a picture with pencil, pen, crayon, charcoal, or other implements (verb, gerund).

2 [ drawing ] Refers to the monochrome use of pencil, charcoal, pen, ink, or similar mediums on paper, card or other support, producing linework or a linear quality rather than mass. When used of a painting, it refers more specifically to the artist's method of representing form by these means, rather than by the use of colour and paint.


drept de folosire

Prevederi, precizate printr-un contract, prin care se precizeaza cum, unde si pentru ce perioada de timp poate fi publicata sau interpretata o creatie de arta.



1 [ dresser ] A wardrobe assistant who helps actors with their costumes.

2 [ dresser ] A wardrobe assistant who helps actors with their costumes.



1 [ drive ] Comutarea in modul de fotografiere cu derulare automata continua a negativului (fotografiere in salva).

2 [ drive ] Comutarea in modul de fotografiere cu derulare automata continua a negativului (fotografiere in salva).



1 [ driver ] A file that controls a printer, scanner, disk drive or other device which is part of, or connected to, a computer.

2 [ driver ] AKA: Transportation CaptainA person who drives either equipment or passenger trucks, typically between location shootings, sets, and the studio. The chief driver is called the transportation captain. See also transportation co-ordinator.

3 [ driver ] AKA: Transportation CaptainA person who drives either equipment or passenger trucks, typically between location shootings, sets, and the studio. The chief driver is called the transportation captain. See also transportation co-ordinator.

4 [ driver ] Small program used by computer operating system which tells it how to operate a particular printer.


drop cap

1 [ drop cap ] A design style in which the first capital letter of a paragraph is set in a larger point size and aligned with the top of the first line. This method is used to indicate the start of a new section of text, such as a chapter.

2 [ drop cap ] An oversized capital letter used at the start of a paragraph. Drop caps occupy two or more lines of body copy, usually introduced for design emphasis.

3 [ drop shadow ] An effect in which an image appears to be slightly raised as if floating, caused by a shadow below it that is offset to one or two sides.

4 [ drop shutter ] Unul dintre primele obturatoare mecanice ale camerelor fotografice, ce consta dintr-o placa de lemn, cu o gaura in centru, ce cadea gravitational, printr-un jgheab de lemn. Dimensiunea orificiului realiza diferiti timpi de expunere, in timp de gravitatia asigura un proces relativ reproductibil.



Alteration of timecode to match the framerate of NTSC video to a time of day clock. NTSC video actually runs at 29.97 frames per second (30/1.001). To keep the timecode on an NTSC videotape synchronous with a time of day clock, it needs to make up 1 in 1001 frames. It does this by changing the count by two frames on nine out of every ten minutes. So the frame following 10:35:59:29 would be numbered as 10:36:00:02. 30 frame HD formats are often run at 29.97 to allow conversion and synchronization to NTSC video. These formats support Drop-Frame timecode. Note that there is no drop frame format for native 24-frame video formats. Also see Non-Drop-Frame, Timecode.

canon glossary us

drop-in loading

Camera system that automatically advances film to the first frame when the camera's back is closed.

Photo Tips


Film cassette loadingfeature in all Advanced Photo System cameras that virtually eliminates film-loadingproblems by automatically accepting the leaderless cassette and thrusting the filmforward to the first unexposed frame without any user intervention.

Mir glossary


Halftone dots or fine lines removed from highlights by overexposure when halftone created, increasing contrast. Also known as dropout halftone.

canon glossary us

drum scanner

High quality and very expensive scanner used by repro houses to scan transparencies, negatives and prints. Originals are mounted on the curved surface of a transparent drum. As the drum rotates, a fine beam of transmitted or reflected light scans the original.


dry back

1 [ dry back ] Printed ink colors becoming less dense as ink dries.

2 [ dry mounting ] Method of mounting a photograph to stiff backing material using dry, heat-sensitive tissue between the two. Can be ironed into place, but a press is preferred as it applies even pressure and heat to the whole surface.

3 [ dry mounting ] A means of attaching a print to a backing using a thin paper stock coated on each side with a dry cement that melts under heat.

4 [ dry plate negative ] Although produced from the late 1850s, they were more successfully introduced from the early 1870s and quickly supplanted wet-collodion plates. Dry plates matched and surpassed the sensitivity of wet-plates and were more convenient to use.


drying marks

Irregular marks on a film emulsion caused by uneven drying when processed. This can be prevented by using wetting agent in the final wash.



1 [ drypoint ] A type of intaglio printmaking process that involves using an abrasive or sharp-pointed tool to scratch lines into the surface of a metal plate. The term may also refer to the process or to the tool used.

2 [ drypoint ] Copper engraving technique.



1 [ dsa ] Dual Super Aspherical - lentila cu ambele suprafete asferice, utilizata de Olympus in constructia obiectivelor de clasa profesionala. O lentila DSA inlocuieste doua sau mai multe lentile sferice si corecteaza optim aberatiile optice ale obiectivelor.

2 [ dsa (dual super aspherical) ] Tehnologie folosita de Olympus pentru realizarea de lentile cu doua suprafete asferice, pentru reducerea mai eficienta a unor aberatii optice.



DSCN is an identifier that will begin the alpha/numeric string in the file name of an original still image or movie taken with a Nikon digital camera. After the DSCN, a file number will be automatically assigned in ascending order.

Nikon Grossary

dsl (digital subscriber line)

Short for Digital Subscriber Line, telecommunications protocol allowing existing copper phone lines to be used for high-speed transfer of data. Includes ADSL (Asymmetric DSL), SDSL (Single-line DSL), HDSL (High-data-rate DSL), VDSL (Very-high-data-rate DSL). Most common, ADSL, allows for download speeds up to 9 Mbps, upload speeds up to 640 Kbps, commercial performance usually less.

canon glossary us


1 [ dslr ] Digital Single Lens Reflex (SLR). Camera with interchangeable lens.

2 [ dslr ] digital single lens reflex camera. Any digital camera with interchangeable lenses where the image is viewed using a mirror and prism, and the image is taken directly through that lens. What you see in your viewfinder is what the lens sees.

3 [ dslr ] – The successor to the film SLR, a digital single-lens reflex camera uses a movable mirror along with a prism or additional mirrors to reflect an image from the lens into a viewfinder, so you can accurately frame and focus your shots. When you press the shutter button, the mirror flips up, allowing light to pass from the lens onto the image sensor, which records the photo.

4 [ dslr ] Digital Single Lens Reflex: digital camera with a removable unique lens used as a viewfinder and for image capture.

5 [ dslr ] Digital version of an SLR camera.

6 [ dslr ] Short for Digital Single Lens Reflex, camera which allows viewing of subject through lens, via prism and mirror system.

7 [ dslr (digital single lens reflex) ] A single lens reflex (SLR) camera that captures digital images.

8 [ dslr or dslr ] Digital single lens reflex.



Digital single lens reflex.

Underwatter Photography

dsp (digital signal processor)

Short for Digital Signal Processing, the constant treatment of both incoming and outgoing signals, with audio, for example, creates reverb, etc. Also: Short for Digital Signal Processor, CPU-independent circuits to compress video, placing little or no draw on CPU s processing power so can handle other applications, tasks.

canon glossary us

dt (digital technology)

la Sony - obiectiv proiectat special pentru formatul APS-C si care deci nu acopera formatul 24 x 36 mm.


dtmf (dual tone multi frequency)

Short for Dual Tone Multi Frequency. Touch tone signal used on telephones, existing standard for using twisted wire pairs to send signals. Some PTZ cameras use DTMF signals to transfer telemetry information to camera, allowing user to move camera by dialing camera s number, then pressing buttons on phone.

canon glossary us


1 [ dtp ] Abreviere de la Desktop Publishing. Este tehnica de utilizare a unui computer pentru a construi design-ul de imagini si pagini, de combinare a textelor si graficii în vederea redarii ansamblului creat prin intermediul unui imagesetter pe hârtie, film sau placa tipografica.

2 [ dtp (desk top publishing) ] Producing newsletters, magazines, stationery, and other printed material using a software programme on a computer.



(Diffusion Transfer Reversal) sistemul fotografic Polaroid.


dual lamp

1 [ dual lamp ] Projector with two lamps, one serving as automatic backup or programmed to switch at specific intervals, significantly reducing chance of lamp failure during use.

2 [ dual link ] SDI and HD-SDI connectors (links) handle sufficient bandwidth to move uncompressed 4:2:2 sampled video and embedded digital audio. Dual links can move more data, as required for 4:2:2:4 video with key, RGB (4:4:4) or RGB with key (4:4:4:4).

3 [ dual shutter system ] Certain Nikon digital cameras such as the Nikon 1 V1 digital camera utilize a dual shutter system, allowing you to choose from Mechanic, Electronic or Electronic (HI) shutters depending upon your shooting situation. ash X sync speed of the Nikon 1 V1 digital camera when using the Mechanical Shutter is 1/250 of a second or slower. The Mechanical shutter offers a shutter speed range of 1/4,000 of a second–30 seconds in 1/3 EV steps, Bulb and Time (with optional ML-L3 remote).lectronic Shutter is silent and is ideal for use where camera sounds are undesirable. The flash X sync speed of the Nikon 1 V1 digital camera when using the Electronic Shutter is 1/60 of a second or slower. The Electronic shutter offers a shutter speed range of 1/16,000 of a second – 30 seconds in 1/3 EV steps, Bulb and Time (with optional ML-L3 remote). Electronic (HI) Shutter's default setting captures images at a rate of 10 fps. It does support 30 and 60 fps frame rates. Face detection is disabled when using the Electronic (HI) Shutter.



1 [ dubbing ] AKA: Dubs, DubbedThe technique of combining multiple sound components into one. The term is also used to refer to automatic dialog replacement of a new language.

2 [ dubbing ] AKA: Dubs, DubbedThe technique of combining multiple sound components into one. The term is also used to refer to automatic dialog replacement of a new language.

3 [ dubbing ] The recording of dialogue in a sound studio, after the footage is shot, where the actors watch the film and match the lip movements.

4 [ dubbing (lip sync) - ] The process of matching voice with the lip movements of an actor on the screen; dubbing also refers to any aspect of adding or combining sounds to create a film's final soundtrack.


dubla expunere

Doua expuneri / declansari realizate pe acelasi cadru al negativului. Necesita decuplararea armarii de tragerea filmului.



The ability to alter a material’s shape under tensile stress, such as stretching or pulling.



1 [ duotone ] Black and white photo reproduced using two halftone negatives, each is shot to emphasize different tonal values in original.

2 [ duotone ] A black and white (grayscale) image that has a single color added to it. 'Duo' refers to the two 'colors' - black and the other color - that are combined in the image. In printing, two color plates (one black; one a color) are used to print a duotone image.



A dupe is a positive copy of a positive. A dupe can also be a negative copy of a negative. A dupe is a print made in the reversal process. It can sometimes be clearer to call something a dupe, because to simply say 'positive print' you could just mean a positive copy of a negative, which would not be a dupe.

The Pollio Folio - Glossary of Cinematography Terms

dupe, dupe negative

A second generation internegative made from a master positive by printing and development or from an original negative by printing followed by reversal development.

Kodak cine


1 [ duplex ] Automatic printing of both sides of a two-sided document.

2 [ duplex (video) ] Multiplexer allowing simultaneously image recording to tape and displaying live multiple-picture security camera screen images. Also can record images on one VCR while simultaneously playing back previously-recorded images on second VCR.

3 [ duplex paper ] Thick paper made by laminating/pasting two thinner sheets together, allowing different colors or finishes on each side. Also called double-faced, two-tone.


dusk/dawn scene mode

A scene mode available on select Nikon digital cameras. This scene mode preserves the colors seen in the weak natural light that is visible before sunrise or after sunset. It is suggested a tripod be used when shooting in this scene mode.

Nikon Grossary

dusseldorf school

A group of students who studied at the Kunstakademie Dusseldorf in the mid 1970s under the influential photographers Bernd and Hilla Becher, producing clear, objective, black-and-white images of industrial structures and architecture. Among the best-known students at this innovative centre of postmodernist art are Thomas Struth and Andreas Gursky (b.1955).

Visual art cork


1 [ dust ] A great enhancer of atmosphere with a little wind and Back Light and considerable care to protect the camera.

2 [ dust bunnies ] dark spots that appear on the image, caused by bits of dust on the digital sensor

3 [ dust resistant ] Device construction designed to minimize or eliminate dust intrusion, at camera connection ports, battery compartment, memory card door, for example, also in lenses and on optical surfaces.



Removal of visible dust and scratches after film has been digitized.

Kodak cine

dutch tilt

1 [ dutch tilt ] A composition with the camera viewing the scene at a diagonal. Same as a canted angle. Some nice examples can be seen in Carol Reed’s 'The Thi